In the last decade Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has started to focus attention on forms of persuasive interaction where computer technologies have the goal of changing users behavior and attitudes according to a predefined direction. In this work, we hypothesize a strong connection between logical fallacies (forms of reasoning which are logically invalid but cognitively effective) and some common persuasion strategies adopted within web technologies. With the aim of empirically evaluating our hypothesis, we carried out a pilot study on a sample (...) of 150 e-commerce websites. (shrink)
The research in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has nowadays extended its attention to the study of persuasive technologies. Following this line of research, in this paper we focus on websites and mobile applications in the e-commerce domain. In particular, we take them as an evident example of persuasive technologies. Starting from the hypothesis that there is a strong connection between logical fallacies, i.e., forms of reasoning which are logically invalid but psychologically persuasive, and some common persuasion strategies adopted within these (...) technological artifacts, we carried out a survey on a sample of 175 websites and 101 mobile applications. This survey was aimed at empirically evaluating the significance of this connection by detecting the use of persuasion techniques, based on logical fallacies, in existing websites and mobile apps. In addition, with the goal of assessing the effectiveness of different fallacy-based persuasion techniques, we performed an empirical evaluation where participants interacted with a persuasive (fallacy-based) and with a non-persuasive version of an e-commerce website. Our results show that fallacy-based persuasion strategies are extensively used in existing digital artifacts, and that they are actually effective in influencing users’ behavior, with strategies based on visual salience manipulation (accent fallacy) being both the most popular and the most effective ones. (shrink)
Persuasive technologies can adopt several strategies to change the attitudes and behaviors of their users. In this work we present some empirical results stemming from the hypothesis - firstly formulated in  - that there is a strong connection between some well known cognitive biases reducible to fallacious argumentative schemata and some of the most common persuasion strategies adopted within digital technologies. In particular, we will report how both framing and fallacious-reducible mechanisms are nowadays used to design web and mobile (...) technologies in domains ranging from e-commerce  and news recommendations  to the jihadist propaganda. We will also show how and to what extent such persuasive strategies have an impact on nudging the choices of the users in digital environments. (shrink)
In this paper we investigate whether one of the most common uses of the concept of representation is justifiable by suggesting the conditions under which it can be accepted and how it can be related to mental states. We present mental states in terms of private experiences and public events. We argue that a representation is a relation involving three main elements as well as the user of the representation, and defend that the conditions in which we can conceive neural (...) activity as representational are set by the context of observing a correlation between public events and patterns of neural activity. We aim at demonstrating that neural activity can be seen as both representational and non-representational - but rather constitutive - depending upon if we are considering public events under the perspective of the observer, or if we are considering private experiences under the subjective perspective. (shrink)
Since the later decades of the 20 th century, Brazilian psychologists have been questioning a theoretical and interventional model in educational contexts, which consider psychological phenomena apart from their cultural contexts, in order to develop an approach based on a contextualized viewpoint. Despite progress having been made in educational psychology, as a result of this critical paradigm, this area still has problems to overcome: Psychologists are becoming increasingly separate from schools, and it is now common to find psychologists who are (...) professionally unprepared to perform in this context and furthermore, school principals do not always understand the role of psychologists in educational settings. However, educational demands exist in psychologists’ daily work in a range of contexts, indicating the relevance of this field and the urgency to improve psychologists' qualifications. Considering that Brazilian professional development programs for educators and psychologists are usually restricted to technical learning, often ignoring professionals’ real needs and claims, this research aimed to develop a special type of professional development program looking at the group as a source of development, in order to rethink professional development process from within a collaborative perspective. Research data was generated from a professional development program offered for psychologists and professionals who work within educational settings. This programme involved collaborative group work and was organized and conducted in such a way as to create conditions for change. Concepts of cultural-historical theory – social situation of development, crisis and perezhivanie – were used as analytic tools for data analysis. Analysis indicated the importance of the group as a source of development through dialogue and the co-construction of new ideas and possibilities. (shrink)
This study looks at some of the traits that characterized Argentina’s scientific and university policies under the military regime that spanned from 1976 through 1983. To this end, it delves into a rarely explored empirical observation: financial resource transfers from national universities to the National Scientific and Technological Research Council (CONICET, for its Spanish acronym) during that period. The intention is to show how, by reallocating funds geared to Science and Technology, CONICET was made to expand and decentralize to the (...) detriment of universities. This was the primary tool used by the military regime to thwart higher education’s research development, bolstering research efforts at other realms. Thus, CONICET grew in budget, number of researchers, and staff size, creating new research institutes, while national universities struggled with reduced funding and were forced to shut down their institutes and programs. As a result, CONICET virtually concentrated all scientific research, foregoing the knowledge accumulated at universities, which drove a wedge between both institutions. This military approach to science and technology policy-making is discussed, bearing in mind the notion of dependence—both in terms of the state’s intervention in the inner workings of the scientific-university field as well as regarding the role played by international financial support in scientific research development. (shrink)
Numerosas expresiones lingüísticas son producidas por los profesionales de las áreas de la Educación y Psicología para designar al sujeto con discapacidad. Nuestra mirada se centró en los discursos que se balizan en un lenguaje analítico y heurístico perteneciente al universo de la normalidad de la razón analítica. En contra de esta propuesta dialogamos con Wittgenstein sobre producción de sentido y de Vygotsky sobre mediación semiótica. Palabras claves: producción de sentido; mediación semiótica, discapacidad, inclusión.
Predicting air quality is a complex task due to the dynamic nature, volatility, and high variability in time and space of pollutants and particulates. At the same time, being able to model, predict, and monitor air quality is becoming more and more relevant, especially in urban areas, due to the observed critical impact of air pollution on citizens’ health and the environment. In this paper, we employ a popular machine learning method, support vector regression, to forecast pollutant and particulate levels (...) and to predict the air quality index. Among the various tested alternatives, radial basis function was the type of kernel that allowed SVR to obtain the most accurate predictions. Using the whole set of available variables revealed a more successful strategy than selecting features using principal component analysis. The presented results demonstrate that SVR with RBF kernel allows us to accurately predict hourly pollutant concentrations, like carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ground-level ozone, and particulate matter 2.5, as well as the hourly AQI for the state of California. Classification into six AQI categories defined by the US Environmental Protection Agency was performed with an accuracy of 94.1% on unseen validation data. (shrink)
Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo discutir, com fundamentação teórica na Psicologia Analítica de C. G. Jung, as concepções de médicos e psicólogos sobre o processo saúde-doença e a formação do profissional para atuar em contexto hospitalar. A partir de uma pesquisa em campo qualitativa-descritiva, est..
A Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF) busca se confirmar como intervenção emancipadora e transformadora dos sujeitos, consideradas a preocupação com o acolhimento e a especificidade da atenção, como no caso mães adolescentes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as condições para a implantação de um ..
O Programa de Saúde da Família, implementado em 1994 no Brasil, representou uma estratégia de reorganização da atenção básica com vistas a resgatar os princípios de eqüidade, universalidade e integralidade do SUS e garantir o acesso da população de risco a ações em saúde. Neste contexto, a Psicologi..
Membros da família extensa, como avós, podem auxiliar a aliviar o estresse causado pelo nascimento de uma criança com deficiência. Estudos sugerem que os avos sejam incluídos em programas de intervenção. Também foi comprovado que a musicoterapia é útil para lidar com dificuldades emocionais. O objet..
Nesta breve comunicação, buscamos reconstituir, dialética e politicamente, os contextos históricos da produção institucional do Design Industrial diante dos processos econômicos e sociais da eclosão e afirmação do modo de produção capitalista e seus mecanismos materiais e sócio-políticos, a partir do manejo e consideração das categorias, conceitos e formas de analisar determinado fenômeno, próprias do campo da Filosofia da Educação. This communication, we seek to reconstruct, dialectic and politically, the historical contexts of institutional production of Industrial Design on the economic (...) and social processes of emergence and affirmation of the capitalist mode of production and their material mechanisms and socio-political, from the handling and consideration categories, concepts and ways to analyze a given phenomenon, peculiar to the field of Philosophy of Education. (shrink)
The relationship between “marginal” and “mainstream” science has, in recent decades, become a matter of discussion. Traditional perspectives must be reexamined in the wake of transformations in the international circulation of knowledge and the subsequent diversification of scientific “peripherality”. Argentina represents an interesting case with which to explore the structure of “peripheral centres” and new forms of scientific development. While it has recently experienced an expansion in terms of institutionalization, professionalization, and internationalization, that process has been coupled with entrenchment of (...) existing institutional asymmetries and persistent intra-national inequalities; academic prestige is distributed according to opposite principles of legitimation. Our main task is to explore the current state of research capacities pursuant to that expansion in order to analyze the diverse styles in which knowledge is produced. In our analysis, we make critical use of Bourdieu’s concept of field and the Latin American category of “structural heterogeneity,” while also focusing on the question of circulation. The paper outlines how professionalization has developed locally over time, and the historical tension between the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research and the public universities. It describes the current structure of the scientific field in terms of researchers, institutes, publishing circuits, and institutional evaluative cultures. It focuses on geographical asymmetries in order to assess the distribution of new human and material resources throughout the country. Finally, it addresses the current situation under the new government, and raises concern over recent regressive actions. (shrink)
La democracia vista desde premisas filosóficas críticas es la forma de poder que incentiva una estrategia vigorosa que sostiene el régimen económico globalizado y enajena los derechos fundamentales. Se explica su inicio en la antigüedad griega y su resurgimiento en el siglo de las luces en Francia con Rousseau hasta anclarse en la política contemporánea como el régimen “de las mayorías” y “de la equidad socio política”. La democracia desde la modernidad se desarrolla en América Latina como régimen de una (...) ideología que incentiva la retórica demagógica, siendo capaz de encubrir los totalitarismos y las dictaduras. La democracia, régimen político, ideología de instrumento constitucional de la economía globalizada somete hoy por hoy las consciencias y acapara con fuerza las estrategias de los dispositivos de dominación y de control. Nuestro propósito es tomar partido por una posición Latinoamericana, desde un cambio de valoración subjetiva que contrarreste los mecanismos que la promueven y respaldan. Palabras clave: democracia; democracia en América Latina; desarrollo histórico; subjetivación; autonomía social. Which Democracy for Latin America?Democracy, viewed from critical philosophical premises, is the form of power that incentives a vigorous strategy supporting the globalized economical regime and alienates fundamental rights. Its beginning can be tracked to Ancient Greece, and its resurgence in France’s Century of Lights with Rousseau, ultimately settling down in contemporary politics as the regime “of majorities” and of “socio-political equity”. From Modern Times democracy unfolds in Latin America as a regime linked with an ideology which encourages demagogical rhetoric and is capable of covering up totalitarianisms and dictatorships. Democracy, as a political regime and the ideology of globalized economy, subjugates consciences and fiercely monopolizes the devices of domination and control. Our aim is to argue for a Latin American stand, stemming from a change of subjective valuation which counteracts the mechanisms that promote and support the former. Keywords: Democracy; Democracy in Latin America; Human Development; Subjectivation; Social Autonomy. (shrink)
This article aims to analyze The free negress Elisabeth: prisoner of color, a historical novel from Suriname written by Cynthia McLeod. The focus given to the research intends to problematize the way the place of speech acts in the construction of the fiction, highlighting historically silenced voices. In addition, the study of the place of speech of black women during the Dutch colonization in Suriname aims to contribute to the debate on racial and gender inequality that underlies colonial societies and (...) remains to today. For the discussions, this research will be based on the reflections of Akotirene, Morrison and hooks, among others. (shrink)