This study examines how multinational corporations’ subsidiaries manage institutional complexity when deploying their corporate social responsibility activities in Africa. Building on insights from international business studies of CSR and recent development in comparative institutionalism, we explore how distinct institutional forces combine to shape subsidiary’s CSR behaviour across five African countries. Relying on 33 interviews with managers at 26 subsidiaries operating in Angola, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, we identified patterns of variations in CSR deployment across these countries. Our findings (...) reveal that MNCs’ subsidiaries mobilize the CSR strategy of their parent firm to demonstrate their compliance with their headquarters’ expectations, but also complement this minimum level of requirement with elements that reflect the needs from the local business system. As a whole, our findings reveal the complex bricolage undertaken by subsidiary’s managers to tailor their CSR strategy in ways that meet the contradictory institutional forces they face. (shrink)
“Fueron, son, compañeras. Compañeras, las que comparten el pan. Eso significa la palabra, según su raíz latina. Este libro comparte y libera la memoria. Es la obra colectiva de muchas presas. De la última dictadura argentina. Ellas testimonian de los secretos soles que escondían aquella noche”.Estas palabras corresponden al discurso de Eduardo Galeano, en la presentación del libro Nosotras, las presas políticas, actividad realizada en la sala Jorge Luis Borges, en el año 2006, en la Feria de..
Over the past three decades, economic sociology has been revealing how culture shapes economic life even while economic facts affect social relationships. This work has transformed the field into a flourishing and increasingly influential discipline. No one has played a greater role in this development than Viviana Zelizer, one of the world's leading sociologists. Economic Lives synthesizes and extends her most important work to date, demonstrating the full breadth and range of her field-defining contributions in a single volume for (...) the first time. Economic Lives shows how shared cultural understandings and interpersonal relations shape everyday economic activities. Far from being simple responses to narrow individual incentives and preferences, economic actions emerge, persist, and are transformed by our relations to others. Distilling three decades of research, the book offers a distinctive vision of economic activity that brings out the hidden meanings and social actions behind the supposedly impersonal worlds of production, consumption, and asset transfer. Economic Lives ranges broadly from life insurance marketing, corporate ethics, household budgets, and migrant remittances to caring labor, workplace romance, baby markets, and payments for sex. These examples demonstrate an alternative approach to explaining how we manage economic activity--as well as a different way of understanding why conventional economic theory has proved incapable of predicting or responding to recent economic crises. Providing an important perspective on the recent past and possible futures of a growing field, Economic Lives promises to be widely read and discussed. (shrink)
This paper reports the framework, method and main findings of an analysis of cultural milieus in 4 European countries. The analysis is based on a questionnaire applied to a sample built through a two-step procedure of post-hoc random selection from a broader dataset based on an online survey. Responses to the questionnaire were subjected to multidimensional analysis-a combination of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and Cluster Analysis. We identified 5 symbolic universes, that correspond to basic, embodied, affect-laden, generalized worldviews. People in this (...) study see the world as either a) an ordered universe;b) a matter of interpersonal bond;c) a caring society;d) consisting of a niche of belongingness;e) a hostile place. These symbolic universes were also interpreted as semiotic capital: they reflect the capacity of a place to foster social and civic development. Moreover, the distribution of the symbolic universes, and therefore social and civic engagement, is demonstrated to be variable across the 4 countries in the analysis. Finally, we develop a retrospective reconstruction of the distribution of symbolic universes as well as the interplay between their current state and past, present and future socio-institutional scenarios. (shrink)
El presente articuLo pretende encuadrar y definir las implicaciones éticas reLativas a La aplicación biomédica de las nanotecnologías, a través de La vaLoración deL estado del arte.Las nanotecnologías, expresiÓn de La habilidad humana de manipuLar la materia a escala atómico/molecular se presentan como un instrumento capaz de modificar la investigaciÓn científica y la medicina de manera radicaL.Debates a todo nivel han subrayado las dificultades de darles una definición clara y unívoca, a causa de la convergencia de diversos ámbitos del saber (...) comprendidos en ellas.No obstante que Las nanotecnoLogías estén ya presentes en las ciencias computacionaLes y en La eLectrÓnica, es en eL ámbito médico-sanitario que se proyectan Las aplicaciones más entusiastas: instrumentos de diagnóstico y suministración de fármacos menos invasivos y más eficaces. Estas tecnoLogías se presentan al mismo tiempo como terapias pero también como instrumentos de prevención únicos, Las mismas características que hacen peculiar eL empLeo de las nano tecnologías en medicina, sugieren también precauciones: por una parte la dimensión mínima de las nanopartículasfacilita su ingreso en el organismo humano, traspasando las defensas naturales del organismo, agilizando una distribuciÓn de los fármacos altamente precisa. Por otra parte, estas mismas características pueden revelarse dañinas para el organismo humano .Dado que se trata de tecnología en rápida progresiÓn cuyos adelantos no son fáciles de predecir. los riesgos, aunque sÓlo aquellos potenciales, deben ser cuidadosamente valorados ya sea para las aplicaciones presentes como para aquellas futuras.Por tanto, encuadrar las implicaciones bioéticas de las nanotecnologías significa comprender y valorar su impacto sobre la salud humana. (shrink)
The European framework surrounding clinical trials on medicinal products for human use is going to change as demonstrated by the large debate at European institutional level. One of the major challenges is to overcome the lack of harmonisation of clinical trial procedures among countries. This aspect is gaining more and more importance, considering the increasing number of multicentre and multinational studies. In this work, the actual European rules governing the Clinical Trial Application have been analysed throughout the different steps including (...) the registration of the trial in the European database; the preparation of documents to be submitted and their contents; the preparation of documents related to the information and consent process; the submission to competent bodies. Specific issues related to paediatric research and trials involving non EU/EEA countries have been addressed as well. Results reveal that the European legislation offers a well defined set of European rules covering different aspects of a Clinical Trial Application. However, these are not suitable to meet the challenges from multicentre and multinational clinical studies. A stronger set of rules, such as is available in a composite European Regulation has been adopted and is expected to harmonise practices and enable sponsors to carry out well conducted trials. But will the new regulation overcome the existing criticisms of Directive 2001/20/EC? (shrink)
Women who are abused by their male intimate partners incur many costs, ranging in severity from fleeting physical pain to death. Previous research has linked the presence of children sired by a woman’s previous partner to increased risk of woman abuse and to increased risk of femicide. The current research extends this work by securing data from samples of 111 unabused women, 111 less severely abused women, 128 more severely abused women, and 26 victims of intimate partner femicide from the (...) Chicago Women’s Health Risk Study to document an ordinal trend in the risk of experiencing more severe forms of violence for women who have children in the household sired by a previous partner. The discussion addresses two potential explanations for this trend and highlights directions for future research. (shrink)
El libro aborda las tensiones epistemológicas de la doble racionalidad a la que se ven enfrentados los estudiantes mapuches. Quienes, por un lado, construyen el conocimiento mediante el kimeltuwün, que de acuerdo a los kimches es un proceso de aprendizaje enseñanza que se configura entre una o más personas y que cuenta con cinco principios educativos clave: kümeyawael, yamüwael, küme che geael y kim che geael. Estos principios están orientados desde la naturaleza, el medio social y espiritual. Por otro lado, (...) los estudiantes, de origen mapuche, se ven enfrentados a una educación occidental de corte eurocéntrica, con un enfoque monocultural, que comprende a la educación como un proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje, cuyo foco central es la reproducción de información. En este contexto se tensiona el aprendizaje, puesto que, la educación de la escuela no considera los saberes mapuches para la construcción de conocimiento, sin embargo la educación mapuche asume para si la educación occidental, logrando dos comprensiones: la escolar y la mapuche. (shrink)
Este trabalho discute as possíveis relações entre a histeria e os chamados distúrbios alimentares que, na atualidade, ganharam um caráter epidêmico. Os discursos dos autores sobre a anorexia e a bulimia são apresentados e organizados em categorias temáticas que abordam as definições de anorexia e bu..
Young men are more distressed by a partner’s sexual infidelity, whereas young women are more distressed by a partner’s emotional infidelity. The present research investigated (a) whether the sex difference in jealousy replicates in an older sample, and (b) whether younger people differ from older people in their selection of the more distressing infidelity scenario. We presented forced-choice dilemmas to 202 older people (mean age = 67 years) and to 234 younger people (mean age = 20 years). The sex difference (...) replicated in the older sample. In addition, older women were less likely than younger women to select a partner’s emotional infidelity as more distressing than a partner’s sexual infidelity. Discussion offers directions for future work on sex differences and age differences in jealousy. (shrink)
In order to fully understand the ethical, cultural, and political debate that moves around the papillomavirus vaccine, a bit of attention has to be paid to its history.In 2006 the first advertisements for Gardasil, the commercial name of the vaccine, started to appear in the United States. Merck pharmaceutical was the main dealer. Their “One Less” campaign was characterized by adolescent girls staring into the camera and saying, “I’m one less,” declaring their intention to be vaccinated against the human papillomavirus, (...) and to be one less victim of cervical cancer; all it would take was three injections over six months. A few months after the appearance of the advertisement, the HPV matter took another turn when Texas Governor Rick Perry decided to issue an executive order mandating vaccination of all sixth-grade girls in the state. Texas, a state with a conservative political culture and well-organized anti-vaccination movement, bypassed the legislature, overturned Perry’s order .. (shrink)
According to Revonsuo, dreams are the output of a evolved “threat simulation mechanism.” The author marshals a diverse and comprehensive array of empirical and theoretical support for this hypothesis. We propose that the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism might be more domain-specific in design than the author implies. To illustrate, we discuss the possible sex-differentiated design of the hypothesized threat simulation mechanism. [Revonsuo].
Female coital orgasm may be an adaptation for preferentially retaining the sperm of males with “good genes.” One indicator of good genes may be physical attractiveness. Accordingly, R. Thornhill, S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer (1995) found that women mated to more attractive men reported an orgasm during a greater proportion of copulations than did women mated to less attractive men. The current research replicates this finding, with several design variations. We collected self-report data from 388 women residing in the (...) United States or in Germany. Results support the hypothesis that women mated to more attractive men are more likely to report an orgasm at the most recent copulation than are women mated to less attractive men, after statistically controlling for several key variables. Discussion addresses (a) the inability of the present research to specify the causal link between female orgasm and male attractiveness and (b) the proactive nature of female sexuality documented in recent research guided by an evolutionary perspective. (shrink)
La relación entre el arte y la naturaleza fue concebida a lo largo de más de veinte siglos en los términos que Aristóteles estableció mediante el principio téchne mimeîtai phúsin, el cual tradicionalmente se tradujo como “el arte imita a la naturaleza”. Mediante el presente artículo propongo reevaluar la formulación completa del principio aristotélico con el propósito de entender que éste no solo refiere a la similitud y/o analogía entre las habilidades humanas y la naturaleza, sino también al papel complementario (...) que estas desempeñan respecto de la naturaleza. En la primera parte del trabajo, examino las distintas enunciaciones del principio atestiguadas en el corpus. En la segunda, analizo la función que la política y su principal herramienta, la educación, cumplen respecto de la naturaleza. (shrink)
Human attention is limited in its capacity and duration. In language, this is manifested in many ways, but more conspicuously in the strategies by which information is distributed in utterances, that is, their information structures. We contend that the pragmatic categories of Topic and Presupposition precisely meet the necessity to modulate attentional resources on sentence contents, and they do this by “directing” certain contents to automatic and others to controlled processing mechanisms. We discuss experimental findings suggesting that presupposed or topicalized (...) information correlates with automatic processing, and we suggest that this association grounded for the emergence of topic and presupposition units in human communication. We also put forth the processing automaticity induced by these units as the rationale behind their persuasiveness in some specific contexts of language use. (shrink)
This paper experimentally studies the relationship between happiness, attention and time perception. The experimental results challenge the prevailing results in the economic and psychological literature. A Go/no-go test reveals a clear negative correlation between happiness and attention: the subject who is happier is also more inattentive, probably because of his or her state of lightheartedness, a state of mind that seems to negatively affect performance. Furthermore, the fact that happier subjects evaluate the passage of time with different objective and subjective (...) measures opens up paths of further research in assessing a new feature of happiness. (shrink)
Analyses of between-sex differences have provided a powerful starting point for evolutionarily informed work on human sexuality. This early work set the stage for an evolutionary analysis of within-sex differences in human sexuality. A comprehensive theory of human sexual strategies must address both between-sex differences and within-sex differences in evolved psychology and manifest behavior.