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  1. The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global.Virginia Held - 2005 - Oxford University Press.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
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  2. Women and Moral Theory.Eva Feder Kittay, Carol Gilligan, Annette C. Baier, Michael Stocker, Christina H. Sommers, Kathryn Pyne Addelson, Virginia Held, Thomas E. Hill Jr, Seyla Benhabib, George Sher, Marilyn Friedman, Jonathan Adler, Sara Ruddick, Mary Fainsod, David D. Laitin, Lizbeth Hasse & Sandra Harding - 1989 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  3. Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics.Virginia Held - 1993 - University of Chicago Press.
    How is feminism changing the way women and men think, feel, and act? Virginia Held explores how feminist theory is changing contemporary views of moral choice. She proposes a comprehensive philosophy of feminist ethics, arguing persuasively for reconceptualizations of the self of relations between the self and others and of images of birth and death, nurturing and violence. Held shows how social, political, and cultural institutions have traditionally been founded upon masculine ideals of morality. She then identifies a distinct feminist (...)
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  4. The Ethics of Care. Personal, Political, and Global.Virginia Held - 2007 - Tijdschrift Voor Filosofie 69 (2):399-399.
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  5. 10. Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness Robert S. Taylor, Reconstructing Rawls: The Kantian Foundations of Justice as Fairness (Pp. 632-637). [REVIEW]Mark Schroeder, Jonathan Way, Gregg Strauss, Tim Willenken, Matthew Talbert, Angela M. Smith, James A. Montmarquet, Nicole Hassoun, Virginia Held & Nicholas Wolterstorff - 2012 - Ethics 122 (3).
  6.  46
    Feminism and Moral Theory.Virginia Held - forthcoming - Bioethics: An Introduction to the History, Methods, and Practice.
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  7.  6
    The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, and Global.Virginia Held - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (1):177-181.
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  8. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics.Virginia Held (ed.) - 1995 - Westview Press.
    When feminist philosophers first turned their attention to traditional ethical theory, its almost exclusive emphasis upon justice, rights, abstract rationality, and individual autonomy came under special criticism. Women’s experiences seemed to suggest the need for a focus on care, empathetic relations, and the interdependence of persons.The most influential readings of what has become an extremely lively and fruitful debate are reproduced here along with important new contributions by Alison Jaggar and Sara Ruddick. As this volume testifies, there is no agreement (...)
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  9. Feminist Transformations of Moral Theory.Virginia Held - 1990 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:321-344.
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  10. Can a Random Collection of Individuals Be Morally Responsible?Virginia Held - 1970 - Journal of Philosophy 67 (14):471-481.
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  11. Non-Contractual Society.Virginia Held - 1987 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume 13:111.
     
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  12. Terrorism and War.Virginia Held - 2004 - The Journal of Ethics 8 (1):59-75.
    There are different kinds of terrorism as there are of war. It is unpersuasive to make the deliberate targeting of civilians a defining feature of terrorism, and states as well as non-state groups can engage in terrorism. In a democracy, voters responsible for a government’s unjustifiable policies are not necessarily innocent, while conscripts are legitimate targets. Rather than being uniquely atrocious, terrorism most resembles small war. It is not always or necessarily more morally unjustifiable than war. All war should be (...)
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  13.  99
    How Terrorism is Wrong: Morality and Political Violence.Virginia Held - 2008 - Oup Usa.
    How Terrorism is Wrong collects essays by Virginia Held that examine terrorism and other forms of political violence. Held assesses popular attitudes that glorify some kinds of violence and vilify others, and discusses the kinds of moral evaluation appropriate for terrorism, war, violent political change, or repression. This collection suggests ways of improving how we understand and deal with violence.
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  14. Care and Justice in the Global Context.Virginia Held - 2004 - Ratio Juris 17 (2):141-155.
    . Morality is often dismissed as irrelevant in what is seen as the global anarchy of rival states each pursuing its national interest. When morality is invoked, it is usually the morality of justice with its associated moral conceptions of individual rights, equality, and universal law. In the area of moral theory, an alternative moral approach, the ethics of care, has been developed in recent years. It is beginning to influence how some see their global responsibilities.
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  15.  89
    Can the Ethics of Care Handle Violence?Virginia Held - 2010 - Ethics and Social Welfare 4 (2):115-129.
    It may be thought that the ethics of care has developed important insights into the moral values involved in the caring practices of family, friendship, and personal caregiving, but that the ethics of care has little to offer in dealing with violence. The violence of crime, terrorism, war, and violence against women in any context may seem beyond the ethics of care. Skepticism is certainly in order if it is suggested that we can deal with violence simply by caring. Violence (...)
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  16. The Ethics of Care: Personal, Political, Global.Virginia Held - 2007 - Oup Usa.
    Virginia Held assesses the ethics of care as a promising alternative to the familiar moral theories that serve so inadequately to guide our lives. The ethics of care is only a few decades old, yet it is by now a distinct moral theory or normative approach to the problems we face. It is relevant to global and political matters as well as to the personal relations that can most clearly exemplify care. This book clarifies just what the ethics of care (...)
     
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  17. Norms and Values: Essays on the Work of Virginia Held.Lawrence Blum, Claudia Card, Marilyn Friedman, Carol C. Gould, Mark S. Halfon, Virginia Held, Eva Feder Kittay, Leo Kittay, John W. Lango, Patricia S. Mann, Larry May, Diana T. Meyers, Kai Nielsen, Nel Noddings, Sara Ruddick, Michael Slote & Sue Weinberg - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Virginia Held, best known for her landmark book Rights and Goods, has made an indelible mark on the fields of ethics, feminist philosophy, and social and political thought. Her impact on a generation of feminist thinkers is unrivaled and she has been at the forfront of discussions about the way in which an ethic of care can affect social and political matters. These new essays by leading contemporary philosophers range over all of these areas. While each stands alone, the essays (...)
     
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  18.  62
    The Meshing of Care and Justice.Virginia Held - 1995 - Hypatia 10 (2):128 - 132.
    This essay attempts to work out how justice and care and their related concerns fit together. I suggest that as a basic moral value, care should be the wider moral framework into which justice should be fitted.
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  19.  20
    Rights and Goods: Justifying Social Action.Virginia Held - 1984 - University of Chicago Press.
    Theories of justice, argues Virginia Held, are usually designed for a perfect, hypothetical world. They do not give us guidelines for living in an imperfect world in which the choices and decisions that we must make are seldom clear-cut. Seeking a morality based on actual experience, Held offers a method of inquiry with which to deal with the specific moral problems encountered in daily life. She argues that the division between public and private morality is misleading and shows convincingly that (...)
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  20. The Public Interest and Individual Interests.Virginia Held - 1972 - Journal of Philosophy 69 (7):192-202.
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  21.  73
    Care and the Extension of Markets.Virginia Held - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (2):19-33.
    : Many activities formerly not in the market are being "marketized," and women's labor is increasingly in the market. I consider the grounds on which to decide what should and what should not be "in" the market. I distinguish work that is paid from work done under "market norms," and argue that market values should not have priority in education, childcare, healthcare, and many other activities. I suggest that a feminist ethics of care is more promising than Kantian ethics or (...)
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  22. Birth and Death.Virginia Held - 1989 - Ethics 99 (2):362-388.
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  23.  17
    Moral Subjects: The Natural and the Normative.Virginia Held - 2002 - Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 76 (2):7 - 24.
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  24.  61
    Group Responsibility for Ethnic Conflict.Virginia Held - 2002 - The Journal of Ethics 6 (2):157-178.
    When a group of persons such as a nation orcorporation has a relatively clear structureand set of decision procedures, it is capableof acting and should, it can well be argued, beconsidered morally as well as legallyresponsible. This is not because it is afull-fledged moral person, but becauseassigning responsibility is a human practice,and we have good moral reasons to adopt thepractice of considering such groupsresponsible. From such judgments, however,little follows about the responsibility ofindividual members of such groups; much moreneeds to be (...)
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  25.  3
    Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics.Ann E. Cudd & Virginia Held - 1995 - Philosophical Review 104 (4):611.
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  26. Controversies in Feminism.James P. Sterba, Claudia Card, Jane Flax, Virginia Held, Ellen Klein, Janet Kournay, Michael Levin, Martha Nussbaum & Rosemarie Tong - 2000 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    Feminism was born in controversy and it continues to flourish in controversy. The distinguished contributors to this volume provide an array of perspectives on issues including: universal values, justice and care, a feminist philosophy of science, and the relationship of biology to social theory.
     
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  27.  34
    Military Intervention and the Ethics of Care.Virginia Held - 2008 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 46 (S1):1-20.
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  28.  6
    Global Feminist Ethics.Lynne S. Arnault, Bat-Ami Bar On, Alyssa R. Bernstein, Victoria Davion, Marilyn Fischer, Virginia Held, Peter Higgins, Sabrina Hom, Audra King, James L. Nelson, Serena Parekh, April Shaw & Joan Tronto - 2007 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    This volume is fourth in the series of annuals created under the auspices of The Association for Feminist Ethics and Social Theory . The topics covered herein_from peacekeeping and terrorism, to sex trafficking and women's paid labor, to poverty and religious fundamentalism_are vital to women and to feminist movements throughout the world.
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  29.  9
    The Ethics of Care.Virginia Held - 2006 - In Steven M. Cahn (ed.), Exploring Philosophy: An Introductory Anthology. Oxford University Press.
    In the last few decades, the ethics of care as a feminist ethic has given rise to extensive literature, and has affected moral inquiries in many areas. It offers a distinctive challenge to the dominant moral theories: Kantian moral theory, utilitarianism, and virtue ethics. This chapter outlines the distinctive features and promising possibilities of the ethics of care, and the criticisms that have been made against it. It then examines the ethics of care’s recognition of human dependency and of the (...)
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  30.  42
    Non-Contractual Society: A Feminist View.Virginia Held - 1987 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (sup1):111-137.
  31.  31
    The Ethics of Care as Normative Guidance: Comment on Gilligan.Virginia Held - 2014 - Journal of Social Philosophy 45 (1):107-115.
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  32. Feminism and Epistemology: Recent Work on the Connection Between Gender and Knowledge.Virginia Held - 1985 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (3):296-307.
  33. Justification: Legal and Political.Virginia Held - 1975 - Ethics 86 (1):1-16.
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  34.  93
    Legitimate Authority in Non-State Groups Using Violence.Virginia Held - 2005 - Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (2):175–193.
  35. Gewirth: Critical Essays on Action, Rationality, and Community.Anita Allen, Lawrence C. Becker, Deryck Beyleveld, David Cummiskey, David DeGrazia, David M. Gallagher, Alan Gewirth, Virginia Held, Barbara Koziak, Donald Regan, Jeffrey Reiman, Henry Richardson, Beth J. Singer, Michael Slote, Edward Spence & James P. Sterba - 1998 - Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
    As one of the most important ethicists to emerge since the Second World War, Alan Gewirth continues to influence philosophical debates concerning morality. In this ground-breaking book, Gewirth's neo-Kantianism, and the communitarian problems discussed, form a dialogue on the foundation of moral theory. Themes of agent-centered constraints, the formal structure of theories, and the relationship between freedom and duty are examined along with such new perspectives as feminism, the Stoics, and Sartre. Gewirth offers a picture of the philosopher's theory and (...)
     
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  36. Justice and Care.Virginia Held (ed.) - 1991
     
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  37.  47
    Morality, Care, and International Law.Virginia Held - 2011 - Ethics and Global Politics 4 (3):173-194.
    Whether we should respect international law is in dispute. In the United States, international law is dismissed by the left as merely promoting the interests of powerful states. It is attacked by the right as irrelevant and an interference with the interests and mission of the United States. And it follows from the arguments of many liberals that in the absence of world government the world is in a Hobbesian state of nature and international law inapplicable. This article reviews the (...)
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  38.  33
    The Validity of Moral Theories.Virginia Held - 1983 - Zygon 18 (2):167-181.
  39. Reason, Gender and Moral Theory.Virginia Held - 1994 - Ethics 2:686-690.
     
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  40.  2
    Care and the Extension of Markets.Virginia Held - 2002 - Hypatia 17 (2):19-33.
    Many activities formerly not in the market are being "marketized," and women's labor is increasingly in the market. I consider the grounds on which to decide what should and what should not be "in" the market. I distinguish work that is paid from work done under "market norms," and argue that market values should not have priority in education, childcare, healthcare, and many other activities. I suggest that a feminist ethics of care is more promising than Kantian ethics or utilitarianism (...)
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  41. The Media and Political Violence.Virginia Held - 1997 - The Journal of Ethics 1 (2):187-202.
    The meanings of violence, political violence, and terrorism are briefly discussed. I then consider the responsibilities of the media, especially television, with respect to political violence, including such questions as how violence should be described, and whether the media should cover terrorism. I argue that the media should contribute to decreasing political violence through better coverage of arguments for and against political dissidents'' views, and especially through more and better treatment of nonviolent means of influencing political processes. Since commercial pressures (...)
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  42. Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics.Virginia Held - 1997 - Hypatia 12 (4):200-202.
     
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  43. Feminist Morality: Transforming Culture, Society, and Politics.Virginia Held - 1996 - Hypatia 11 (1):155-167.
    Virginia Held's Feminist Morality defends the idea that it is possible to transform the "public" sphere by remaking it on the model of existing "private" relationships such as families. This paper challenges Held's optimism. It is argued that feminist moral inquiry can aid in transforming the public sphere only by showing just how much the allegedly "private" realms of families and personal relationships are shaped-and often misshapen-by public demands and concerns.
     
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  44.  32
    Reasonable Progress and Self-Respect.Virginia Held - 1973 - The Monist 57 (1):12-27.
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  45. Feminist Moral Inquiry and the Feminist Future.Virginia Held - 1995 - In Justice and Care: Essential Readings in Feminist Ethics. Westview Press. pp. 153--176.
     
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  46.  4
    David Braybrooke, Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change:Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change. [REVIEW]Virginia Held - 1999 - Ethics 110 (1):188-190.
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  47.  5
    The Political "Testing" of Moral Theories.Virginia Held - 1982 - Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7 (1):343-363.
  48.  67
    Feminist Ethical Theory.Virginia Held - 1999 - The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:41-49.
    I will treat feminist ethical theory as a distinct type of theory. Although some feminists are skeptical about the need for theory as distinct from cultivating practices of being morally perceptive and sensitive, many others argue for the theory they see as needed. Feminist ethical theory usually includes, but is not limited to, the concerns that have been developed under the heading of ‘the ethics of care’ or ‘care ethics’. Care ethics are usually contrasted with ethics of justice, such as (...)
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  49.  6
    Philosophy, Morality and International Affairs.Virginia Held, Sidney Morgenbesser & Thomas Nagel - 1976 - Philosophical Review 85 (2):241-244.
  50.  55
    Care, Empathy, and Justice: Comment on Michael Slote's Moral Sentimentalism.Virginia Held - 2011 - Analytic Philosophy 52 (4):312-318.
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