Results for 'Voluntary codes'

999 found
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  1.  7
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct and Their Implementation in the Australian Mining and Petroleum Industries: Is There a Business Case for CSR? [REVIEW]Tapan K. Sarker - 2013 - Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (2):205-224.
    The design and development of appropriate regulatory mechanisms have attracted renewed attention in recent years. In particular, a shift towards voluntary self-regulatory mechanisms has been witnessed within many industries, such as the Australian mining and petroleum industries which have developed voluntary codes of conduct. This paper analyses the development of different regulatory forms and provides a brief comparative analysis of the two main voluntary codes of conduct used by the Australian mining and petroleum industries. In (...)
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  2.  55
    A Human Rights Approach to Developing Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations.Tom Campbell - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):255-270.
    Abstract: The criticism that voluntary codes of conduct are ineffective can be met by giving greater centrality to human rights in such codes. Provided the human rights obligations of multinational corporations are interpreted as moral obligations specifically tailored to the situation of multinational corporations, this could serve to bring powerful moral force to bear on MNCs and could provide a legitimating basis for NGO monitoring and persuasion. Approached in this way the human rights obligations of MNCs can (...)
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  3.  80
    Cross-Sector Alliance Learning and Effectiveness of Voluntary Codes of Corporate Social Responsibility.Jane E. Salk - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):211-234.
    Firms and industries increasingly subscribe to voluntary codes of conduct. These self-regulatory governance systems can be effectivein establishing a more sustainable and inclusive global economy. However, these codes can also be largely symbolic, reactive measures to quell public criticism. Cross-sector alliances (between for-profit and nonprofit actors) present a learning platform for infusing participants with greater incentives to be socially responsible. They can provide multinationals new capabilities that allow them to more closely ally social responsibility with economic performance. (...)
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  4.  4
    A Human Rights Approach to Developing Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations.Tom Campbell - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):255-269.
    The criticism that voluntary codes of conduct are ineffective can be met by giving greater centrality to human rights in such codes.Provided the human rights obligations of multinational corporations are interpreted as moral obligations specifically tailored to the situation of multinational corporations, this could serve to bring powerful moral force to bear on MNCs and could provide a legitimating basis for NGO monitoring and persuasion. Approached in this way the human rights obligations of MNCs can be taken (...)
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  5.  23
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: Coordinating Duties of Rescue and Justice.Nien-hê Hsieh - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):119-136.
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which the voluntary adoption of codes of conduct by multinational corporations (MNCs) renders MNCs accountable for the performance of actions specified in a code of conduct. In particular, the paper examines the ways in which codes of conduct coordinate the expectations of relevant parties with regard to the provision of assistance by MNCs on grounds of rescue or justice. The paper argues that this coordinative role of codes of conduct (...)
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  6.  16
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: Coordinating Duties of Rescue and Justice.Nien-hê Hsieh - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):119-135.
    This paper examines the extent to which the voluntary adoption of codes of conduct by multinational corporations rendersMNCs accountable for the performance of actions specified in a code of conduct. In particular, the paper examines the ways in which codes of conduct coordinate the expectations of relevant parties with regard to the provision of assistance by MNCs on grounds of rescue or justice. The paper argues that this coordinative role of codes of conduct renders MNCs more (...)
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  7.  8
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: Coordinating Duties of Rescue and Justice.Nien-hê Hsieh - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):119-135.
    This paper examines the extent to which the voluntary adoption of codes of conduct by multinational corporations rendersMNCs accountable for the performance of actions specified in a code of conduct. In particular, the paper examines the ways in which codes of conduct coordinate the expectations of relevant parties with regard to the provision of assistance by MNCs on grounds of rescue or justice. The paper argues that this coordinative role of codes of conduct renders MNCs more (...)
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  8.  61
    Global Business Citizenship and Voluntary Codes of Ethical Conduct.Jeanne M. Logsdon & Donna J. Wood - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):55-67.
    This article describes the theory and process of global business citizenship (GBC) and applies it in an analysis of characteristics of company codes of business conduct. GBC is distinguished from a commonly used term, “corporate citizenship,” which often denotes corporate community involvement and philanthropy. The GBC process requires (1) a set of fundamental values embedded in the corporate code of conduct and in corporate policies that reflect universal ethical standards; (2) implementation throughout the organization with thoughtful awareness of where (...)
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  9.  15
    The Adoption of Voluntary Codes of Conduct in MNCs: A Three‐Country Comparative Study.Krista Bondy, Dirk Matten & Jeremy Moon - 2004 - Business and Society Review 109 (4):449-477.
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  10.  37
    Institutional Pressures, Corporate Reputation, and Voluntary Codes of Conduct: An Examination of the Equator Principles.Christopher Wright & Alexis Rwabizambuga - 2006 - Business and Society Review 111 (1):89-117.
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  11.  12
    Performance Measurement for Voluntary Codes: An Opportunity and a Challenge.Howard Harris - 2004 - Business and Society Review 109 (4):549-566.
  12.  26
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations.S. Prakash Sethi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):1-2.
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  13.  7
    Complying with Voluntary Codes of Conduct: Corporate Strategies for the Valdez Principles.Rajib N. Sanyal & Joao S. Neves - 1991 - International Journal of Value-Based Management 4 (1):9-23.
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  14.  10
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations.S. Prakash Sethi - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):117-117.
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  15.  11
    Special Issue On: Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations.S. Prakash Sethi - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59:415.
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  16.  8
    Voluntary Codes of Conduct for Multinational Corporations: Promises and Challenges.Socially Responsible Investing & Barbara Krumsiek - 2004 - Business and Society Review 109 (4):583-593.
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  17.  38
    Are Codes of Conduct in Global Supply Chains Really Voluntary? From Soft Law Regulation of Labour Relations to Consumer Law.André Sobczak - 2006 - Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (2):167-184.
    Abstract: Labour and employment law no longer has a monopoly on regulating labour relations and is facing a crisis as its effectiveness is questioned. Codes of conduct adopted by companies to recognise their social responsibility for the global supply chain are instruments that can usefully complement labour and employment law. The aim of this paper is to analyse in depth the legal nature of codes of conduct and their impact on labour and employment law. Will the use of (...)
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  18.  28
    Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold, Inc.: An Innovative Voluntary Code of Conduct to Protect Human Rights, Create Employment Opportunities, and Economic Development of the Indigenous People. [REVIEW]S. Prakash Sethi, David B. Lowry, Emre A. Veral, H. Jack Shapiro & Olga Emelianova - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 103 (1):1-30.
    Environmental degradation and extractive industry are inextricably linked, and the industry’s adverse impact on air, water, and ground resources has been exacerbated with increased demand for raw materials and their location in some of the more environmentally fragile areas of the world. Historically, companies have managed to control calls for regulation and improved, i.e., more expensive, mining technologies by (a) their importance in economic growth and job creation or (b) through adroit use of their economic power and bargaining leverage against (...)
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  19.  2
    Voluntary Self-Regulatory Codes: What Should We Expect?Joel Lexchin - 2003 - American Journal of Bioethics 3 (3):49-50.
  20.  36
    Stakeholder Pressures as Determinants of CSR Strategic Choice: Why Do Firms Choose Symbolic Versus Substantive Self-Regulatory Codes of Conduct? [REVIEW]Luis A. Perez-Batres, Jonathan P. Doh, Van V. Miller & Michael J. Pisani - 2012 - Journal of Business Ethics 110 (2):157-172.
    To encourage corporations to contribute positively to the environment in which they operate, voluntary self-regulatory codes (SRC) have been enacted and refined over the past 15 years. Two of the most prominent are the United Nations Global Compact and the Global Reporting Initiative. In this paper, we explore the impact of different stakeholders' pressures on the selection of strategic choices to join SRCs. Our results show that corporations react differently to different sets of stakeholder pressures and that the (...)
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  21.  17
    E Pluribus Unum? Legitimacy Issues and Multi-Stakeholder Codes of Conduct.Valentina Mele & Donald H. Schepers - 2013 - Journal of Business Ethics 118 (3):561-576.
    Regulatory schema has shifted from government to governance-based systems. One particular form that has emerged at the international level is the multi-stakeholder voluntary code of conduct (MSVC). We argue that such codes are not only simply mechanisms by which various stakeholders attempt to govern the action of the corporation but also systems by which each stakeholder attempts to gain or retain some legitimacy goal. Each stakeholder is motivated by strategic legitimacy goal to join the code, and once a (...)
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  22.  7
    Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A Life-Cycle Analysis of a Company-Based Code of Conduct in the Toy Industry. [REVIEW]S. Prakash Sethi, Emre A. Veral, H. Jack Shapiro & Olga Emelianova - 2011 - Journal of Business Ethics 99 (4):483 - 517.
    Over the last 20+ years, multinational corporations (MNCs) have been confronted with accusations of abuse of market power and unfair and unethical business conduct especially as it relates to their overseas operations and supply chain management. These accusations include, among others, worker exploitation in terms of unfairly low wages, excessive work hours, and unsafe work environment; pollution and contamination of air, ground water and land resources; and, undermining the ability of natural government to protect the well-being of their citizens. MNCs (...)
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  23.  59
    Legitimacy & Canadian Farm Animal Welfare Standards Development: The Case of the National Farm Animal Care Council. [REVIEW]Andrea Bradley & Rod MacRae - 2011 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (1):19-47.
    Awareness of farm animal welfare issues is growing in Canada, as part of a larger food movement. The baseline Canadian standards for farm animal welfare—the Recommended Codes of Practice for the Care and Handling of Farm Animals—are up for revision. The success of these standards will depend in part on perceived legitimacy, which helps determine whether voluntary code systems are adopted, implemented, and accepted by target audiences. In the context of the Codes, legitimacy will also hinge on (...)
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  24.  34
    Women Workers, Industrialization, Global Supply Chains and Corporate Codes of Conduct.Marina Prieto-Carrón - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 83 (1):5-17.
    The restructured globalized economy has provided women with employment opportunities. Globalisation has also meant a shift towards self-regulation of multinationals as part of the restructuring of the world economy that increases among others things, flexible employment practices, worsening of labour conditions and lower wages for many women workers around the world. In this context, as part of the global trend emphasising Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the 1980s, one important development has been the growth of voluntary Corporate Codes (...)
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  25.  42
    Dual-Use Research Codes of Conduct: Lessons From the Life Sciences. [REVIEW]Michael J. Selgelid - 2009 - NanoEthics 3 (3):175-183.
    This paper considers multiple meanings of the expression ‘dual use’ and examines lessons to be learned from the life sciences when considering ethical and policy issues associated with the dual-use nature of nanotechnology (and converging technologies). After examining recent controversial dual-use experiments in the life sciences, it considers the potential roles and limitations of science codes of conduct for addressing concerns associated with dual-use science and technology. It concludes that, rather than being essentially associated with voluntary self-governance of (...)
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  26.  68
    United Nations Global Compact: The Promise–Performance Gap.S. Prakash Sethi & Donald H. Schepers - 2014 - Journal of Business Ethics 122 (2):1-16.
    The United Nations Global Compact (UNGC) was created in 2000 to leverage UN prestige and induce corporations to embrace 10 principles incorporating values of environmental sustainability, protection of human rights, fair treatment of workers, and elimination of bribery and corruption. We review and analyze the GC’s activities and impact in enhancing corporate social responsibility since inception. First, we propose an analytical framework which allows us to assess the qualities of the UNGC and its principles in the context of external and (...)
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  27. Globalization and Self-Regulation: The Crucial Role That Corporate Codes of Conduct Play in Global Business.S. Prakash Sethi (ed.) - 2011 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    It is imperative for the business community to act now to create global, industry-wide standards of conduct. Corporate strategy expert S. Prakash Sethi along with notable experts on issues of global codes of conduct take an in-depth look at global structures and how regulation works from a corporate perspective, providing case studies of several industries and governments who have begun implementing voluntary codes of conducts, including Equator Principles, ICMM, and The Kimberly Process._ He assesses the many types (...)
     
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  28.  4
    Migration Intermediaries and Codes of Conduct: Temporary Migrant Workers in Australian Horticulture.Malcolm Rimmer, Diane Broek, Dimitria Groutsis & Elsa Underhill - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (3):675-689.
    Over recent decades, developments in network governance have seen governments around the world cede considerable authority and responsibility to commercial migration intermediaries for recruiting and managing temporary migrant labour. Correspondingly, a by-product of network governance has been the emergence of soft employment regulation in which voluntary codes of conduct supplement hard legal employment standards. This paper explores these developments in the context of temporary migrant workers employed in Australian horticulture. First the paper analyses the growing use of temporary (...)
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  29.  2
    Migration Intermediaries and Codes of Conduct: Temporary Migrant Workers in Australian Horticulture.Elsa Underhill, Dimitria Groutsis, Diane van den Broek & Malcolm Rimmer - 2018 - Journal of Business Ethics 153 (3):675-689.
    Over recent decades, developments in network governance have seen governments around the world cede considerable authority and responsibility to commercial migration intermediaries for recruiting and managing temporary migrant labour. Correspondingly, a by-product of network governance has been the emergence of soft employment regulation in which voluntary codes of conduct supplement hard legal employment standards. This paper explores these developments in the context of temporary migrant workers employed in Australian horticulture. First the paper analyses the growing use of temporary (...)
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  30.  29
    The Codes of Ethics of S&P/MIB Italian Companies: An Investigation of Their Contents and the Main Factors That Influence Their Adoption.Ennio Lugli, Ulpiana Kocollari & Chiara Nigrisoli - 2009 - Journal of Business Ethics 84 (S1):33-45.
    This article introduces and discusses the initial results of a survey focused on the contents, role and effectiveness of company codes of ethics. The article examines the contents of the codes of ethics of companies operating in the private sector in Italy, quoted on the Italian Stock Exchange (Standard& Poor/Mib-Milano Indice Borsa). The purpose of this investigation was to identify any correlations between sector characteristics and the contents of the codes of ethics, which would enable us to (...)
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  31.  6
    Effect Anticipation and the Experience of Voluntary Action Control.Józef Bremer - 2017 - Forum Philosophicum: International Journal for Philosophy 22 (1):81-101.
    This paper discusses the issues surrounding voluntary action control in terms of two models that have emerged in empirical research into how our human conscious capabilities govern and control voluntary motor actions. A characterization of two aspects of consciousness, phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness, enables us to ask whether effect anticipations need be accessible to consciousness, or whether they can also have an effect on conscious control at an unconscious stage. A review of empirical studies points to the (...)
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  32.  13
    Formulating a Moral Core for International Codes of Conduct.Duane Windsor - 2005 - International Corporate Responsibility Series 2:47-63.
    A moral core places ethical considerations superior to business interest. This core must include voluntary prescriptions in various forms to “buy higher, sell lower.” International business ethics must somehow address the tradeoff between corporate financial and stakeholder interests. Corporation codes of conduct generally do not define a moral core. Corporate citizenship is typically strategic investment in markets and reputation. There are two practical paths for formulating a moral core. One path is civil lawsuits against multinationals that, successful or (...)
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  33. The Carrot or the Stick: Self-Regulation for Gender-Diverse Boards Via Codes of Good Governance.Heike Mensi-Klarbach, Stephan Leixnering & Michael Schiffinger - forthcoming - Journal of Business Ethics:1-17.
    Scholars have emphasized the potential of self-regulation, realized through ‘codes of good governance’, to improve gender diversity on boards. Yet, unconvinced of the effectiveness of this self-regulation, many regulators have implemented mandatory quota laws. Our study sheds light on this dilemma. Seeking to broaden our conceptual knowledge of how such ‘codes’ work in the specific case of gender diversity on boards, we ask: Under which conditions is self-regulation via voluntary principles of good governance effective? Expanding recent institutional-theory (...)
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  34.  51
    Impacts of Corporate Code of Conduct on Labor Standards: A Case Study of Reebok’s Athletic Footwear Supplier Factory in China. [REVIEW]Xiaomin Yu - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):513 - 529.
    This study examines the social impacts of labor-related corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies or corporate codes of conduct on upholding labor standards through a case study of CSR discourses and codes implementation of Reebok – a leading branded company enjoying a high-profiled image for its human rights achievement – in a large Taiwanese-invested athletic footwear factory located in South China. I find although implementation of Reebok labor-related codes has resulted in a “race to ethical and legal minimum” (...)
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  35.  92
    A Case Against Justified Non-Voluntary Active Euthanasia (the Groningen Protocol).Alan Jotkowitz, S. Glick & B. Gesundheit - 2008 - American Journal of Bioethics 8 (11):23 – 26.
    The Groningen Protocol allows active euthanasia of severely ill newborns with unbearable suffering. Defenders of the protocol insist that the protocol refers to terminally ill infants and that quality of life should not be a factor in the decision to euthanize an infant. They also argue that there should be no ethical difference between active and passive euthanasia of these infants. However, nowhere in the protocol does it refer to terminally ill infants; on the contrary, the developers of the protocol (...)
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  36.  53
    The Problems with Forbidding Science.Gary E. Marchant & Lynda L. Pope - 2009 - Science and Engineering Ethics 15 (3):375-394.
    Scientific research is subject to a number of regulations which impose incidental (time, place), rather than substantive (type of research), restrictions on scientific research and the knowledge created through such research. In recent years, however, the premise that scientific research and knowledge should be free from substantive regulation has increasingly been called into question. Some have suggested that the law should be used as a tool to substantively restrict research which is dual-use in nature or which raises moral objections. There (...)
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  37.  20
    Authorship and Publication Practices in the Social Sciences: Historical Reflections on Current Practices.Muriel J. Bebeau & Verna Monson - 2011 - Science and Engineering Ethics 17 (2):365-388.
    An historical review of authorship definitions and publication practices that are embedded in directions to authors and in the codes of ethics in the fields of psychology, sociology, and education illuminates reasonable agreement and consistency across the fields with regard to (a) originality of the work submitted, (b) data sharing, (c) human participants’ protection, and (d) conflict of interest disclosure. However, the role of the professional association in addressing violations of research or publication practices varies among these fields. Psychology (...)
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  38.  14
    Code Integration: Alignment or Conflict?Rory Sullivan - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):9-25.
    Companies are increasingly singing up to a range of corporate responsibility codes and other voluntary commitments. Using evidence from the mining industry’s experience with the Australian Greenhouse Challenge, the Minerals Council’s Code for Environmental Management and the ISO14001 Specification for Environmental Management Systems, this article examines whether the outcomes from the adoption of multiple voluntary approaches differ from those outcomes that would be expected if each voluntary approach was adopted in isolation. The article demonstrates that it (...)
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  39.  36
    Human Rights Against Land Grabbing? A Reflection on Norms, Policies, and Power.Poul Wisborg - 2013 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 26 (6):1199-1222.
    Large-scale transnational land acquisition of agricultural land in the global south by rich corporations or countries raises challenging normative questions. In this article, the author critically examines and advocates a human rights approach to these questions. Mutually reinforcing, policies, governance and practice promote equitable and secure land tenure that in turn, strengthens other human rights, such as to employment, livelihood and food. Human rights therefore provide standards for evaluating processes and outcomes of transnational land acquisitions and, thus, for determining whether (...)
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  40.  19
    Codes and Declarations.Voluntary Euthanasia - 1998 - Nursing Ethics 5 (4):205-209.
  41.  9
    Impacts of Corporate Code of Conduct on Labor Standards: A Case Study of Reebok’s Athletic Footwear Supplier Factory in China.Xiaomin Yu - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 81 (3):513-529.
    This study examines the social impacts of labor-related corporate social responsibility policies or corporate codes of conduct on upholding labor standards through a case study of CSR discourses and codes implementation of Reebok - a leading branded company enjoying a high-profiled image for its human rights achievement - in a large Taiwanese-invested athletic footwear factory located in South China. I find although implementation of Reebok labor-related codes has resulted in a "race to ethical and legal minimum" labor (...)
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  42.  25
    The Valdez Principles: Implications for Corporate Social Responsibility. [REVIEW]Rajib N. Sanyal & Joao S. Neves - 1991 - Journal of Business Ethics 10 (12):883 - 890.
    The Valdez Principles have been formulated to guide and evaluate corporate conduct towards the environment. While at first glance the code appears to impose enormous new responsibilities on firms, a closer analysis indicates that existing regulations and business practices already require businesses to meet many of the environmental goals sought by its proponents. Likely corporate response to the code is examined against this background and with reference to the experience with other voluntary codes of conduct. It would appear (...)
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  43.  5
    Opting In and Opting Out.Linda M. Sama - 2005 - Proceedings of the International Association for Business and Society 16:178-183.
    This paper examines the influences on differential behaviors of multinational enterprises (MNEs) with respect to the adoption and implementation of voluntary codes of conduct in their host country operating environments. Both external institutional and internal leadership and organizational culture factors are offered as those conditions that are expected to predict the respective ability and willingness of firms to conduct their operations in socially responsible ways. A framework for furthering research in this area is developed.
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  44. Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action.Benjamin Libet - 1985 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (4):529-66.
    Voluntary acts are preceded by electrophysiological (RPs). With spontaneous acts involving no preplanning, the main negative RP shift begins at about200 ms. Control experiments, in which a skin stimulus was timed (S), helped evaluate each subject's error in reporting the clock times for awareness of any perceived event.
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  45. The Effectiveness of Business Codes: A Critical Examination of Existing Studies and the Development of an Integrated Research Model. [REVIEW]Muel Kaptein & Mark S. Schwartz - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 77 (2):111 - 127.
    Business codes are a widely used management instrument. Research into the effectiveness of business codes has, however, produced conflicting results. The main reasons for the divergent findings are: varying definitions of key terms; deficiencies in the empirical data and methodologies used; and a lack of theory. In this paper, we propose an integrated research model and suggest directions for future research.
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  46. The Nature of the Relationship Between Corporate Codes of Ethics and Behaviour.M. Schwartz - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 32 (3):247 - 262.
    A study was conducted in order to examine the relationship between corporate codes of ethics and behaviour. Fifty-seven interviews of employees, managers, and ethics officers were conducted at four large Canadian companies. The study found that codes of ethics are a potential factor influencing the behaviour of corporate agents. Reasons are provided why codes are violated as well as complied with. A set of eight metaphors are developed which help to explain how codes of ethics influence (...)
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  47.  92
    Codes of Ethics as Signals for Ethical Behavior.Janet S. Adams, Armen Tashchian & Ted H. Shore - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 29 (3):199 - 211.
    This study investigated effects of codes of ethics on perceptions of ethical behavior. Respondents from companies with codes of ethics (n = 465) rated role set members (top management, supervisors, peers, subordinates, self) as more ethical and felt more encouraged and supported for ethical behavior than respondents from companies without codes (n = 301). Key aspects of the organizational climate, such as supportiveness for ethical behavior, freedom to act ethically, and satisfaction with the outcome of ethical problems (...)
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  48. Corporate Ethical Codes: Effective Instruments For Influencing Behavior.Betsy Stevens - 2008 - Journal of Business Ethics 78 (4):601-609.
    This paper reviews studies of corporate ethical codes published since 2000 and concludes that codes be can effective instruments for shaping ethical behavior and guiding employee decision-making. Culture and effective communication are key components to a code’s success. If codes are embedded in the culture and embraced by the leaders, they are likely to be successful. Communicating the code’s precepts in an effective way is crucial to its success. Discussion between employees and management is a key component (...)
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  49. Ethical Codes of Conduct and Organizational Context: A Study of the Relationship Between Codes of Conduct, Employee Behavior and Organizational Values. [REVIEW]Mark John Somers - 2001 - Journal of Business Ethics 30 (2):185-195.
    Codes of ethics are being increasingly adopted in organizations worldwide, yet their effects on employee perceptions and behavior have not been thoroughly addressed. This study used a sample of 613 management accountants drawn from the United States to study the relationship between corporate and professional codes of ethics and employee attitudes and behaviors. The presence of corporate codes of ethics was associated with less perceived wrongdoing in organizations, but not with an increased propensity to report observed unethical (...)
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  50. Universal Moral Values for Corporate Codes of Ethics.Mark S. Schwartz - 2005 - Journal of Business Ethics 59 (1-2):27-44.
    How can one establish if a corporate code of ethics is ethical in terms of its content? One important first step might be the establishment of core universal moral values by which corporate codes of ethics can be ethically constructed and evaluated. Following a review of normative research on corporate codes of ethics, a set of universal moral values is generated by considering three sources: (1) corporate codes of ethics; (2) global codes of ethics; and (3) (...)
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