Results for 'Variability'

877 found
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  1.  53
    Too Fast or Too Slow? Time and Neuronal Variability in Bipolar Disorder—A Combined Theoretical and Empirical Investigation.Timothy Lane & Georg Northoff - forthcoming - Schizophrenia Bulletin 43.
    Time is an essential feature in bipolar disorder (BP). Manic and depressed BP patients perceive the speed of time as either too fast or too slow. The present article combines theoretical and empirical approaches to integrate phenomenological, psychological, and neuroscientific accounts of abnormal time perception in BP. Phenomenology distinguishes between perception of inner time, ie, self-time, and outer time, ie, world-time, that desynchronize or dissociate from each other in BP: inner time speed is abnormally slow (as in depression) or fast (...)
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  2.  26
    Using Variability to Guide Dimensional Weighting: Associative Mechanisms in Early Word Learning.Keith S. Apfelbaum & Bob McMurray - 2011 - Cognitive Science 35 (6):1105-1138.
    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well-developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g., bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in nonphonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both noncontrastive information (...)
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  3.  8
    All the Right Noises: Background Variability Helps Early Word Learning.Katherine E. Twomey, Lizhi Ma & Gert Westermann - forthcoming - Cognitive Science.
    Variability is prevalent in early language acquisition, but, whether it supports or hinders learning is unclear; while target variability has been shown to facilitate word learning, variability in competitor items has been shown to make the task harder. Here, we tested whether background variability could boost learning in a referent selection task. Two groups of 2-year-old children saw arrays of one novel and two known objects on a screen, and they heard a novel or known label. (...)
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  4.  3
    Epigenetic and Transcriptional Variability Shape Phenotypic Plasticity.Simone Ecker, Vera Pancaldi, Alfonso Valencia, Stephan Beck & Dirk S. Paul - 2018 - Bioessays 40 (2):1700148.
    Epigenetic and transcriptional variability contribute to the vast diversity of cellular and organismal phenotypes and are key in human health and disease. In this review, we describe different types, sources, and determinants of epigenetic and transcriptional variability, enabling cells and organisms to adapt and evolve to a changing environment. We highlight the latest research and hypotheses on how chromatin structure and the epigenome influence gene expression variability. Further, we provide an overview of challenges in the analysis of (...)
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  5.  4
    Does Variability Across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?Jane B. Childers, Jae H. Paik, Melissa Flores, Gabrielle Lai & Megan Dolan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4):808-830.
    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language. Children in the United States, China, Korea, and Singapore learned verbs linked to simple and complex events. Sets of events included one or three agents, and children (...)
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  6.  7
    Does Variability Across Events Affect Verb Learning in English, Mandarin, and Korean?Jane B. Childers, Jae H. Paik, Melissa Flores, Gabrielle Lai & Megan Dolan - 2017 - Cognitive Science 41 (S4).
    Extending new verbs is important in becoming a productive speaker of a language. Prior results show children have difficulty extending verbs when they have seen events with varied agents. This study further examines the impact of variability on verb learning and asks whether variability interacts with event complexity or differs by language. Children in the United States, China, Korea, and Singapore learned verbs linked to simple and complex events. Sets of events included one or three agents, and children (...)
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  7.  13
    The Role of Within-Category Variability in Category-Based Induction: A Developmental Study.Marjorie Rhodes & Daniel Brickman - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1561-1573.
    The present studies tested the hypothesis that strong assumptions about within-category homogeneity impede children’s recognition of the inductive value of diverse samples of evidence. In Study 1a, children (7-year-olds) and adults were randomly assigned to receive a prime emphasizing within-category variability, a prime emphasizing within-category similarities, or to not receive a prime. Only following the variability prime, children demonstrated a reliable preference for evaluating diverse over nondiverse samples to determine whether there is support for a category-wide generalization. Adults (...)
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  8.  12
    Global Model Analysis of Cognitive Variability.David L. Gilden - 2009 - Cognitive Science 33 (8):1441-1467.
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  9. Variability and Moral Phenomenology.Michael Gill - 2008 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 7 (1):99-113.
    Many moral philosophers in the Western tradition have used phenomenological claims as starting points for philosophical inquiry; aspects of moral phenomenology have often been taken to be anchors to which any adequate account of morality must remain attached. This paper raises doubts about whether moral phenomena are universal and robust enough to serve the purposes to which moral philosophers have traditionally tried to put them. Persons’ experiences of morality may vary in a way that greatly limits the extent to which (...)
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  10.  7
    Effects of Feedback and Instructional Set on the Control of Cardiac-Rate Variability.Peter J. Lang, Alan Sroufe & James E. Hastings - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):425.
  11.  6
    Extinction and Behavior Variability as Functions of Effortfulness of Task.O. H. Mowrer & H. M. Jones - 1943 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 33 (5):369.
  12.  3
    An Experimental Study of Variability in Ocular Latency.R. B. Hackman - 1940 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 27 (5):546.
  13.  9
    Effects of Foreperiod, Foreperiod Variability, and Probability of Stimulus Occurrence on Simple Reaction Time.D. H. Drazin - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (1):43.
  14.  7
    Reaction Time as a Function of Foreperiod Duration and Variability.Lawrence Karlin - 1959 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 58 (2):185.
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  15.  37
    Response Variability in the White Rat During Conditioning, Extinction, and Reconditioning.Joseph J. Antonitis - 1951 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4):273.
  16.  4
    Encoding Variability: Tests of the Martin Hypothesis.Robert F. Williams & Benton J. Underwood - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2):317.
  17.  5
    Heart Rate Variability and Deceleration as Indexes of Reaction Time.Stephen W. Porges - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (1):103.
  18.  9
    Semantic Encoding and Recognition Memory: A Test of Encoding Variability Theory.Eugene Winograd & Mary F. Geis - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (6):1061.
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  19.  4
    Amount of Training, Deprivation, and Variability of Chain Length as Determinants of Response-Velocity Gradients in Homogeneous Chains.John R. Platt - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (2):191-197.
  20.  4
    Intradimensional Variability and Concept Identification.Robert C. Haygood, Terry L. Harbert & Jane A. Omlor - 1970 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 83 (2p1):216.
  21.  3
    Variability of Irrelevant Discriminative Stimuli.David Zeaman & Joseph Denegre - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (4p1):574.
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  22.  2
    Perceived Variability.Richard G. Lathrop - 1967 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 73 (4p1):498.
  23.  1
    Intradimensional Variability in Concept Identification: A Replication, Extension, and Partial Clarification of the Haygood, Harbert, and Omlor Findings.Roger F. Schultz & David H. Dodd - 1972 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):321-325.
  24.  9
    Variability of Attack in Massed and Distributed Practice.Stanford C. Ericksen - 1942 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 31 (4):339.
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  25.  6
    Strength of a Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer as a Function of Variability of Reward.Richard A. Wunderlich - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 62 (4):409.
  26.  5
    Effects of Prestimulus Cuing and Target Load Variability on Maintenance of Response Strategies in a Visual Search Task.Joseph F. Hearns - 1973 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 99 (3):375-380.
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  27.  6
    Effects of Interstimulus Interval Length and Variability on Habituation of Autonomic Components of the Orienting Response.Robert J. Gatchel & Peter J. Lang - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (4):802.
  28.  5
    Concept Identification as a Function of Intradimensional Variability, Availability of Previously Presented Material, and Relative Frequency of Relevant Attributes.James Chumbley, Portia Lau, Dennis Rog & George Haile - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 90 (1):163.
  29.  5
    Utility and Variability: A Description of Preference in the Uncertain Outcome Choice Situation.Joseph Halpern & Madison Dengler - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (2p1):249.
  30.  4
    Category Clustering for Immediate and Delayed Recall as a Function of Recall Cue Information and Response Dominance Variability.Robert L. Hudson - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (3):575.
  31.  4
    The Relative Variability of Nonsense Syllables and Words.F. M. Sauer - 1930 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 13 (3):235.
  32.  3
    Selective Attention and Rate of Discrimination Learning as a Function of Intradimensional Variability.Robert H. Rittle & Martin R. Baron - 1969 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):327.
  33.  3
    Visual Signal Detection as a Function of Sequential Variability of Simultaneous Speech.John S. Antrobus & Jerome L. Singer - 1964 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (6):603.
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  34.  3
    Multivariate Analysis of Preference for Variability.Harry Munsinger - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):889.
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  35.  3
    Rate of Verbal Conditioning in Relation to Stimulus Variability.C. J. Burke, W. K. Estes & S. Hellyer - 1954 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 48 (3):153.
  36.  2
    Effect of Mean and Variability of Event Run Length on Two-Choice Learning.Blase Gambino & Jerome L. Myers - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (6):904.
  37.  2
    Preference and Recall of Stimulus Variability.Harry Munsinger & William Kessen - 1966 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (2):311.
  38.  2
    The Biochemical Variability of the Individual in Relation to Personality and Intelligence.H. Goldstein - 1935 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 18 (3):348.
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  39.  2
    Contextual Variability and Transfer of Discrimination.Frank A. Logan, Amado M. Padilla & Robert Boice - 1968 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (4p1):673.
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  40.  1
    Concept Identification as a Function of Intra- and Interdimensional Variability.William F. Battig & Lyle E. Bourne Jr - 1961 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 61 (4):329.
  41.  1
    Response Variability and the Partial Reinforcement Effect.Benjamin H. Newberry - 1971 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 89 (1):137.
  42.  1
    Variability and Control in Dichotic Memory.Stanley R. Parkinson - 1974 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (1):67.
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  43.  1
    Protracted Passive Oscillation and Intermittent Rotation of the Body; Variability in Perception and Reaction.R. C. Travis - 1929 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 12 (1):40.
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  44. The Variability of an Individual in Repetitions of the Same Task.E. L. Thorndike - 1923 - Journal of Experimental Psychology 6 (2):161.
  45.  14
    A General Framework for Understanding the Effects of Variability and Interruptions on Foraging Behaviour.John M. McNamara & Alasdair I. Houston - 1987 - Acta Biotheoretica 36 (1):3-22.
    A general framework for analysing the effects of variability and the effects of interruptions on foraging is presented. The animal is characterised by its level of energetic reserves, x. We consider behaviour over a period of time [0,T]. A terminal reward function R(x) determines the expected future reproductive success of an animal with reserves x at time T. For any state x at a time in the period, we give the animal a choice between various options and then constrain (...)
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  46.  4
    A Computational Investigation of Sources of Variability in Sentence Comprehension Difficulty in Aphasia.Paul Mätzig, Shravan Vasishth, Felix Engelmann, David Caplan & Frank Burchert - 2018 - Topics in Cognitive Science 10 (1):161-174.
    We present a computational evaluation of three hypotheses about sources of deficit in sentence comprehension in aphasia: slowed processing, intermittent deficiency, and resource reduction. The ACT-R based Lewis and Vasishth model is used to implement these three proposals. Slowed processing is implemented as slowed execution time of parse steps; intermittent deficiency as increased random noise in activation of elements in memory; and resource reduction as reduced spreading activation. As data, we considered subject vs. object relative sentences, presented in a self-paced (...)
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  47. Phenomenal Variability and Introspective Reliability.Jakob Hohwy - 2011 - Mind and Language 26 (3):261-286.
    There is surprising evidence that introspection of our phenomenal states varies greatly between individuals and within the same individual over time. This puts pressure on the notion that introspection gives reliable access to our own phenomenology: introspective unreliability would explain the variability, while assuming that the underlying phenomenology is stable. I appeal to a body of neurocomputational, Bayesian theory and neuroimaging findings to provide an alternative explanation of the evidence: though some limited testing conditions can cause introspection to be (...)
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  48.  74
    Why Study Movement Variability in Autism?Maria Brincker & Elizabeth Torres - 2017 - In Elizabeth Torres & Caroline Whyatt (eds.), Autism the movement-sensing approach. CRC Press - Taylor & Francis Group.
    Autism has been defined as a disorder of social cognition, interaction and communication where ritualistic, repetitive behaviors are commonly observed. But how should we understand the behavioral and cognitive differences that have been the main focus of so much autism research? Can high-level cognitive processes and behaviors be identified as the core issues people with autism face, or do these characteristics perhaps often rather reflect individual attempts to cope with underlying physiological issues? Much research presented in this volume will point (...)
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  49.  13
    Neural Correlates of Temporality: Default Mode Variability and Temporal Awareness.Dan Lloyd - 2012 - Consciousness and Cognition 21 (2):695-703.
    The continual background awareness of duration is an essential structure of consciousness, conferring temporal extension to the many objects of awareness within the evanescent sensory present. Seeking the possible neural correlates of ubiquitous temporal awareness, this article reexamines fMRI data from off-task “default mode” periods in 25 healthy subjects studied by Grady et al. , 2005). “Brain reading” using support vector machines detected information specifying elapsed time, and further analysis specified distributed networks encoding implicit time. These networks fluctuate; none are (...)
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  50. Thick Concepts and Variability.Pekka Väyrynen - 2011 - Philosophers' Imprint 11:1-17.
    Some philosophers hold that so-called "thick" terms and concepts in ethics (such as 'cruel,' 'selfish,' 'courageous,' and 'generous') are contextually variable with respect to the valence (positive or negative) of the evaluations that they may be used to convey. Some of these philosophers use this variability claim to argue that thick terms and concepts are not inherently evaluative in meaning; rather their use conveys evaluations as a broadly pragmatic matter. I argue that one sort of putative examples of contextual (...)
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