Results for 'Vladimir Gelman'

999 found
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  1.  2
    Politicheskiye diffusii v usloviyakh prostranstvenno-gibridnogo rejhima: institutsional noe stroitel stvo i vybory merov v gorodakh Rossii.Vladimir Gelman & T. V. Lankina - 2007 - Polis 6:86-109.
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  2. CR Gallistel Rochel Gelman.Rochel Gelman - 2005 - In K. Holyoak & B. Morrison (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. Cambridge University Press. pp. 559.
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  3.  64
    Theories About ‘Theories’: Where is the Explanation? Comment on Waxman and Gelman.Vladimir M. Sloutsky - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):331-332.
  4.  16
    Categories and Induction in Young Children.Susan A. Gelman & Ellen M. Markman - 1986 - Cognition 23 (3):183-209.
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  5.  38
    Preverbal and Verbal Counting and Computation.C. R. Gallistel & Rochel Gelman - 1992 - Cognition 44 (1-2):43-74.
  6.  21
    Insides and Essences: Early Understandings of the Non-Obvious.Susan A. Gelman & Henry M. Wellman - 1991 - Cognition 38 (3):213-244.
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  7.  39
    Non-Verbal Numerical Cognition: From Reals to Integers.C. R. Gallistel & Rochel Gelman - 2000 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (2):59-65.
  8.  41
    First Principles Organize Attention to and Learning About Relevant Data: Number and the Animate‐Inanimate Distinction as Examples.Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):79-106.
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  9.  66
    Psychological Essentialism in Children.S. A. Gelman - 2004 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (9):404-409.
  10.  23
    The Role of Covariation Versus Mechanism Information in Causal Attribution.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles W. Kalish, Douglas L. Medin & Susan A. Gelman - 1995 - Cognition 54 (3):299-352.
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  11.  51
    Quantified Statements Are Recalled as Generics: Evidence From Preschool Children and Adults.Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman - 2012 - Cognitive Psychology 64 (186):214.
  12.  58
    Early Word-Learning Entails Reference, Not Merely Associations.Sandra R. Waxman & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (6):258-263.
  13.  78
    Generic Statements Require Little Evidence for Acceptance but Have Powerful Implications.Andrei Cimpian, Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman - 2010 - Cognitive Science 34 (8):1452-1482.
    Generic statements (e.g., “Birds lay eggs”) express generalizations about categories. In this paper, we hypothesized that there is a paradoxical asymmetry at the core of generic meaning, such that these sentences have extremely strong implications but require little evidence to be judged true. Four experiments confirmed the hypothesized asymmetry: Participants interpreted novel generics such as “Lorches have purple feathers” as referring to nearly all lorches, but they judged the same novel generics to be true given a wide range of prevalence (...)
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  14.  49
    Why Essences Are Essential in the Psychology of Concepts.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Charles Kalish, Susan A. Gelman, Douglas L. Medin, Christian Luhmann, Scott Atran, John D. Coley & Patrick Shafto - 2001 - Cognition 82 (1):59-69.
  15.  28
    Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants.Prentice Starkey, Elizabeth S. Spelke & Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognition 36 (2):97-127.
  16.  79
    Number and Language: How Are They Related?Rochel Gelman & Brian Butterworth - 2005 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (1):6-10.
  17.  91
    The Generative Basis of Natural Number Concepts.Alan M. Leslie, Rochel Gelman & C. R. Gallistel - 2008 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (6):213-218.
    Number concepts must support arithmetic inference. Using this principle, it can be argued that the integer concept of exactly ONE is a necessary part of the psychological foundations of number, as is the notion of the exact equality - that is, perfect substitutability. The inability to support reasoning involving exact equality is a shortcoming in current theories about the development of numerical reasoning. A simple innate basis for the natural number concepts can be proposed that embodies the arithmetic principle, supports (...)
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  18.  7
    Structural Constraints on Cognitive Development: Introduction to a Special Issue of Cognitive Science.Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14 (1):3-9.
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  19.  54
    Do Lions Have Manes? For Children, Generics Are About Kinds, Not Quantities.Amanda Brandone, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan Gelman - 2012 - Child Development 83:423-433.
  20.  35
    How Biological is Essentialism.Susan A. Gelman & Lawrence A. Hirschfeld - 1999 - In D. Medin & S. Atran (eds.), Folkbiology. MIT Press. pp. 403--446.
  21.  77
    Essentialist Beliefs About Bodily Transplants in the United States and India.Meredith Meyer, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Susan A. Gelman & Sarah M. Stilwell - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (1):668-710.
    Psychological essentialism is the belief that some internal, unseen essence or force determines the common outward appearances and behaviors of category members. We investigated whether reasoning about transplants of bodily elements showed evidence of essentialist thinking. Both Americans and Indians endorsed the possibility of transplants conferring donors' personality, behavior, and luck on recipients, consistent with essentialism. Respondents also endorsed essentialist effects even when denying that transplants would change a recipient's category membership (e.g., predicting that a recipient of a pig's heart (...)
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  22.  7
    Preschoolers’ Use of Spatiotemporal History, Appearance, and Proper Name in Determining Individual Identity.Grant Gutheil, Susan A. Gelman, Eileen Klein, Katherine Michos & Kara Kelaita - 2008 - Cognition 107 (1):366-380.
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  23.  20
    Children's Developing Intuitions About the Truth Conditions and Implications of Novel Generics Versus Quantified Statements.Amanda C. Brandone, Susan A. Gelman & Jenna Hedglen - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (4):711-738.
    Generic statements express generalizations about categories and present a unique semantic profile that is distinct from quantified statements. This paper reports two studies examining the development of children's intuitions about the semantics of generics and how they differ from statements quantified by all, most, and some. Results reveal that, like adults, preschoolers recognize that generics have flexible truth conditions and are capable of representing a wide range of prevalence levels; and interpret novel generics as having near-universal prevalence implications. Results further (...)
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  24.  8
    Shape and Representational Status in Children's Early Naming.Susan A. Gelman & Karen S. Ebeling - 1998 - Cognition 66 (2):B35-B47.
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  25.  47
    Memory Errors Reveal a Bias to Spontaneously Generalize to Categories.Shelbie L. Sutherland, Andrei Cimpian, Sarah-Jane Leslie & Susan A. Gelman - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (5):1021-1046.
    Much evidence suggests that, from a young age, humans are able to generalize information learned about a subset of a category to the category itself. Here, we propose that—beyond simply being able to perform such generalizations—people are biased to generalize to categories, such that they routinely make spontaneous, implicit category generalizations from information that licenses such generalizations. To demonstrate the existence of this bias, we asked participants to perform a task in which category generalizations would distract from the main goal (...)
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  26.  4
    The Role of Preschoolers’ Social Understanding in Evaluating the Informativeness of Causal Interventions.Tamar Kushnir, Henry M. Wellman & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognition 107 (3):1084-1092.
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  27.  13
    Causal Status Effect in Children's Categorization.Woo-Kyoung Ahn, Susan A. Gelman, Jennifer A. Amsterlaw, Jill Hohenstein & Charles W. Kalish - 2000 - Cognition 76 (2):B35-B43.
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  28.  64
    Artifacts and Essentialism.Susan A. Gelman - 2013 - Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):449-463.
    Psychological essentialism is an intuitive folk belief positing that certain categories have a non-obvious inner “essence” that gives rise to observable features. Although this belief most commonly characterizes natural kind categories, I argue that psychological essentialism can also be extended in important ways to artifact concepts. Specifically, concepts of individual artifacts include the non-obvious feature of object history, which is evident when making judgments regarding authenticity and ownership. Classic examples include famous works of art (e.g., the Mona Lisa is authentic (...)
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  29.  26
    Differences in Preschoolers’ and Adults’ Use of Generics About Novel Animals and Artifacts: A Window Onto a Conceptual Divide.Amanda C. Brandone & Susan A. Gelman - 2009 - Cognition 110 (1):1-22.
    Children and adults commonly produce more generic noun phrases (e.g., birds fly) about animals than artifacts. This may reflect differences in participants’ generic knowledge about specific animals/artifacts (e.g., dogs/chairs), or it may reflect a more general distinction. To test this, the current experiments asked adults and preschoolers to generate properties about novel animals and artifacts (Experiment 1: real animals/artifacts; Experiments 2 and 3: matched pairs of maximally similar, novel animals/artifacts). Data demonstrate that even without prior knowledge about these items, the (...)
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  30.  24
    A Cross-Linguistic Comparison of Generic Noun Phrases in English and Mandarin.Susan A. Gelman & Twila Tardif - 1998 - Cognition 66 (3):215-248.
    Generic noun phrases (e.g. 'bats live in caves') provide a window onto human concepts. They refer to categories as 'kinds rather than as sets of individuals. Although kind concepts are often assumed to be universal, generic expression varies considerably across languages. For example, marking of generics is less obligatory and overt in Mandarin than in English. How do universal conceptual biases interact with language-specific differences in how generics are conveyed? In three studies, we examined adults' generics in English and Mandarin (...)
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  31.  34
    Tracking the Actions and Possessions of Agents.Susan A. Gelman, Nicholaus S. Noles & Sarah Stilwell - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (4):599-614.
    We propose that there is a powerful human disposition to track the actions and possessions of agents. In two experiments, 3-year-olds and adults viewed sets of objects, learned a new fact about one of the objects in each set , and were queried about either the taught fact or an unrelated dimension immediately after a spatiotemporal transformation, and after a delay. Adults uniformly tracked object identity under all conditions, whereas children tracked identity more when taught ownership versus labeling information, and (...)
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  32.  38
    Logics with the Universal Modality and Admissible Consecutions.Rybakov Vladimir - 2007 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 17 (3):383-396.
    In this paper1 we study admissible consecutions in multi-modal logics with the universal modality. We consider extensions of multi-modal logic S4n augmented with the universal modality. Admissible consecutions form the largest class of rules, under which a logic is closed. We propose an approach based on the context effective finite model property. Theorem 7, the main result of the paper, gives sufficient conditions for decidability of admissible consecutions in our logics. This theorem also provides an explicit algorithm for recognizing such (...)
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  33.  17
    Expressing Generic Concepts with and Without a Language Model.Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan A. Gelman & Carolyn Mylander - 2005 - Cognition 96 (2):109-126.
  34.  17
    You Get What You Need: An Examination of Purpose‐Based Inheritance Reasoning in Undergraduates, Preschoolers, and Biological Experts.Elizabeth A. Ware & Susan A. Gelman - 2014 - Cognitive Science 38 (2):197-243.
    This set of seven experiments examines reasoning about the inheritance and acquisition of physical properties in preschoolers, undergraduates, and biology experts. Participants (N = 390) received adoption vignettes in which a baby animal was born to one parent but raised by a biologically unrelated parent, and they judged whether the offspring would have the same property as the birth or rearing parent. For each vignette, the animal parents had contrasting values on a physical property dimension (e.g., the birth parent had (...)
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  35. Philosophy and the Practice of Bayesian Statistics in the Social Sciences.Andrew Gelman & Cosma Rohilla Shalizi - 2012 - In Harold Kincaid (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Social Science. Oxford University Press.
  36.  16
    History and Essence in Human Cognition.Susan A. Gelman, Meredith A. Meyer & Nicholaus S. Noles - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):142 - 143.
    Bullot & Reber (B&R) provide compelling evidence that sensitivity to context, history, and design stance are crucial to theories of art appreciation. We ask how these ideas relate to broader aspects of human cognition. Further open questions concern how psychological essentialism contributes to art appreciation and how essentialism regarding created artifacts (such as art) differs from essentialism in other domains.
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  37.  16
    Preschoolers' Counting: Principles Before Skill.Rochel Gelman & Elizabeth Meck - 1983 - Cognition 13 (3):343-359.
  38. Adi-Japha, E., 1 Ahn, W.-K., B35 Amsterlaw, JA, B35 Arnold, JE, B13.R. N. Aslin, P. Barrouillet, P. Bloom, S. A. Gelman, T. JaČrvinen, P. N. Johnson-Laird, C. L. Krumhansl, J. F. Leca, M. J. Spivey & K. Sullivan - 2000 - Cognition 76:297.
     
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  39.  8
    Role of Learning in Cognitive Development.Rochel Gelman & Joan Lucariello - 2002 - In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
  40.  9
    Sample Diversity and Premise Typicality in Inductive Reasoning: Evidence for Developmental Change.Marjorie Rhodes, Daniel Brickman & Susan A. Gelman - 2008 - Cognition 108 (2):543-556.
  41. First Principles Organize Attention to Relevant Data and the Acquisition of Numerical and Causal Concepts.R. Gelman - 1990 - Cognitive Science 14:79-106.
     
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  42.  8
    Language in the Two-Year Old.Susan Goldin-Meadow, Martin E. P. Seligman & Rochel Gelman - 1976 - Cognition 4 (2):189-202.
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  43.  25
    Response to Sloutsky: Taking Development Seriously: Theories Cannot Emerge From Associations Alone.Susan A. Gelman & Sandra R. Waxman - 2009 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13 (8):332-333.
  44. Generic Noun Phrases in English and Mandarin: An Examination of Child-Directed Speech.S. A. Gelman & T. Z. Tardif - 1998 - Cognition 66:215-248.
     
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  45.  22
    The Case for Continuity.Rochel Gelman - 2011 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):127-128.
    This article defends a continuity position. Infants can abstract numerosity and young preschool children do respond appropriately to tasks that tap their ability to use a count and cardinal value and/or arithmetic principles. Active use of a nonverbal domain of arithmetic serves to enable the child to find relevant data to build knowledge about the language and use rules of numerosity and quantity.
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  46.  11
    The What and How of Counting.C. R. Gallistel & Rochel Gelman - 1990 - Cognition 34 (2):197-199.
  47.  23
    Two Insights About Naming in the Preschool Child.Susan A. Gelman - 2005 - In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York. pp. 198--215.
    This chapter examines associationist models of cognitive development, focusing on the development of naming in young children — the process by which young children learn of construct the meanings of words and concepts. It presents two early-emerging insights that children possess about the nature of naming. These insights are: essentialism: certain words map onto nonobvious, underlying causal features, and genericity: certain expressions map onto generic kinds as opposed to particular instances. The chapter discusses empirical studies with preschool children to support (...)
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  48.  6
    Different Kinds of Concepts and Different Kinds of Words: What Words Do for Human Cognition.Sandra Waxman & Susan Gelman - 2010 - In Denis Mareschal, Paul Quinn & Stephen E. G. Lea (eds.), The Making of Human Concepts. Oxford University Press. pp. 101--130.
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  49.  48
    A Computational Foundation for Cognitive Development: Comment on Griffths Et Al. And McLelland Et Al.Alison Gopnik, Henry M. Wellman, Susan A. Gelman & Andrew N. Meltzoff - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (8):342-343.
  50.  85
    Counting and Arithmetic Principles First.Rochel Gelman - 2008 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):653-654.
    The meaning and function of counting are subservient to the arithmetic principles of ordering, addition, and subtraction for positive cardinal values. Beginning language learners can take advantage of their nonverbal knowledge of counting and arithmetic principles to acquire sufficient knowledge of their initial verbal instantiations and move onto a relevant learning path to assimilate input for more advanced, abstract understandings.
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