Results for 'Value-judgments'

999 found
Order:
  1.  37
    Legal Theory and Value Judgments.Vittorio Villa - 1997 - Law and Philosophy 16 (4):447-477.
    The aim of the paper is that of putting into question the dichotomy between fact-judgments and value judgments in the legal domain, with its epistemological presuppositions (descriptivist image of knowledge) and its methodological implications for legal knowledge (value freedom principle and neutrality thesis). The basic question that I will try to answer is whether and on what conditions strong ethical value-judgments belong within legal knowledge. I criticize the traditional positivist positions that have fully accepted the value-freedom principle and value-neutrality (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  2. Uses of Value Judgments in Science: A General Argument, with Lessons From a Case Study of Feminist Research on Divorce.Elizabeth Anderson - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (1):1-24.
    : The underdetermination argument establishes that scientists may use political values to guide inquiry, without providing criteria for distinguishing legitimate from illegitimate guidance. This paper supplies such criteria. Analysis of the confused arguments against value-laden science reveals the fundamental criterion of illegitimate guidance: when value judgments operate to drive inquiry to a predetermined conclusion. A case study of feminist research on divorce reveals numerous legitimate ways that values can guide science without violating this standard.
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   75 citations  
  3.  68
    The Scientist Qua Policy Advisor Makes Value Judgments.Katie Siobhan Steele - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (5):893-904.
    Richard Rudner famously argues that the communication of scientific advice to policy makers involves ethical value judgments. His argument has, however, been rightly criticized. This article revives Rudner’s conclusion, by strengthening both his lines of argument: we generalize his initial assumption regarding the form in which scientists must communicate their results and complete his ‘backup’ argument by appealing to the difference between private and public decisions. Our conclusion that science advisors must, for deep-seated pragmatic reasons, make value judgments is further (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   25 citations  
  4. Skeptical Theism and Value Judgments.David James Anderson - 2012 - International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 72 (1):27-39.
    One of the most prominent objections to skeptical theism in recent literature is that the skeptical theist is forced to deny our competency in making judgments about the all-things-considered value of any natural event. Some skeptical theists accept that their view has this implication, but argue that it is not problematic. I think that there is reason to question the implication itself. I begin by explaining the objection to skeptical theism and the standard response to it. I then identify an (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   5 citations  
  5. Racist Value Judgments as Objectively False Beliefs: A Philosophical and Social-Psychological Analysis.Sharyn Clough & William E. Loges - 2008 - Journal of Social Philosophy 39 (1):77–95.
    Racist beliefs express value judgments. According to an influential view, value judgments are subjective, and not amenable to rational adjudication. In contrast, we argue that the value judgments expressed in, for example, racist beliefs, are false and objectively so. Our account combines a naturalized, philosophical account of meaning inspired by Donald Davidson, with a prominent social-psychological theory of values pioneered by the social-psychologist Milton Rokeach. We use this interdisciplinary approach to show that, just as with beliefs expressing descriptive judgments, beliefs (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  6. Science and Values: Are Value Judgments Always Irrelevant to the Justification of Scientific Claims?Kristen Intemann - 2001 - Proceedings of the Philosophy of Science Association 2001 (3):S506-.
    Several feminist theorists have claimed that feminist values ought to influence theory choice. Susan Haack has argued that this is implausible because normative claims about what ought to be the case can never provide justification for descriptive claims. I argue against one of the premises of Haack's argument. Furthermore, I attempt to show that the most promising defense of this premise would cast doubt on a second premise of Haack's argument. My aim is to open up the possibility that value (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   11 citations  
  7.  9
    Science and Values: Are Value Judgments Always Irrelevant to the Justification of Scientific Claims?Kristen Intemann - 2001 - Philosophy of Science 68 (S3):S506-S518.
    Several feminist theorists have claimed that feminist values ought to influence theory choice. Susan Haack has argued that this is implausible because normative claims about what ought to be the case can never provide justification for descriptive claims. I argue against one of the premises of Haack's argument. Furthermore, I attempt to show that the most promising defense of this premise would cast doubt on a second premise of Haack's argument. My aim is to open up the possibility that value (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   10 citations  
  8.  39
    The Behavioral Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments.Hugh Lacey - 2003 - Behavior and Philosophy 31:209 - 223.
    I distinguish three matters about which decisions have to be made in scientific activities: (1) adoption of strategy; (2) acceptance of data, hypotheses, and theories; and (3) application of scientific knowledge. I argue that, contrary to the common view that only concerning (3) do values have a legitimate role, value judgments often play indispensable roles in connection with decisions concerning (1)—that certain values may not only be furthered by applications of the scientific knowledge gained under a strategy, but they may (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   7 citations  
  9.  93
    Economists, Value Judgments, and Climate Change: A View From Feminist Economics.Julie A. Nelson - manuscript
    A number of recent discussions about ethical issues in climate change, as engaged in by economists, have focused on the value of the parameter representing the rate of time preference within models of optimal growth. This essay examines many economists' antipathy to serious discussion of ethical matters, and suggests that the avoidance of questions of intergenerational equity is related to another set of value judgments concerning the quality and objectivity of economic practice. Using insights from feminist philosophy of science and (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  10. Radiobiological Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience.Kristin Shrader-Frechette - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
    Scientists are divided on the status of hypothesis H that low doses of ionizing radiation (under 20 rads) cause hormetic (or non-harmful) effects. Military and industrial scientist s tend to accept H, while medical and environmental scientists tend to reject it. Proponents of the strong programme claim this debate shows that uncertain science can be clari ed only by greater attention to the social values in uencing it. While they are in part correct, this paper argues that methodological analyses (not (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  11.  88
    Inclusive Legal Positivism, Legal Interpretation, and Value-Judgments.Vittorio Villa - 2009 - Ratio Juris 22 (1):110-127.
    In this paper I put forward some arguments in defence of inclusive legal positivism . The general thesis that I defend is that inclusive positivism represents a more fruitful and interesting research program than that proposed by exclusive positivism . I introduce two arguments connected with legal interpretation in favour of my thesis. However, my opinion is that inclusive positivism does not sufficiently succeed in estranging itself from the more traditional legal positivist conceptions. This is the case, for instance, with (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  12. Radiobiogical Hormesis, Methodological Value Judgments, and Metascience.K. S. Shrader-Frechette - 2000 - Perspectives on Science 8 (4):367-379.
    : Scientists are divided on the status of hypothesis H that low doses of ionizing radiation (under 20 rads) cause hormetic (or non-harmful) effects. Military and industrial scientists tend to accept H, while medical and environmental scientists tend to reject it. Proponents of the strong programme claim this debate shows that uncertain science can be clarified only by greater attention to the social values in(integral)uencing it. While they are in part correct, this paper argues that methodological analyses (not merely attention (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  13.  6
    Externalization is Common to All Value Judgments, and Norms Are Motivating Because of Their Intersubjective Grounding.Carme Isern-Mas & Antoni Gomila - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    We show that externalization is a feature not only of moral judgment, but also of value judgment in general. It follows that the evolution of externalization was not specific to moral judgment. Second, we argue that value judgments cannot be decoupled from the level of motivations and preferences, which, in the moral case, rely on intersubjective bonds and claims.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14. Should Physicians Make Value Judgments Regarding Medical Futility?Atsushi Asai - 1998 - Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (5):141-143.
    Medical futility is one of the most controversial concepts in biomedical ethics. Different people have proposed diverse definitions. Nevertheless, decisions about medical futility have tremendous impacts on clinical practice and physician-patient relationships. The most fundamental dispute about medical futility is whether or not value-laden judgments regarding medical futility are acceptable.In this essay, I argue that value-laden judgments of medical futility are necessary in clinical settings because a majority of "futility " debates have focused on medical problems requiring value-laden judgments. Value (...)
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  40
    Aggregation of Value Judgments Differs From Aggregation of Preferences.Wlodek Rabinowicz - 2016 - In .
    My focus is on aggregation of individual value rankings of alternatives to a collective value ranking. This is compared with aggregation o individual prefrences to a collective preference. While in an individual preference ranking the alternatives are ordered in accordance with one’s preferences, the order in a value ranking expresses one’s comparative evaluation of the alternatives, from the best to the worst. I suggest that, despite their formal similarity as rankings, this difference in the nature of individual inputs in two (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  6
    Changes of Mind: Beliefs and Value Judgments.Gustavo Ortiz-millán - 2006 - Manuscrito 29 (1):9-36.
    In this paper I argue that the way in which we revise and change our beliefs is different from that in which we revise and change our judgments of value; this is due to the fact that judgments of value, unlike beliefs, have no truth-values. Changes of judgments of value do not answer in the same way to the restrictions that apply to changes of beliefs and that are determined by the norms that govern beliefs. I argue that, first when (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  3
    Changes of Mind: Beliefs and Value Judgments/Mudanças de Opinião: Crenças E Juízos de Valor.Gustavo Ortiz-millán - 2007 - Manuscrito 30 (2):569-597.
    In this paper I argue that the way in which we revise and change our beliefs is different from that in which we revise and change our judgments of value; this is due to the fact that judgments of value, unlike beliefs, have no truth-values. Changes of judgments of value do not answer in the same way to the restrictions that apply to changes of beliefs and that are determined by the norms that govern beliefs. I argue that, first when (...)
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  16
    Integration Theory Applied to Judgments of the Value of Information.James Shanteau & Norman H. Anderson - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (2):266.
  19.  14
    Ethics, Science and Value Judgments: A Critique of Ethical Issues Within the Methodology of Social Research.Jimmy Lee Shaw - 1985 - Journal of Social Studies Research 9 (1):41-52.
  20.  31
    Decision Rules Used by Male and Female Business Students in Making Ethical Value Judgments: Another Look. [REVIEW]Sharon Galbraith & Harriet Buckman Stephenson - 1993 - Journal of Business Ethics 12 (3):227 - 233.
    This study was conducted to corroborate findings that females invoke a decision rule that is significantly different from that of their male counterparts when making ethical value judgements. In addition, the study examines whether the same decision rule is used by men and women for all types of ethical situations. The results show that males and females use different decision rules when making ethical evaluations, although there are types of situations where there are no significant differences in decision rules used (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   30 citations  
  21. The Scientist Qua Scientist Makes Value Judgments.Richard Rudner - 1953 - Philosophy of Science 20 (1):1-6.
  22.  9
    Causation, Value Judgments, Verstehen.Stephen Turner - 2019 - In Edith Hanke, Lawrence Scaff & Sam Whimster (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Max Weber. Oxford University Press.
    Weber’s “methodological writings” are some of the most influential parts of his work; they are his philosophical and technical explication of the basic problems of social science and history and their relation to other forms of knowledge, as well as the relation of knowledge to action and values. They explain his basic concepts, such as ideal type, values and value-free science, Verstehen, and the notion of causality that is appropriate to social and historical concepts. These ideas have often been misrepresented (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  74
    What’s So Good About Non-Existence?: An Alternative Explanation of Four Asymmetrical Value Judgments.Brian McLean - 2015 - Journal of Value Inquiry 49 (1-2):81-94.
    There are cases where many think it would have been better for some child never to have been born. We can imagine a life characterized exclusively by suffering, never containing even the briefest moment of pleasure. The life goes exceedingly poorly – so poorly, we think, that it would have been better for the child never to have been. However, most of us think that many lives are not of this sort. Many lives are at least all right: the good (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  19
    Logical, Epistemic, and Historical Features of Value Judgments.Joseph Margolis - 1976 - Journal of Value Inquiry 10 (1):65-68.
  25.  15
    The Forward Look of Value Judgments.John T. Goldthwait - 1996 - Journal of Value Inquiry 30 (4):547-550.
  26.  11
    The Use and Syntax of Value Judgments.Joseph Margolis - 1968 - Journal of Value Inquiry 2 (1):31-40.
  27.  4
    Value Judgments and Value Predicates.Joseph Margolis - 1967 - Journal of Value Inquiry 1 (3-4):161-171.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  28.  20
    A Common Misunderstanding of Dewey on the Nature of Value Judgments.Cheryl Noble - 1978 - Journal of Value Inquiry 12 (1):53-63.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  29.  9
    On Value Judgments in the Arts.Elder Olson - 1974 - Critical Inquiry 1 (1):71-90.
    When we discuss the value of a work of art we are confronted immediately with two difficulties: the terms we use, and the peculiar character of art. No one, to my knowledge, has ever doubted that an artist produces a form of some kind, and that in any discussion of art as art that form must somehow be considered; but the terms we use generally have no reference to form. We miss the form in various ways We use terms that (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  30.  10
    Value Words and Value Judgments.Haig Khatchadourian - 1968 - Journal of Value Inquiry 2 (2-3):166-186.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  31.  17
    Reasons and Value Judgments.Richard Fumerton - 1979 - Journal of Value Inquiry 13 (4):259-273.
  32.  4
    Uses of Value Judgments in Feminist Social Science: A Case Study of Research on Divorce.Elizabeth Anderson - 2004 - Hypatia 19 (1):1-24.
  33. Must the Scientist Make Value Judgments?Isaac Levi - 1960 - Journal of Philosophy 57 (11):345-357.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   34 citations  
  34. The Practical Role Essential to Value Judgments.Sigrún Svavarsdóttir - 2009 - Philosophical Issues 19 (1):299-320.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  35.  22
    Standardized Study Designs, Value Judgments, and Financial Conflicts of Interest in Research.Kevin C. Elliott - 2016 - Perspectives on Science 24 (5):529-551.
    The potential for financial conflicts of interest to influence scientific research in problematic ways has recently become a significant topic of discussion across numerous fields. The chemical, petroleum, pharmaceutical, and tobacco industries have all been accused of suppressing evidence that their products are harmful, producing studies with questionable methodologies, generating questionable reinterpretations of studies that challenge their products, and working with public relations firms and front groups to mislead the public about relevant science. In an effort to address these influences, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36.  26
    Risk Communication, Value Judgments, and the Public-Policy Maker Relationship in a Climate of Public Sensitivity Toward Animals: Revisiting Britain's Foot and Mouth Crisis. [REVIEW]Raymond Anthony - 2004 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 17 (4-5):363-383.
    This paper offers some suggestions on, and encouragement for, how to be better at risk communication in times of agricultural crisis. During the foot and mouth epizootic, the British public, having no precedent to deal with such a rapid and widespread epizootic, no existing rules or conventions, and no social or political consensus, was forced to confront the facts of a perceived "economic disease. Foot and mouth appeared as an economic disease because the major push to eradicate it was motivated (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   6 citations  
  37. Value Judgments and Risk Comparisons : The Case of Genetically Engineered Crops.Paul B. Thompson - 2010 - In Craig Hanks (ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings. Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 347-355.
  38. The Scientific Status of Value Judgments.A. Cornelius Benjamin - 1942 - Ethics 53 (3):212-218.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39. Value Judgments and Economics.Kurt Klappholz - 1964 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15 (58):97-114.
  40. Value-Judgments in Economics.Ronald L. Meek - 1964 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 15 (58):89-96.
  41. The Rationality of Aesthetic Value Judgments.Michael A. Slote - 1971 - Journal of Philosophy 68 (22):821-839.
  42.  11
    Reference and the Ambiguity of Truth‐Value Judgments.Filippo Domaneschi & Massimiliano Vignolo - forthcoming - Mind and Language.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  43. Value Judgments in Ethics and in Law.Luigi Bagolini - 1951 - Philosophical Quarterly 1 (5):423-432.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  44. The Verifiability of Value Judgments.Arthur Pap - 1945 - Ethics 56 (3):178-185.
  45. In What Sense Do Value Judgments and Moral Judgments Have Objective Import?Roy Wood Sellars - 1967 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 28 (1):1-16.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46.  31
    How the Tail Wags the Dog: How Value Judgments Determine Ecological Science.K. S. Shrader-Frechette & Earl D. McCoy - 1994 - Environmental Values 3 (2):107-120.
    Philosophers, policymakers, and scientists have long asserted that ecological science – and especially notions of homeostasis, balance, or stability – help to determine environmental values and to supply imperatives for environmental ethics and policy. We argue that this assertion is questionable. There are no well developed general ecological theories having predictive power, and fundamental ecological concepts, such as 'community' and 'stability', are used in inconsistent and ambiguous ways. As a consequence, the contribution of ecology to environmental ethics and values lies (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  47. Value Judgments in Criticism.Stein Haugom Olsen - 1983 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 42 (2):125-136.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  48.  3
    The Role of Value Judgments in Psychiatric Practice.Loretta M. Kopelman - 1997 - In Alastair V. Campbell (ed.), Medical Ethics. Oxford University Press. pp. 275.
    Direct download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  49.  44
    Rationing and Social Value Judgments.Alexander W. Friedman - 2011 - American Journal of Bioethics 11 (7):28 - 29.
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 7, Page 28-29, July 2011.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  50.  30
    Values and Value Judgments: New Perspectives: Dialogue.Stéphane Lemaire - 2012 - Dialogue 51 (1):1-6.
    Research Articles Stéphane Lemaire, Dialogue: Canadian Philosophical Review/Revue canadienne de philosophie, FirstView Article.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 999