32 found
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  1.  1
    Naive Probability: A Mental Model Theory of Extensional Reasoning.Philip Johnson-Laird, Paolo Legrenzi, Vittorio Girotto, Maria Sonino Legrenzi & Jean-Paul Caverni - 1999 - Psychological Review 106 (1):62-88.
    This article outlines a theory of naive probability. According to the theory, individuals who are unfamiliar with the probability calculus can infer the probabilities of events in an extensional way: They construct mental models of what is true in the various possibilities. Each model represents an equiprobable alternative unless individuals have beliefs to the contrary, in which case some models will have higher probabilities than others. The probability of an event depends on the proportion of models in which it occurs. (...)
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  2.  77
    Beliefs and Moral Valence Affect Intentionality Attributions: The Case of Side Effects.Sandra Pellizzoni, Vittorio Girotto & Luca Surian - 2010 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (2):201-209.
    Do moral appraisals shape judgments of intentionality? A traditional view is that individuals first evaluate whether an action has been carried out intentionally. Then they use this evaluation as input for their moral judgments. Recent studies, however, have shown that individuals’ moral appraisals can also influence their intentionality attributions. They attribute intentionality to the negative side effect of a given action, but not to the positive side effect of the same action. In three experiments, we show that this asymmetry is (...)
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  3.  16
    Solving Probabilistic and Statistical Problems: A Matter of Information Structure and Question Form.Vittorio Girotto & Michel Gonzalez - 2001 - Cognition 78 (3):247-276.
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  4.  7
    Children’s Understanding of Posterior Probability.Vittorio Girotto & Michel Gonzalez - 2008 - Cognition 106 (1):325-344.
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  5.  2
    From is to Ought, and Back: How Normative Concerns Foster Progress in Reasoning Research.Vincenzo Crupi & Vittorio Girotto - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
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  6.  1
    Reasoning From Inconsistency to Consistency.P. N. Johnson-Laird, Vittorio Girotto & Paolo Legrenzi - 2004 - Psychological Review 111 (3):640-661.
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  7. The Mental Model Theory of Conditionals: A Reply to Guy Politzer.Philip N. Johnson-Laird, Ruth M. J. Byrne & Vittorio Girotto - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):75-80.
    This paper replies to Politzer’s ( 2007 ) criticisms of the mental model theory of conditionals. It argues that the theory provides a correct account of negation of conditionals, that it does not provide a truth-functional account of their meaning, though it predicts that certain interpretations of conditionals yield acceptable versions of the ‘paradoxes’ of material implication, and that it postulates three main strategies for estimating the probabilities of conditionals.
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  8.  11
    Improving the Past and the Future: A Temporal Asymmetry in Hypothetical Thinking.Donatella Ferrante, Vittorio Girotto, Marta Stragà & Clare Walsh - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (1):23.
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  9.  10
    Inept Reasoners or Pragmatic Virtuosos? Relevance and the Deontic Selection Task.Vittorio Girotto, Markus Kemmelmeier, Dan Sperber & Jean-Baptiste van der Henst - 2001 - Cognition 81 (2):B69-B76.
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  10.  12
    Combinatorics and Probability: Six- to ten-Year-Olds Reliably Predict Whether a Relation Will Occur.Michel Gonzalez & Vittorio Girotto - 2011 - Cognition 120 (3):372-379.
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  11.  2
    Children’s Quantitative Bayesian Inferences From Natural Frequencies and Number of Chances.Stefania Pighin, Vittorio Girotto & Katya Tentori - 2017 - Cognition 168:164-175.
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  12.  4
    Basic Understanding of Posterior Probability.Vittorio Girotto & Stefania Pighin - 2015 - Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  13.  37
    The Psychology of Reasoning About Preferences and Unconsequential Decisions.Jean-François Bonnefon, Vittorio Girotto & Paolo Legrenzi - 2012 - Synthese 185 (S1):27-41.
    People can reason about the preferences of other agents, and predict their behavior based on these preferences. Surprisingly, the psychology of reasoning has long neglected this fact, and focused instead on disinterested inferences, of which preferences are neither an input nor an output. This exclusive focus is untenable, though, as there is mounting evidence that reasoners take into account the preferences of others, at the expense of logic when logic and preferences point to different conclusions. This article summarizes the most (...)
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  14.  41
    Counterfactual Thoughts About Experienced, Observed, and Narrated Events.Stefania Pighin, Ruth M. J. Byrne, Donatella Ferrante, Michel Gonzalez & Vittorio Girotto - 2011 - Thinking and Reasoning 17 (2):197 - 211.
    Four studies show that observers and readers imagine different alternatives to reality. When participants read a story about a protagonist who chose the more difficult of two tasks and failed, their counterfactual thoughts focused on the easier, unchosen task. But when they observed the performance of an individual who chose and failed the more difficult task, participants' counterfactual thoughts focused on alternative ways to solve the chosen task, as did the thoughts of individuals who acted out the event. We conclude (...)
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  15.  3
    The Mental Model Theory of Conditionals: A Reply to Guy Politzer.Philip Johnson-Laird, Ruth Byrne & Vittorio Girotto - 2009 - Topoi 28 (1):75-80.
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  16.  40
    Experts and Laymen Grossly Underestimate the Benefits of Argumentation for Reasoning.Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto - 2015 - Thinking and Reasoning 21 (3):341-355.
    Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem—the Wason selection task—and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every (...)
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  17. ELIZABETH S. SPELKE (MIT) Children's Use of Geometry and Landmarks to Reorient in an Open Space, 119±148 JENNY R. SAFFRAN (University of Wisconsin±Madison) Words in a Sea of Sounds: The Output of Infant Statistical Learning, 149±169 Brief Articles. [REVIEW]Marc Pomplun, Eyal M. Reingold, Jiye Shen, Vittorio Girotto, Markus Kemmelmeier, Dan Sperber, Jean-Baptiste van der Henst, Edward Munnich, Barbara Landau & Barbara Anne Dosher - 2001 - Cognition 81 (249):249-251.
     
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  18.  4
    Young Children Do Not Succeed in Choice Tasks That Imply Evaluating Chances.Vittorio Girotto, Laura Fontanari, Michel Gonzalez, Giorgio Vallortigara & Agnès Blaye - 2016 - Cognition 152:32-39.
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  19.  9
    The Effect of Premise Order in Conditional Reasoning: A Test of the Mental Model Theory.Vittorio Girotto, Alberto Mazzocco & Alessandra Tasso - 1997 - Cognition 63 (1):1-28.
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  20.  6
    Undisputed Norms and Normal Errors in Human Thinking.Vittorio Girotto - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (5):255-256.
    This commentary questions Elqayam & Evans' (E&E's) claims that thinking tasks are doomed to have multiple normative readings and that only applied research allows normative evaluations. In fact, some tasks have just one undisputed normative reading, and not only pathological gamblers but also normal individuals sometimes need normative guidance. To conclude, normative evaluations are inevitable in the investigation of human thinking.
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  21.  21
    Is Domain-General Thinking a Domain-Specific Adaptation?Vittorio Girotto & Katya Tentori - 2008 - Mind and Society 7 (2):167-175.
    According to Kanazawa (Psychol Rev 111:512–523, 2004), general intelligence, which he considers as a synonym of abstract thinking, evolved specifically to allow our ancestors to deal with evolutionary novel problems while conferring no advantage in solving evolutionary familiar ones. We present a study whereby the results contradict Kanazawa’s hypothesis by demonstrating that performance on an evolutionary novel problem (an abstract reasoning task) predicts performance on an evolutionary familiar problem (a social reasoning task).
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  22.  14
    Contextual Factors in Deontic Reasoning.Vittorio Girotto - 1995 - Thinking and Reasoning 1 (4):333 – 339.
  23.  30
    Morals, Beliefs, and Counterfactuals.Vittorio Girotto, Luca Surian & Michael Siegal - 2010 - Brain and Behavioral Sciences 33 (4):337-338.
    We have found that moral considerations interact with belief ascription in determining intentionality judgment. We attribute this finding to a differential availability of plausible counterfactual alternatives that undo the negative side-effect of an action. We conclude that Knobe's thesis does not account for processes by which counterfactuals are generated and how these processes affect moral evaluations.
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  24.  5
    Morals, Beliefs, and Counterfactuals.Vittorio Girotto, Luca Surian & Michael Siegal - 2010 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (4):337-338.
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  25.  7
    Conditionals and Probability.Vittorio Girotto & Philip N. Johnson-Laird - 2010 - In M. Oaksford & N. Chater (eds.), Cognition and Conditionals: Probability and Logic in Human Thought. Oxford University Press. pp. 103--115.
  26.  13
    Is the Model Theory of Induction Also a Theory of Inductive Reasoning?Vittorio Girotto - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):41 – 43.
  27.  1
    Children’s Quantitative Bayesian Inferences From Natural Frequencies and Number of Chances.Stefania Pighin, Vittorio Girotto & Katya Tentori - 2017 - Cognition 168:164-175.
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  28.  4
    Can Mutualistic Morality Predict How Individuals Deal with Benefits They Did Not Deserve?Jean-François Bonnefon, Vittorio Girotto, Marco Heimann & Paolo Legrenzi - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (1):83-83.
    An individual obtains an unfair benefit and faces the dilemma of either hiding it (to avoid being excluded from future interactions) or disclosing it (to avoid being discovered as a deceiver). In line with the target article, we expect that this dilemma will be solved by a fixed individual strategy rather than a case-by-case rational calculation.
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  29.  4
    Patterns of Individual Differences and Rational Choice.Vittorio Girotto - 2000 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (5):674-675.
    I discuss an aspect of individual differences which has not been considered adequately in the target article, despite its potential role in the rationality debate. Besides having different intellectual abilities, different individuals may produce different erroneous responses to the same problem. In deductive reasoning, different response patterns contradict deterministic views of deductive inferences. In decision-making, variations in nonoptimal choice may explain successful collective actions.
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  30. Comments on Johnson-Laird By.Vittorio Girotto - 1994 - International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):41-44.
  31. L'effetto Bozzi: cambiando l'ordine degli addendi la somma cambia.Vittorio Girotto - 2003 - Rivista di Estetica 43 (24):77-79.
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  32. Epistemologia ingenua e causalità.Paolo Legrenzi, Donatella Ferrante, Vittorio Girotto & Maria Sonino - 1992 - Nuova Civiltà Delle Macchine 10 (3/4):61-67.
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