Self-enhancement is the biasing of one’s view of oneself in a positive direction. The brain correlates of self-enhancement remain unclear though it has been reported that the medial prefrontal cortex may be important for producing self-enhancing responses. Previous studies have not examined whether the neural correlates of self-enhancement depend on the particular domain in which individuals are enhancing themselves. Both moralistic and egoistic words were presented to participants while transcranial magnetic stimulation was applied to the MPFC, precuneus or in a (...) sham orientation. Participants were asked to make decisions as to the words describing themselves, some of which were positive and some of which were negative. It was found the MPFC TMS significantly disrupted egoistic self-enhancement when TMS was delivered to the MPFC. Judgments involving moralistic words were not influenced by TMS. These data provide further evidence that MPFC is involved in self-enhancement, and that the role of MPFC may be selective in this regard. (shrink)
While interest in doing business continues to rise steadily, information concerning the evolving social ethics of Chinese managers is sparse. This study reports the findings obtained from intensive interviews with thirty-nine Chinese advertising executives. In general, there appears to be developing a cautious optimism about the role of advertising in the Chinese economy. Findings are compared with earlier studies of American and Hong Kong managers and it is suggested that further research and observation is needed to track the development of (...) business ethics in this largest of the world's developing nations. (shrink)
Las nociones de dominio y derecho natural durante el siglo XVI las desarrollaron distintamente Vitoriay De la Veracruz. El tránsito se vio influenciado por Sto. Tomás de Aquino, Escoto y cierto nominalismomoderado. En el segundo, el tema de la variabilidad de las potencias racionales, fundamentalmentede la voluntad, era más fuerte que el tema vitoriano de la autoridad por encima de la deliberaciónpersonal y del preconocimiento moral. Lejos de una interpretación fijista y relativista de ley natural, esteautor siguió una vía media (...) apoyándose en el acto prudencial. El axioma que subyace en la argumentaciónes «evitar caer en la servidumbre», es decir, el dominio del obrar humano que compete a la causa intrínsecade la naturaleza racional.This article studies Francisco de Vitoria´s relectio De Indis and Alonso de la Veracruz´s SpeculumConiugiorum relectio proving important differences on either texts. Both authors disert on dominium andnatural rights, but Vitoria recognizes a more important influence of the authority and external causes onmoral acts whereas de la Veracruz gives all the importance to intrinsic principles of human decisions. Aspeargues that these differences are due to two different elements involved on Alonso´s arguments: his directcontact within american indians, while Vitoria never came to America and didn´t experienced the encounter of «the others», and, a more profound philosophical influence from Escoto and moderate nominalist Jean Charlier Gerson. (shrink)
Este texto busca poner de relieve la influencia que tuvo Aristóteles sobre pensadores del XVI novohispano. Influencia que se suma a la de Escoto, Aquino y Suárez y a partir de la cual se busca comprender la relación entre la filosofía aristotélica y el tomismo novohispano. Es decir, a partir de cierto horizonte de comprensión, estudiar el límite y alcance de principios aristotélicos en la filosofía tomista y a Aristóteles mismo como factor de comprensión del pensamiento novohispano.
The papers presented here derive from the 4th International Confe:--ence on History and Philosophy of Science held in Blacksburg, Virginia, U. S. A., November 2-6, 1982. The Conference was sponsored by the I nternational Union of History and Philosophy of Science and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Particular thanks go to L. Jonathan Cohen, Secretary of the Union, as well as to Dean Henry Bauer of the College of Arts & Sciences, Wilfred Jewkes and the Center for (...) Programs in the Humanities, Arthur Donovan and the Center for the Study of Science in Society and the Department of Philoso phy and Religion at Virginia Tech. Not only did they come through with the necessat"y funds, but they were all always ready with a helping hand when things got confusing. Two additional groups of individuals require a special note of thanks. First, considerable appreciation is due the mem bers of the Joint Commission of the I nternational Union of History and Philosophy of Science: Maurice Crosland, Risto Hilpinen and Vladimir Kirsanov. They were more than gen erous in thei r advice and co-operation. The Local Organizing Committee not only demon strated efficiency and insured a pleasant stay for' all participants, but also went out of their way on numerous occasions to make everyone feel at home. (shrink)
Se exponen las prácticas docentes de las educadoras de párvulos, que cumplen una función reproductora del nacionalismo que es internalizado en las niñas y niños como la ciudadanía chilena. Para ello, configuran un escenario lúdico que ritualiza la conducta cívica y patriótica, por medio de conmemoraciones cívicas fundadas en el belicismo de la guerra del Pacífico, sin considerar la realidad cosmopolita y de diversidad cultural presente en las aulas nortinas. A partir de esto, proponemos una nueva perspectiva respecto de la (...) realización de actos cívicos en la educación parvularia, para hacerlos más inclusivos y acordes a la realidad cultural de la región de Tarapacá, la más multicultural de Chile. This paper describes the teaching practices of pre-school teachers who play a reproductive role of nationalism internalized in children as Chilean citizenships. This happens as the result of a ludic scenario that ritualizes civic and patriotic conduct, through civic commemorations based on the Pacific war, regardless both the cosmopolitan reality and cultural diversity present in classrooms in the Northern part of Chile. Considering this, we propose a new perspective on conducting civic events in early childhood education, to make them more inclusive and consistent with the cultural reality of the region of Tarapacá, Chile's most multicultural region. (shrink)
For many deliberative theorists, the importance of a public exchange of reasons lies in its capacity to improve the quality of democratic decision making. The 1831-1832 debate over abolishing slavery in Virginia in the state’s House of Delegates raises the question of whether it can do so on its own. The bigotry of those opposing the abolition of Virginian slavery was matched only by the prejudice of those advocating for its end. This paper examines James Bohman’s sophisticated defense of (...) deliberative democracy but argues for the value of negative and disclosive experience. (shrink)
A programme to construct an extension of predicate calculus is proposed in which predicates and constants are indexed and interpreted with respect to different (mini-)vorlds reffered to by indices. From another perspective the proposed system is an extension of the idea of indexing noun phrases in syntactic representations in generative grammar. Some applications are given, bx particular, it is applied to the description of ambiguities in intensional contexts, and a comparison is made with a description recently given by Saarinen.
Tras reconocer el papel decisivo que juega en el pensamiento husserliano la intersubjetividad en su estructura trascendental, y, respecto a la Einfühlung y la Fremderfahrung, el importante papel que desempeña la Umfiktion, el presente artículo desarrolla la posibilidad experiencial y de senti-do que supone ese extraño personaje que es la Voz Narrativa heterodiegética. En concreto, la Voz Narrativa como Otro subsidiario en el caso de que los personajes duerman o hayan muerto. Esto permite pensar al Testigo como dativo de manifestación (...) en off en soporte último del continuum de la fenomenalidad. Con ello, se trata de profundizar en la tesis husserliana acerca de la inmortalidad de la subjetividad trascendental y extraer algunas conclusiones metafísicas y éticas. El artículo se basa en un texto de Muñoz Molina en el que comentaba un pasaje de Al faro, de V. Woolf.Recognizing the decisive role in Husserl's thought of the intersubjectivity in its transcendental structure, and, for the Einfühlung and Fremderfahrung, the important role of Umfiktion, this article develops the experiential possibility and the possibility of meaning that assumes the Strange character who is the heterodiegetic Narrative Voice. Specifically, the narrative voice as subsidiary Other in the event that the characters sleep or have died. This suggests the Witness as dative of manifestation in off as last stand of the continuum of phenomenality. With this, it is deepening the Husserlian thesis about the immortality of transcendental subjectivity and draw some metaphysical and ethical conclusions. The article is based on a text by Muñoz Molina that commented a passage from To the Lighthouse, by Virginia Woolf. (shrink)
Subjects enrolled in studies testing high risk interventions for incurable or progressive brain diseases may be vulnerable to deficiencies in informed consent, such as the therapeutic misconception. However, the definition and measurement of the therapeutic misconception is a subject of continuing debate. Our qualitative pilot study of persons enrolled in a phase I trial of gene transfer for Parkinson disease suggests potential avenues for both measuring and preventing the therapeutic misconception. Building on earlier literature on the topic, we developed and (...) tested an interview guide that focuses on how the subjects decided to participate, emphasizing the integration of subjects’ various statements that are relevant to assessing the therapeutic misconception, rather than evaluating them as isolated statements. The results indicate that a subject’s understanding of the purpose of research is best explored in juxtaposition to the subject’s motivation for participating. (shrink)
Background: Financial conflict of interest in clinical research is an area of active debate. While data exist on the perspectives and roles of academic institutions, investigators, industry sponsors, and scientific journals, little is known about the perspectives of potential research participants.Methods: The authors surveyed potential research participants over the internet, using the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Database. A potential research participant was defined by: self report of diagnosis by a health care professional and willingness to participate in clinical trials. Email (...) invitations were sent to 20 205 persons with coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or depression; a total of 6363 persons were screened; of these, 86% or 5478 met inclusion criteria and completed the survey. The outcome measures were respondents’ ratings on: importance of knowing conflict of interest information, whether its disclosure ought to be required, and its effect on willingness to participate—across seven widely discussed scenarios of financial conflicts of interest .Results: Majority responded that knowing conflict of interest information was “extremely” or “very” important; a larger majority felt financial conflicts of interest should be disclosed as part of informed consent . In all seven scenarios, a majority was still willing to participate but in some scenarios a sizable minority would be wary of participation. Respondents were more wary of individual than institutional conflicts of interest. Illness group and sociodemographic factors had modest effects and did not affect the main trends.Conclusions: The prevailing practice of non-disclosure of financial conflicts of interest in clinical research appears contrary to the values of potential research participants. (shrink)
Det er eit uttalt mål å gjøre grunnskulelærarutdanninga forskingsbasert. I det dominerande tankemønsteret i grunnskulelærarutdanninga er det konstruert ei motsetning mellom vitskapleg kunnskap og erfaringskunnskap. Vitskapleg kunnskap vert skildra som noko positivt, medan erfaringskunnskap får ei negativ omtale. Dette filosofiske essayet vil framskrive ei re-oppfatning av denne dikotomien. Målet med arbeidet er å redusere dikotomien mellom desse to kunnskapsformene og vise ei forståing som er meir jambyrdig, og som samlande kan bli kalla for lærarens levande kunnskap. Teorien om levande kunnskap (...) tar utgangpunkt i mennesket si heilskapande erkjenningsevne. Mennesket sin kognitive kapasitet inneheld både rasjonelle, etiske, emosjonelle og motoriske erkjenningar. Eit avgjørande aspekt med den levande kunnskapen er lærarens etiske- emosjonelle kunnskap og sensibilitet i tillegg til den logisk rasjonelle evna. (shrink)
En este artículo se pretende dilucidar el proceso formativo de una postura ideológica de izquierdaque funcionó como eje estructural para la concreción material de una representación cinematográficade la nación colombiana, en la década de los 60’s y 70’s. El Cine Político Marginal se erigió como unmovimiento de crítica política e intervención social, cuyos orígenes pueden ser interpretados comoproducto de la confluencia de fenómenos políticos y sociales, nacionales e internacionales, en función dela concreción de un proyecto de cine nacional. El desenvolvimiento (...) histórico de la perspectiva ideológicase amplía a razón de la apertura de los campos de incidencia que se otorgan a la propuesta cinematográfica,pasando de una lucha de gremio en defensa de sus derechos de creación, a una conflagración social queestima a la revolución como mecanismo para la liberación total de sí mismos y del pueblo. (shrink)
I identify three functions of language: the communicative, the objectifying, and the objective. I claim that of these three functions, the objective function is the most essential, in the sense specified in the paper, and the communicative the least. I further indicate that language use without the communicative function is more prevalent than might commonly be believed.
The purpose of this paper is to reflect on how the Corona pandemic might influence human understanding of our position of being in the world. In the first part of the paper, we present how a pandemic can be understood in relation to our society and our educational system. Then, we will present problems and questions highlighted by the pandemic and the kind of transformations needed to address these problems. The core elements that require transformation are the understanding of the (...) essence of man or the human condition, the understanding of what takes care of nature and even a pandemic, and how to measure human action and values. (shrink)
This paper offers an alternative view of spacetime different from both substantivalism and relationism. Using basic ideas underlying the fiber bundle formulation of field theories, it illustrates the function of spacetime in individuating local fields. As the system of numerical identities for entities that we can individually refer to, spacetime is an intrinsic, indispensable, and inalienable structure of the physical world with distinct entities.
The main object of this article is to contribute to a clearer use of the concept reflection. The question is whether reflection has become an overexposed and diluted medicine in educational thinking. To answer this question I will examine how reflection is understood and what direction and theoretical foundation the concept is based on. The article is a Habermas inspired interpretation of basic textbooks for teacher education. In the textbooks, reflection is presented as a good medicine for the professional teacher (...) and a continuous reflection will improve the professional practice by developing consciousness in action. In the conclusion I will present some recommendations on how to improve the understanding and use of reflection. My main goal is to provide reflection with a theoretical content and a clearer direction. Reflection is a knowledge searching, which is not based on experience and facts, but which is closely tied to philosophical thinking, critical theory and the ability to develop an overview. (shrink)