24 found
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  1. Wearable Technologies for Healthy Ageing: Prospects, Challenges, and Ethical Considerations.Stefano Canali, Agara Ferretti, Viola Schiaffonati & Alessandro Blasimme - 2024 - Journal of Frailty and Aging 2024:1-8.
    Digital technologies hold promise to modernize healthcare. Such opportunity should be leveraged also to address the needs of rapidly ageing populations. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the use of wearable devices for promoting healthy ageing. Previous work has assessed the prospects of digital technologies for health promotion and disease prevention in older adults. However, to our knowledge, ours is one of the first attempts to specifically address the use of wearables for healthy ageing, and to offer ethical insights for (...)
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  2.  45
    Keep trusting! A plea for the notion of Trustworthy AI.Giacomo Zanotti, Mattia Petrolo, Daniele Chiffi & Viola Schiaffonati - forthcoming - AI and Society:1-12.
    A lot of attention has recently been devoted to the notion of Trustworthy AI (TAI). However, the very applicability of the notions of trust and trustworthiness to AI systems has been called into question. A purely epistemic account of trust can hardly ground the distinction between trustworthy and merely reliable AI, while it has been argued that insisting on the importance of the trustee’s motivations and goodwill makes the notion of TAI a categorical error. After providing an overview of the (...)
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  3. Challenges and recommendations for wearable devices in digital health: Data quality, interoperability, health equity, fairness.Stefano Canali, Viola Schiaffonati & Andrea Aliverti - 2022 - PLOS Digital Health 1 (10):e0000104.
    Wearable devices are increasingly present in the health context, as tools for biomedical research and clinical care. In this context, wearables are considered key tools for a more digital, personalised, preventive medicine. At the same time, wearables have also been associated with issues and risks, such as those connected to privacy and data sharing. Yet, discussions in the literature have mostly focused on either technical or ethical considerations, framing these as largely separate areas of discussion, and the contribution of wearables (...)
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  4.  41
    Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments.Viola Schiaffonati - 2016 - Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (3):647-665.
    Experimentation represents today a ‘hot’ topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as “what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?” emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the traditional (...)
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  5.  59
    Computing and Experiments: A Methodological View on the Debate on the Scientific Nature of Computing.Viola Schiaffonati & Mario Verdicchio - 2014 - Philosophy and Technology 27 (3):359-376.
    The question about the scientific nature of computing has been widely debated with no universal consensus reached about its disciplinary status. Positions vary from acknowledging computing as the science of computers to defining it as a synthetic engineering discipline. In this paper, we aim at discussing the nature of computing from a methodological perspective. We consider, in particular, the nature and role of experiments in this field, whether they can be considered close to the traditional experimental scientific method or, instead, (...)
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  6.  21
    Robotic Simulations, Simulations of Robots.Edoardo Datteri & Viola Schiaffonati - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (1):109-125.
    Simulation studies have been carried out in robotics for a variety of epistemic and practical purposes. Here it is argued that two broad classes of simulation studies can be identified in robotics research. The first one is exemplified by the use of robotic systems to acquire knowledge on living systems in so-called biorobotics, while the second class of studies is more distinctively connected to cases in which artificial systems are used to acquire knowledge about the behaviour of autonomous mobile robots. (...)
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  7.  31
    Explorative Experiments: A Paradigm Shift to Deal with Severe Uncertainty in Autonomous Robotics.Viola Schiaffonati - 2022 - Perspectives on Science 30 (2):284-304.
    This paper presents a case of severe uncertainty in the development of autonomous and intelligent systems in Artificial Intelligence and autonomous robotics. After discussing how uncertainty emerges from the complexity of the systems and their interaction with unknown environments, the paper describes the novel framework of explorative experiments. This framework presents a suitable context in which many of the issues relative to uncertainty, both at the epistemological level and at the ethical one, in this field should be reframed. The case (...)
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  8.  47
    Philosophy of Engineering, East and West.Rita Armstrong, Erik W. Armstrong, James L. Barnes, Susan K. Barnes, Roberto Bartholo, Terry Bristol, Cao Dongming, Cao Xu, Carleton Christensen, Chen Jia, Cheng Yifa, Christelle Didier, Paul T. Durbin, Michael J. Dyrenfurth, Fang Yibing, Donald Hector, Li Bocong, Li Lei, Liu Dachun, Heinz C. Luegenbiehl, Diane P. Michelfelder, Carl Mitcham, Suzanne Moon, Byron Newberry, Jim Petrie, Hans Poser, Domício Proença, Qian Wei, Wim Ravesteijn, Viola Schiaffonati, Édison Renato Silva, Patrick Simonnin, Mario Verdicchio, Sun Lie, Wang Bin, Wang Dazhou, Wang Guoyu, Wang Jian, Wang Nan, Yin Ruiyu, Yin Wenjuan, Yuan Deyu, Zhao Junhai, Baichun Zhang & Zhang Kang (eds.) - 2018 - Cham: Springer Verlag.
    This co-edited volume compares Chinese and Western experiences of engineering, technology, and development. In doing so, it builds a bridge between the East and West and advances a dialogue in the philosophy of engineering. Divided into three parts, the book starts with studies on epistemological and ontological issues, with a special focus on engineering design, creativity, management, feasibility, and sustainability. Part II considers relationships between the history and philosophy of engineering, and includes a general argument for the necessity of dialogue (...)
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  9. The teaching of computer ethics on computer science and related degree programmes. a European survey.Ioannis Stavrakakis, Damian Gordon, Brendan Tierney, Anna Becevel, Emma Murphy, Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic, Radu Dobrin, Viola Schiaffonati, Cristina Pereira, Svetlana Tikhonenko, J. Paul Gibson, Stephane Maag, Francesco Agresta, Andrea Curley, Michael Collins & Dympna O’Sullivan - 2021 - International Journal of Ethics Education 7 (1):101-129.
    Within the Computer Science community, many ethical issues have emerged as significant and critical concerns. Computer ethics is an academic field in its own right and there are unique ethical issues associated with information technology. It encompasses a range of issues and concerns including privacy and agency around personal information, Artificial Intelligence and pervasive technology, the Internet of Things and surveillance applications. As computing technology impacts society at an ever growing pace, there are growing calls for more computer ethics content (...)
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  10. A framework for the foundation of the philosophy of artificial intelligence.Viola Schiaffonati - 2003 - Minds and Machines 13 (4):537-552.
    The peculiarity of the relationship between philosophy and Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been evidenced since the advent of AI. This paper aims to put the basis of an extended and well founded philosophy of AI: it delineates a multi-layered general framework to which different contributions in the field may be traced back. The core point is to underline how in the same scenario both the role of philosophy on AI and role of AI on philosophy must be considered. Moreover, this (...)
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  11.  34
    A multiagent approach to modelling complex phenomena.Francesco Amigoni & Viola Schiaffonati - 2008 - Foundations of Science 13 (2):113-125.
    Designing models of complex phenomena is a difficult task in engineering that can be tackled by composing a number of partial models to produce a global model of the phenomena. We propose to embed the partial models in software agents and to implement their composition as a cooperative negotiation between the agents. The resulting multiagent system provides a global model of a phenomenon. We applied this approach in modelling two complex physiological processes: the heart rate regulation and the glucose-insulin metabolism. (...)
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  12.  13
    Computer simulations and surrogative reasoning for the design of new robots.Viola Schiaffonati & Edoardo Datteri - 2023 - Synthese 202 (1):1-20.
    Computer simulations are widely used for surrogative reasoning in scientific research. They also play a crucial role in engineering, more specifically in the design of new robotic systems, yet the nature of this role has been little discussed so far in the philosophy of technology literature. The main claim made in this article is that the notion of surrogative reasoning is central to understanding how computer simulations can serve the purpose of designing new robots. More specifically, it is argued that (...)
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  13.  84
    A Multilevel Architecture of Creative Dynamic Agency.Marco Somalvico, Viola Schiaffonati & Francesco Amigoni - 2000 - Foundations of Science 5 (2):157-184.
    There are two classical and opposite positions about scientific discovery: the one that conceives scientific discovery activity as fully rational and the one that conceives scientific discovery activity as fully irrational. In the first case, machines are regarded as able to perform the scientific discovery process whereas, in the second case, machines are considered unable to perform any part of the scientific discovery process.We adopt a third intermediate approach that envisages a new role for machines, which are conceived as descriptions (...)
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  14.  3
    AI-Related Risk: An Epistemological Approach.Giacomo Zanotti, Daniele Chiffi & Viola Schiaffonati - 2024 - Philosophy and Technology 37 (2):1-18.
    Risks connected with AI systems have become a recurrent topic in public and academic debates, and the European proposal for the AI Act explicitly adopts a risk-based tiered approach that associates different levels of regulation with different levels of risk. However, a comprehensive and general framework to think about AI-related risk is still lacking. In this work, we aim to provide an epistemological analysis of such risk building upon the existing literature on disaster risk analysis and reduction. We show how (...)
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  15.  14
    Good Experimental Methodologies and Simulation in Autonomous Mobile Robotics.Francesco Amigoni & Viola Schiaffonati - 2010 - In W. Carnielli L. Magnani (ed.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. pp. 315--332.
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  16.  26
    Multiagent-based simulation in biology.Francesco Amigoni & Viola Schiaffonati - 2007 - In L. Magnani & P. Li (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science, Technology, and Medicine. Springer. pp. 179--191.
  17. Automi e persone. Introduzione all'etica dell'intelligenza artificiale e della robotica.Fabio Fossa, Guglielmo Tamburrini & Viola Schiaffonati (eds.) - 2021 - Roma: Carocci.
    Dalle decisioni algoritmiche alle raccomandazioni sugli acquisti, dai sex robot alla sorveglianza sociale, dalla cybersicurezza all’autonomia operativa dei veicoli e delle armi, l’impatto dell’intelligenza artificiale e della robotica sulla vita delle persone è sempre più ramificato e pervasivo. Il volume offre un quadro d’insieme delle questioni etiche sollevate dall’incontro tra automi e individui nella società contemporanea: la protezione dell’autonomia a fronte della raccolta minuziosa di dati personali, le forme di benessere collettivo da promuovere attraverso l’automazione, la trasparenza e l’equità delle (...)
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  18.  28
    Multiagent system based scientific discovery within information society.Francesco Amigoni, Viola Schiaffonati & Marco Somalvico - 2002 - Mind and Society 3 (1):111-127.
    In this paper we investigate the role of information machines in the scientific enterprise intended as a social activity. Our discussion is based on a powerful kind of information machines called scientific social agencies, which are multiagent systems of distributed artificial intelligence. Scientific social agency, on the one hand, can provide great benefits to the present common scientific practice but, on the other hand, its development represents a strong and still open technical challenge. This paper shows a coherent framework in (...)
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  19.  7
    Explorative Experiments in Autonomous Robotics.Viola Schiaffonati & Francesco Amigoni - 2006 - In Lorenzo Magnani & Claudia Casadio (eds.), Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Logical, Epistemological, and Cognitive Issues. Springer Verlag.
    The debate on the experimental method, its role, its limits, and its possible applications has recently gained attention in autonomous robotics. If, from the one hand, classical experimental principles, such as repeatability and reproducibility, play as an inspiration for the development of good experimental practices in this research area, from the other hand, some recent analyses have evidenced that rigorous experimental approaches are not yet full part of the research habits in this community. In this paper, in order to give (...)
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  20.  30
    Philosophy and Engineering: An Emerging Agenda.Viola Schiaffonati - 2011 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):89 - 92.
    International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Volume 25, Issue 1, Page 89-92, March 2011.
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  21.  27
    Rethinking Experiments in a Socio-Technical Perspective: The Case of Software Engineering.Viola Schiaffonati & Mario Verdicchio - 2015 - Philosophies 1 (1):87--101.
    Experiments in computing share many characteristics with the traditional experimental method, but also present significant differences from a practical perspective, due to their aim at producing software artifacts and the central role played by human actors and organizations involved in the software development process. By analyzing some of the most significant experiments in the subfield of software engineering, we aim at showing how the conceptual framework that supports experimental methodology in this context needs an extension in a socio-technical perspective.
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  22.  18
    Riflettere sui dettagli della scienza: Patrick Suppes ei modelli.Viola Schiaffonati - 2006 - Epistemologia 29 (2):239-266.
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  23. What Do Bridges and Software Tell Us about the Philosophy of Engineering?Mario Verdicchio & Viola Schiaffonati - 2018 - In Rita Armstrong, Erik W. Armstrong, James L. Barnes, Susan K. Barnes, Roberto Bartholo, Terry Bristol, Cao Dongming, Cao Xu, Carleton Christensen, Chen Jia, Cheng Yifa, Christelle Didier, Paul T. Durbin, Michael J. Dyrenfurth, Fang Yibing, Donald Hector, Li Bocong, Li Lei, Liu Dachun, Heinz C. Luegenbiehl, Diane P. Michelfelder, Carl Mitcham, Suzanne Moon, Byron Newberry, Jim Petrie, Hans Poser, Domício Proença, Qian Wei, Wim Ravesteijn, Viola Schiaffonati, Édison Renato Silva, Patrick Simonnin, Mario Verdicchio, Sun Lie, Wang Bin, Wang Dazhou, Wang Guoyu, Wang Jian, Wang Nan, Yin Ruiyu, Yin Wenjuan, Yuan Deyu, Zhao Junhai, Baichun Zhang & Zhang Kang (eds.), Philosophy of Engineering, East and West. Cham: Springer Verlag.
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  24.  25
    Representation and Invariance of Scientific Structures. [REVIEW]Claudia Arrighi & Viola Schiaffonati - 2006 - Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 12:231-236.