Results for 'Violinist example'

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  1. Abortion and Ownership.John Martin Fischer - 2013 - Journal of Ethics 17 (4):275-304.
    I explore two thought-experiments in Judith Jarvis Thomson’s important article, “A Defense of Abortion”: the violinist example and the people-seeds example. I argue (contra Thomson) that you have a moral duty not to unplug yourself from the violinist and also a moral duty not to destroy a people-seed that has landed in your sofa. Nevertheless, I also argue that there are crucial differences between the thought-experiments and the contexts of pregnancy due to rape or to contraceptive (...)
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  2. Defusing Thomson's Violinist Analogy.Mathew Lu - 2013 - Human Life Review 39 (1):46-62.
    In this paper I take a critical look at Judith Jarvis Thomson famous violinist analogy for abortion. I argue that while the violinist example does show that a right to life does not entail a right to be given the means of life, the violinist cast is relevantly different from the pregnancy case. I also argue that Thomson's positive argument in favor of the permissibility of abortion fails because it is based on a false conception of (...)
     
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  3.  23
    Thomson's Violinist and Conjoined Twins.Kenneth Einar Himma - 1999 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 8 (4):428-435.
    It is commonly taken for granted that abortion is necessarily impermissible if the fetus is a person with a right to life. In her influential essay Judith Jarvis Thomson offers what I will call the violinist example to show that merely having a right to life does not in and of itself give rise in the fetus to a right to use the mother's body. On Thomson's view, if the fetus has a right to use the mother's body (...)
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    Response to “Commentary on Thomson's Violinist and Conjoined Twins” by John K. Davis.Kenneth Einar Himma - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (1):120-122.
    The point of Judith Jarvis Thomson's violinist example is to establish that one person, A, can acquire a right to use the body of another person, B, if and only if B performs some kind of affirmative act that gives A such a right. On her view, the reason it is permissible for you to unplug yourself from the violinist is that you did nothing to give the violinist a right to use your body: the (...) was plugged into you without your consent. Thus it follows that the mere fact that A needs use of B's body to survive is not enough to give rise to a right in A to use B's body. Accordingly, Thomson concludes, the claim that the fetus has a right to life does not imply abortion is morally impermissible. (shrink)
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    ""Response to" Commentary on Thomson's Violinist and Conjoined Twins" by John K. Davis (Cq Vol 8, No 4) Reply to Davis.Himma Ke & Kenneth Einar Himma - 2000 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 9 (1):120-122.
    The point of Judith Jarvis Thomson's violinist example is to establish that one person, A, can acquire a right to use the body of another person, B, if and only if B performs some kind of affirmative act that gives A such a right. On her view, the reason it is permissible for you to unplug yourself from the violinist is that you did nothing to give the violinist a right to use your body: the (...) was plugged into you without your consent. Thus it follows that the mere fact that A needs use of B's body to survive is not enough to give rise to a right in A to use B's body. Accordingly, Thomson concludes, the claim that the fetus has a right to life does not imply abortion is morally impermissible. (shrink)
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  6.  78
    Quong on Agent-Relative Prerogatives to Do Harm: A Very Brief Refutation.Uwe Steinhoff - manuscript
    In a recent paper, Jonathan Quong tries to offer further support for “the proposition that there are sometimes agent-relative prerogatives to harm nonliable persons.” In this brief paper, I will demonstrate that Quong’s argument implicitly relies on the premise that the violinist in Thomson’s famous example has a right not to be unplugged. Yet, first, Quong provides no argument in support of this premise; and second, the premise is clearly wrong. Moreover, throughout his paper Quong just question-beggingly and (...)
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  7. On an Alleged Counter-Example to Causal Decision Theory.John Cantwell - 2010 - Synthese 173 (2):127-152.
    An alleged counterexample to causal decision theory, put forward by Andy Egan, is studied in some detail. It is argued that Egan rejects the evaluation of causal decision theory on the basis of a description of the decision situation that is different from—indeed inconsistent with—the description on which causal decision theory makes its evaluation. So the example is not a counterexample to causal decision theory. Nevertheless, the example shows that causal decision theory can recommend unratifiable acts which presents (...)
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  8.  21
    The Principle of Alternate Possibilities as Sufficient but Not Necessary for Moral Responsibility: A Way to Avoid the Frankfurt Counter-Example.Garry Young - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (3):961-969.
    The aim of this paper is to present a version of the principle of alternate possibilities which is not susceptible to the Frankfurt-style counter-example. I argue that PAP does not need to be endorsed as a necessary condition for moral responsibility and, in fact, presenting PAP as a sufficient condition maintains its usefulness as a maxim for moral accountability whilst avoiding Frankfurt-style counter-examples. In addition, I provide a further sufficient condition for moral responsibility – the twin world condition – (...)
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  9.  15
    Unconscious Violinists and the Use of Analogies in Moral Argument.E. Wiland - 2000 - Journal of Medical Ethics 26 (6):466-468.
    Analogies are the stuff out of which normative moral philosophy is made. Certainly one of the most famous analogies constructed by a philosopher in order to argue for a specific controversial moral conclusion is the one involving Judith Thomson's unconscious violinist. Reflection upon this analogy is meant to show us that abortion is generally not immoral even if the prenatal have the same moral status as the postnatal. This was and still is a controversial conclusion, and yet the analogy (...)
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  10.  17
    Programming by Example: The Human Face of AI. [REVIEW]Ian H. Witten, Bruce A. MacDonald, David L. Maulsby & Rosanna Heise - 1992 - AI and Society 6 (2):166-180.
    It is argued that “human-centredness” will be an important characteristic of systems that learn tasks from human users, as the difficulties in inductive inference rule out learning without human assistance. The aim of “programming by example” is to create systems that learn how to perform tasks from their human users by being shown examples of what is to be done. Just as the user creates a learning environment for the system, so the system provides a teaching opportunity for the (...)
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  11.  3
    Seeking Wisdom.Brenda Almond - 1997 - Philosophy 72 (281):417 - 433.
    A sign seen in the Philosophy Department of the University of Uppsala reads: A philosopher is one who will deliver a paper on the Hangman's Paradox at a conference on capital punishment. I might take as a supporting example of this tendency to focus on the irrelevant or the inappropriate a real paper to a medico-legal conference on organ transplants which argued that it would be morally justifiable to remove a heart from a healthy would-be heart donor. There are (...)
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  12.  25
    The Economic Efficiency and Equity of Abortion.Thomas J. Meeks - 1990 - Economics and Philosophy 6 (1):95.
    On the face of it, the protracted public controversy over abortion in the United States and elsewhere might seem to rest on intractable normative questions inaccessible to economic analysis. But an influential early essay in the now sizable philosophical literature on the subject suggests otherwise. Judith Jarvis Thomson disarmingly inclined toward the view that “the fetus has already become a human person well before birth”,. presumably with all the rights pertaining thereto. She denied, however, that such rights necessarily include use (...)
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  13.  41
    A Hermeneutic Reconstruction of the Child in the Well Example.Robert E. Allinson - 1992 - Journal of Chinese Philosophy 19 (3):297-308.
    This article draws on two Mencian illustrations of human goodness: the example of the child in the well and the metaphor of the continually deforested mountain. By reconstructing Mencius’ two novel ideas within the framework of a phenomenological thought-experiment, this article’s purpose is to explain the validity of this uncommon approach to ethics, an approach which recognizes that subjective participation is necessary to achieve any ethical understanding. It is through this active phenomenological introspection that the individual grasps the goodness (...)
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  14.  22
    Toward an Instructionally Oriented Theory of Example‐Based Learning.Alexander Renkl - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (1):1-37.
    Learning from examples is a very effective means of initial cognitive skill acquisition. There is an enormous body of research on the specifics of this learning method. This article presents an instructionally oriented theory of example-based learning that integrates theoretical assumptions and findings from three research areas: learning from worked examples, observational learning, and analogical reasoning. This theory has descriptive and prescriptive elements. The descriptive subtheory deals with (a) the relevance and effectiveness of examples, (b) phases of skill acquisition, (...)
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  15.  6
    Necessity and the Physicalist Account in Aristotle’s Physics. Difficulties with the Rainfall Example.Jarosław Olesiak - 2015 - Diametros 45:35-38.
    The aim of the present article is to consider the shortcomings of the physicalist rainfall example set forth by Aristotle in Physics II.8. I first outline the ancient physicalist account of the coming-to-be of natural organisms and the accompanying rejection of the teleological character of such processes. Then I examine the rainfall example itself. The fundamental difficulty is that rainfall does not appear to have a proper nature. Hence it is not natural in the strict sense and cannot (...)
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  16.  16
    What Exactlyis English?N. L. Wilson - 1972 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (2):170 - 183.
    I wish now to return to the elementary characterization of languagehood in section III and its rationalization in section IV and say something by way of conclusion. The account given may or may not have a large number of fascinating and important consequences, but I shall confine myself to a couple of minor points and one not so minor.Let us suppose that there are either an infinite number of extra-linguistic entities (which seems plausible) or an infinite number of possible expressions (...)
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  17. A Frankfurt Example to End All Frankfurt Examples.James Cain - 2014 - Philosophia 42 (1):83-93.
    Frankfurt examples are frequently used in arguments designed to show that agents lacking alternatives, or lacking ‘regulative control’ over their actions, can be morally responsible for what they do. I will maintain that Frankfurt examples can be constructed that undermine those very arguments when applied to actions for which the agent bears fundamental responsibility.
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  18.  67
    Is Gettier’s First Example Flawed?Christoph Schmidt-Petri - 2003 - In Winfried Löffler & Weingartner Paul (eds.), Knowledge and Belief. ALWS.
    This paper challenges (in a shorter version than the also listed 2002 LSE discussion paper) the first Gettier counterexample to the tripartite account of knowledge. Noting that 'the man who will get the job' is a description and invoking Donnellan's distinction between their 'referential' and 'attributive' uses, I argue that Smith does not actually believe that the man who will get the job has ten coins in his pocket. Smith's ignorance about who will get the job shows that the belief (...)
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  19. Why Communities and Their Goods Matter: Illustrated with the Example of Biobanks.H. Widdows & S. Cordell - 2011 - Public Health Ethics 4 (1):14-25.
    It is now being recognized across the spectrum of bioethics, and particularly in genetics and population ethics, that to focus on the individual person, and thereby neglect communities and the goods which accrue to them, is to fail to see all the ethically significant features of a range of ethical issues. This article argues that more work needs to be done in order for bioethics to respect not only goods (such as rights and interests) of communities per se, but also (...)
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  20.  98
    Why Are Dreams Interesting for Philosophers? The Example of Minimal Phenomenal Selfhood, Plus an Agenda for Future Research.Thomas Metzinger - 2013 - Frontiers in Psychology 4:746.
    This metatheoretical paper develops a list of new research targets by exploring particularly promising interdisciplinary contact points between empirical dream research and philosophy of mind. The central example is the MPS-problem. It is constituted by the epistemic goal of conceptually isolating and empirically grounding the phenomenal property of “minimal phenomenal selfhood,” which refers to the simplest form of self-consciousness. In order to precisely describe MPS, one must focus on those conditions that are not only causally enabling, but strictly necessary (...)
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  21.  9
    Ricardo's Numerical Example Versus Ricardian Trade Model: A Comparison of Two Distinct Notions of Comparative Advantage.Jorge Morales Meoqui - 2017 - Economic Thought 6 (1):35.
    The so-called Ricardian trade model of contemporary economic textbooks is not a rational reconstruction of Ricardo's famous numerical example in chapter seven of the Principles. It differs from the latter in terms of the definition of the four numbers, relevant cost comparison, rule for specialisation, assumptions and theoretical implications. Thus, the widespread critique regarding the unrealistic assumptions of the textbook trade model does not apply to Ricardo's original proof of comparative advantage.
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  22. Unifying Diseases From a Genetic Point of View: The Example of the Genetic Theory of Infectious Diseases.Marie Darrason - 2013 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 34 (4):327-344.
    In the contemporary biomedical literature, every disease is considered genetic. This extension of the concept of genetic disease is usually interpreted either in a trivial or genocentrist sense, but it is never taken seriously as the expression of a genetic theory of disease. However, a group of French researchers defend the idea of a genetic theory of infectious diseases. By identifying four common genetic mechanisms (Mendelian predisposition to multiple infections, Mendelian predisposition to one infection, and major gene and polygenic predispositions), (...)
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  23.  56
    The Problem of Many Hands: Climate Change as an Example.van de Poel Ibo, Fahlquist Jessica Nihlén, Doorn Neelke, Zwart Sjoerd & Royakkers Lambèr - 2012 - Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (1):49-67.
    In some situations in which undesirable collective effects occur, it is very hard, if not impossible, to hold any individual reasonably responsible. Such a situation may be referred to as the problem of many hands. In this paper we investigate how the problem of many hands can best be understood and why, and when, it exactly constitutes a problem. After analyzing climate change as an example, we propose to define the problem of many hands as the occurrence of a (...)
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  24.  29
    A Case Example: Integrating Ethics Into the Academic Business Curriculum. [REVIEW]Gael M. McDonald - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (4):371 - 384.
    This paper combines a review of existing literature in the field of business ethics education and a case study relating to the integration of ethics into an undergraduate degree. Prior to any discussion relating to the integration of ethics into the business curriculum, we need to be cognisant of, and prepared for, the arguments raised by sceptics in both the business and academic environments, in regard to the teaching of ethics. Having laid this foundation, the paper moves to practical questions (...)
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  25.  64
    Borderline Hermaphrodites: Higher-Order Vagueness by Example.R. Sorensen - 2010 - Mind 119 (474):393-408.
    The Pyrrhonian sceptic Favorinus of Arelata personified indeterminacy, cultivating his (or her) borderline status to undermine dogmatism. Inspired by the techniques of Favorinus, I show, by example, that ‘vague’ has borderline cases. These concrete steps lead to a more abstract argument that ‘vague’ has borderline borderline cases and borderline borderline borderline cases. My specimens are intended supplement earlier non-constructive proofs of the vagueness of ‘vague’.
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  26.  32
    Reconciling Csr with the Role of the Corporation in Welfare States: The Problematic Swedish Example[REVIEW]Hans de Geer, Tommy Borglund & Magnus Frostenson - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 89 (3):269–283.
    This article uses the Swedish example to illustrate how corporate social responsibility (CSR) is understood and interpreted when it enters a welfare state context where social issues have traditionally been the domains of the state and of politicians. Among the implications one finds a relative scepticism of traditionally strong actors on the labour market, such as the state, trade unions and employers. This relative scepticism is primarily explained by an enduring idea of the role of business in society which (...)
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  27.  95
    The Non-Identity Fallacy: Harm, Probability and Another Look at Parfit's Depletion Example.M. A. Roberts - 2007 - Utilitas 19 (3):267-311.
    The non-identity problem is really a collection of problems having distinct logical features. For that reason, non-identity problems can be typed. This article focuses on just one type of non-identity problem, the problem, which includes Derek Parfit's depletion example and many others. The can't-expect-better problem uses an assessment about the low probability of any particular person's coming into existence to reason that an earlier wrong act does not harm that person. This article argues that that line of reasoning is (...)
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  28. Workplace Democracy and Human Development: The Example of the Postsocialist Transition Debate.David Ellerman - 2010 - Journal of Speculative Philosophy 24 (4):333-353.
    In the 1990s, a debate raged across the whole postsocialist world as well as in Western development agencies such as the World Bank about the best approach to the transition from various forms of socialism or communism to a market economy and political democracy. One of the most hotly contested topics was the question of the workplace being organized based on workplace democracy (e.g., various forms of worker ownership) or based on the conventional employer-employee relationship. Well before 1989, many of (...)
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  29.  1
    A Case Example: Integrating Ethics Into the Academic Business Curriculum.Gael M. McDonald - 2004 - Journal of Business Ethics 54 (4):371-384.
    This paper combines a review of existing literature in the field of business ethics education and a case study relating to the integration of ethics into an undergraduate degree. Prior to any discussion relating to the integration of ethics into the business curriculum, we need to be cognisant of, and prepared for, the arguments raised by sceptics in both the business and academic environments, in regard to the teaching of ethics. Having laid this foundation, the paper moves to practical questions (...)
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  30.  40
    Filling the Empty Shell. The Public Debate on CSR in Austria as a Paradigmatic Example of a Political Discourse.Bernhard Mark-Ungericht & Richard Weiskopf - 2007 - Journal of Business Ethics 70 (3):285-297.
    Instead of essentializing and defining what CSR “is”, we analyze CSR as a political discourse in which different actors struggle to fill the empty shell of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) with a legitimate interpretation. In this paper we take the current debate on CSR in Austria as an example to demonstrate how this debate is shaped by changes in the greater socio-economic environment. We suggest that this debate might be paradigmatic for the development of CSR in the European/International context. (...)
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  31.  26
    A Devastating Example for the Halfer Rule.Vincent Conitzer - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (8):1985-1992.
    How should we update de dicto beliefs in the face of de se evidence? The Sleeping Beauty problem divides philosophers into two camps, halfers and thirders. But there is some disagreement among halfers about how their position should generalize to other examples. A full generalization is not always given; one notable exception is the Halfer Rule, under which the agent updates her uncentered beliefs based on only the uncentered part of her evidence. In this brief article, I provide a simple (...)
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  32.  42
    A Portrait of the Teacher as Friend and Artist: The Example of Jean-Jacques Rousseau.Hunter Mcewan - 2011 - Educational Philosophy and Theory 43 (5):508-520.
    The following is a reflection on the possibility of teaching by example, and especially as the idea of teaching by example is developed in the work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau. My thesis is that Rousseau created a literary version of himself in his writings as an embodiment of his philosophy, rather in the same way and with the same purpose that Plato created a version of Socrates. This figure of Rousseau—a sort of philosophical portrait of the man of nature—is (...)
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  33.  42
    Heuristics and Biases in a Purported Counter-Example to the Acyclicity of 'Better Than'.Alex Voorhoeve - 2008 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (3):285-299.
    Stuart Rachels and Larry Temkin have offered a purported counter-example to the acyclicity of the relationship 'all things considered better than'. This example invokes our intuitive preferences over pairs of alternatives involving a single person's painful experiences of varying intensity and duration. These preferences, Rachels and Temkin claim, are confidently held, entirely reasonable, and cyclical. They conclude that we should drop acyclicity as a requirement of rationality. I argue that, together with the findings of recent research on the (...)
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  34. A Practical Example of Grue.F. M. Akeroyd - 1991 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 42 (4):535-539.
    This article describes a practical example of the predicate grue, examining the economic relationship between the percentage rate of unemployment and the percentage change of money wage rates known as the simple Phillips curve which exhibited regular behaviour before 1969 and erratic behaviour thereafter. It is proposed that such practical examples of grue from the real world be redescribed as regulatic. i.e. regular before time t and erratic thereafter. In the instance of a scientific model or theory being falsified (...)
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  35.  7
    What is a Genetic Cause? The Example of Alzheimer's Disease.Wim Dekkers & Marcel Olde Rikkert - 2006 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 9 (3):273-284.
    This paper focuses on the causation of diseases, particularly on the idea of a “genetic cause” taking Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) as an example. We (1) provide some historical information and a synopsis of the current knowledge on the etiology and pathogenesis of AD, (2) analyse some conceptual problems related to the notion of “genetic disease” (3) elaborate on the alleged (genetic) cause of AD, and (4) place the discussion on the cause of AD in a broader philosophical context, paying (...)
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  36.  5
    Between an Example and a Precept, Which Has Greater Importance? A Comparison of the Channels of Socialization in Military Ethics.Yi-Ming Yu - 2013 - Ethics and Behavior 23 (5):341-359.
    In this study, I examined what channels of socialization influence the moral behavior of cadets. We conducted a regression analysis of the effects of parents' attitudes to moral education, the standard and potential curriculum of schools, peer groups, and communication media on individual ethics and discipline using 399 sample participants. The participants were recruited through a questionnaire survey on cadets from academy of military, naval, and air force, and four-year based students from R.O.C. National Defense University. The analysis results showed (...)
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  37.  34
    Betting on Machina's Reflection Example: An Experiment on Ambiguity. [REVIEW]Olivier L'Haridon & Lætitia Placido - 2010 - Theory and Decision 69 (3):375-393.
    In a recent article, Machina (Am Econ Rev forthcoming, 2008) suggested choice problems in the spirit of Ellsberg (Q J Econ 75:643–669, 1961), which challenge tail-separability, an implication of Choquet expected utility (CEU), to a similar extent as the Ellsberg paradox challenged the sure-thing principle implied by subjective expected utility (SEU). We have tested choice behavior for bets on one of Machina’s choice problems, the reflection example. Our results indicate that tail-separability is violated by a large majority of subjects (...)
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  38.  15
    From Husserl to Merleau-Ponty: On the Metamorphosis of a Philosophical Example.Meirav Almog - 2016 - The European Legacy 21 (5-6):525-534.
    This essay outlines the transformation of the ostensibly mundane example of two hands touching each other in Husserl’s Ideas II into the pivotal concept in Merleau-Ponty’s ontology of flesh and notion of embodied subjectivity. By focusing on the contexts in which the example appears in the works of Husserl and of Merleau-Ponty, it seeks to explicate Merleau-Ponty’s fascination with Husserl’s example, its role in the development of his own thought and in the conceptual shift in his late (...)
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  39.  97
    A Counter-Example to SSI and Contextualism.Igal Kvart - manuscript
    In this paper, I present a counter-example to the two most prominent theories of pragmatic encroachment (regarding knowledge ascriptions): Contextualism (specifically, DeRose's version), and Stanley's Subject-Sensitive Invariantism (SSI). The example is a variation on DeRose's bank case. -/- Key words: Knowledge, knowledge ascriptions, pragmatic encroachment, Stanley, DeRose, bank case, standards, stakes.
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  40.  10
    Why Two Arguments From Probability Fail and One Argument From Thomson's Analogy of the Violinist Succeeds in Justifying Embryo Destruction in Some Situations.J. Deckers - 2007 - Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (3):160-164.
    The scope of embryo research in the UK has been expanded by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Regulations 2001. Two advisory bodies—the Chief Medical Officer’s Expert Group and the House of Lords’ Select Committee—presented various arguments in favour of embryo research. One of these is the view that, just as lottery tickets have relatively little value before the draw because of the low probability of their being the winning ticket, early embryos have relatively little value because of the presumed low (...)
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  41.  20
    Relational Autonomy: An Example From Breast Cancer Nursing.Mary Twomey - 2011 - Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (4):408-413.
    This article is an exploration of how the concept of relational autonomy might be applied in practice. The discussion uses the example of breast cancer nursing as a lens through which to consider how a view of autonomy as relational might affect the ways in which practitioners work with their clients.
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  42.  29
    What Are Cognitive Processes? An Example-Based Approach.Albert Newen - forthcoming - Synthese:1-18.
    The question “What are cognitive processes?” can be understood variously as meaning “What is the nature of cognitive processes?”, “Can we distinguish epistemically cognitive processes from physical and biochemical processes on the one hand, and from mental or conscious processes on the other?”, and “Can we establish a fruitful notion of cognitive process?” The present aim is to deliver a positive answer to the last question by developing criteria for what would count as a paradigmatic exemplar of a cognitive process, (...)
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  43.  61
    Conditional Logic and the Significance of Tooley's Example.Charles B. Cross - 2006 - Analysis 66 (292):325–335.
    In "Backward causation and the Stalnaker-Lewis approach to counterfactuals," Analysis 62 (2002): 191–97, Michael Tooley argues that if a certain kind of backward causation is possible, then a Stalnaker-Lewis style comparative world similarity account of the truth conditions of counterfactuals cannot be sound. Tooley’s target is one particular type of semantics, but, as I show, the significance of Tooley’s example goes well beyond its consequences for any one semantics for the conditional.
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  44.  13
    Applying Behavioral Ecology and Behavioral Economics to Conservation and Development Planning: An Example From the Mikea Forest, Madagascar. [REVIEW]Bram Tucker - 2007 - Human Nature 18 (3):190-208.
    Governments and non-govermental organizations (NGOs) that plan projects to conserve the environment and alleviate poverty often attempt to modify rural livelihoods by halting activities they judge to be destructive or inefficient and encouraging alternatives. Project planners typically do so without understanding how rural people themselves judge the value of their activities. When the alternatives planners recommend do not replace the value of banned activities, alternatives are unlikely to be adopted, and local people will refuse to participate. Human behavioral ecology and (...)
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  45.  10
    Theoretical Philosophy and Philosophy of Science in the Soviet Times: Some Remarks on the Example of Estonia, 1960-1990.Rein Vihalemm - 2016 - Studia Philosophica Estonica 8 (2):195-227.
    Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1:*{behavior:url } This part of the Soviet philosophy that corresponds approximately to theoretical philosophy and philosophy of science on the example of Estonia and proceeding from the University of Tartu is discussed. The author concentrates on the period of approximately 1960–1990, when he himself was engaged in the field, i.e. the time before 1960 is not included. The aim of this paper is not to provide an overview of the individual philosophers in (...)
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  46.  41
    Defending Gaita's Example of Saintly Behaviour.Young Elizabeth Drummond - 2012 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 15 (2):191 - 202.
    Raimond Gaita's example of saintly love, in which the visit of a nun to psychiatric patients has profound effects on him, has been criticised for being an odd and unconvincing example of saintliness. I defend Gaita against four specific criticisms; firstly, that the nun achieves nothing spectacular, but merely adopts a certain attitude towards people; secondly, that Gaita must already have certain beliefs for the example to work; thirdly, that to be acclaimed a saint requires a saintly (...)
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  47.  5
    A Notorious Example of Failed Mindreading: Dramatic Irony and the Moral and Epistemic Value of Art.W. Scott Clifton - 2016 - Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (3):73-90.
    The act of mindreading has been recognized to have great moral and epistemic value. Unfortunately, psychological research has shown that we are naturally inaccurate at mindreading, which should worry us quite a bit. It has also been shown that when motivated to mindread well, subjects become more accurate. In this paper I argue that some kinds of artwork—specifically, those utilizing dramatic irony—can educate us as to how valuable accurate mindreading is and motivate us to try to mindread well. The primary (...)
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  48.  15
    Ethical Review Issues in Collaborative Research Between Us and Low – Middle Income Country Partners: A Case Example.Scott Mcintosh, Essie Sierra, Ann Dozier, Sergio Diaz, Zahira Quiñones, Aron Primack, Gary Chadwick & Deborah J. Ossip-Klein - 2008 - Bioethics 22 (8):414-422.
    The current ethical structure for collaborative international health research stems largely from developed countries' standards of proper ethical practices. The result is that ethical committees in developing countries are required to adhere to standards that might impose practices that conflict with local culture and unintended interpretations of ethics, treatments, and research. This paper presents a case example of a joint international research project that successfully established inclusive ethical review processes as well as other groundwork and components necessary for the (...)
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  49.  12
    ‘What to Wear?’: Clothing as an Example of Expression and Intentionality.Ian King - 2015 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 5 (1):59-78.
    I will argue here that for many of us the act of dressing our bodies is evidence of intentional expression before different audiences. It is important to appreciate that intentionality enables us to understand how and why we act the way we do. The novel contribution this paper makes to this examination is employing clothing as a means of revealing the characteristics of intentionality. In that, it is rare to identify one exemplar that successfully captures the relationships between the cognitive (...)
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  50.  4
    Using the Internet for Scientific Publishing: FQS as an Example.Katja Mruck & Günter Mey - 2008 - Poiesis and Praxis 5 (2):113-123.
    Since the Public Library of Science launched its first open-access journals and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities has been released in 2003 and found enormous attention, the claim for open access—to make publicly funded journal articles available for the public—started to reach German scientists too. But still no experience has been made with electronic publishing in general and more specifically with open-access publishing. One consequence is that the potential capacity of open access—the (...)
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