The article describes areas of interpersonal communication in which the Virtual Reality technology plays an increasingly bigger role. The analysis of data shows that the VR system has proved successful in entertainment brand and is widely used for educational purposes. What is more brand advertising strategy can also rely on it. Access to virtual reality is still exclusive due to high price of the VR googles. However, more and more companies see a great potential of VR systems and increase funding (...) in order to develop this sector of technology. Interpersonal communication methodologies are always generation-based and thus one can suspect that the VR will became the main facility that connects people in the future. (shrink)
The goal of this article is to present a first list of ethical concerns that may arise from research and personal use of virtual reality (VR) and related technology, and to offer concrete recommendations for minimizing those risks. Many of the recommendations call for focused research initiatives. In the first part of the article, we discuss the relevant evidence from psychology that motivates our concerns. In Section “Plasticity in the Human Mind,” we cover some of the main results suggesting that (...) one’s environment can influence one’s psychological states, as well as recent work on inducing illusions of embodiment. Then, in Section “Illusions of Embodiment and Their Lasting Effect,” we go on to discuss recent evidence indicating that immersion in VR can have psychological effects that last after leaving the virtual environment. In the second part of the article, we turn to the risks and recommendations. We begin, in Section “The Research Ethics of VR,” with the research ethics of VR, covering six main topics: the limits of experimental environments, informed consent, clinical risks, dual-use, online research, and a general point about the limitations of a code of conduct for research. Then, in Section “Risks for Individuals and Society,” we turn to the risks of VR for the general public, covering four main topics: long-term immersion, neglect of the social and physical environment, risky content, and privacy. We offer concrete recommendations for each of these 10 topics, summarized in Table 1. (shrink)
In this article, we apply the literature on the ethics of choice-architecture (nudges) to the realm of virtual reality (VR) to point out ethical problems with using VR for empathy-based nudging. Specifically, we argue that VR simulations aiming to enhance empathic understanding of others via perspective-taking will almost always be unethical to develop or deploy. We argue that VR-based empathy enhancement not only faces traditional ethical concerns about nudge (autonomy, welfare, transparency), but also a variant of the semantic variance problem (...) that arises for intersectional perspective-taking. VR empathy simulations deceive and manipulate their users about their experiences. Despite their often laudable goals, such simulations confront significant ethical challenges. In light of these goals and challenges, we conclude by proposing that VR designers shift from designing simulations aimed at producing empathic perspective-taking to designing simulations aimed at generating sympathy. These simulations, we claim, can avoid the most serious ethical issues associated with VR nudges, semantic variance, and intersectionality. (shrink)
While social interaction and play in a VR environment are becoming ever more popular, little is known about how social VR games affect users. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of several contingent factors in social VR games by modeling the relationships between involvement, well-being, depression, self-esteem, and social connectedness. A conditional process-moderated mediation model of the measured variables was analyzed with 220 pieces of collected data. The result showed that: the direct effect of involvement on (...) well-being was significant, and the index of moderated mediation involving depression, self-esteem, and social connectedness was significant. We conclude that high levels of involvement in social VR games by socially isolated users with low self-esteem can negatively affect their well-being. The findings of this study contribute in several ways to our understanding of the effect of social VR games upon users and provide important practical implications. (shrink)
Virtual Reality (VR) experiences have arrived for a wide audience, and some worry that VR experience entices us to abandon experience In Real Life (IRL). While such worries cannot be dismissed out of hand, they are liable to be imprecise and distorted without careful analysis of the opportunity costs of VR experience. Generally, we are not liable to abandon real experience for its virtual analogue. Even a perfect VR experience is generally not a perfect substitute for a like experience IRL. (...) Instead, the success of VR will depend on its ability to produce experiences valued for what they actually are. (shrink)
With the development of the globalization of science and technology, innovation has become an important driving force for regional economic development. As a core element of regional innovation, financial R&D resources have also become a key element to enhance national innovation capabilities and national economic competitiveness. National and regional innovation capabilities have a direct impact. There are also many deep-seated problems behind the world-renowned achievements, such as irrational industrial structure, insufficient independent innovation capabilities, low resource utilization efficiency, and the service (...) quality and efficiency of financial institutions for the transformation of total factor productivity. These problems extremely restrict the efficiency upgrade and further development of our country’s total factor productivity. This study uses the DEA-Malmquist index model to measure the efficiency of fiscal R&D resource allocation in 28 provinces and regions in China in the past 10 years and uses Mapinfo12.0 software to analyze regional differences in the efficiency of fiscal R&D resource allocation in China from a spatial perspective. During the year, the overall R&D resource allocation efficiency of 28 provinces and autonomous regions in China has shown an upward trend. The efficiency of fiscal R&D resource allocation and the concentration of financial factors have had a positive impact on total factor productivity, transform and upgrade factors, increase total factor productivity, and provide empirical evidence for building a strong country. (shrink)
I live in Seattle, the city which last Fall was host to two major international conferences of interest to science fiction readers: The Annual International IEEE Symposium on Virtual Reality (VRAIS- 93) and The 5th ACM Conference on Hypertext (Hypertext-93). I was able to attend both conferences, and I'll use this column to provide an overview of what I learned there.
What’s presented in our normal waking perceptual visual experiences feels present to us, while what we “see” in pictures and imagine does not. What about dreams? Does what we “see” in a dream feel present? Jennifer Windt has argued for an affirmative answer, for all dreams. But the dreams which flow from the brain’s registration of myoclonic twitches present a challenge to this answer. During these dreams motion-guiding vision is shut off, and, as Mohan Matthen has argued, motion-guiding vision seems (...) to be a key mechanism underlying the feeling of presence. I propose that the feeling of presence in fact involves two components: the feeling of immersion, and the feeling of availability for action. I suggest that only the feeling of availability for action derives from motion-guiding vision, and, hence, hypothesize that body-driven dreams lack this component to the feeling of presence. Finally, the distinction between these two varieties of presence has implications for measures of presence in virtual environments, as these measures can diverge over which of the two varieties they track. (shrink)
We aim to generate a dilemma for virtual reality-based research that we motivate through an extended case study of Judith Thomson’s (1985) Bridge variant of the trolley problem. Though the problem we generate applies more broadly than the Bridge problem, we believe it makes a good exemplar of the kind of case we believe is problematic. First, we argue that simulations of these thought experiments run into a practicality horn that makes it practically impossible to produce them. These problems revolve (...) around concepts that we call “perspectival fidelity”and “context realism.” Moral dilemmas that include features present in the Bridge variant will, as a result, be practically impossible to simulate. We also argue that, should we be wrong about the practical impossibility of creating a VR simulation of Bridge, such a simulation must face an ethical horn which renders these simulations ethically impermissible to develop or use. For these reasons, we argue that it is virtually impossible to simulate the bridge problem (and other thought experiments with similar features) both practically and ethically in VR. (shrink)
A virtual reality module that incorporates a training room (for subjects to become accommodated to virtual environments) and VR translations of Philippa Foot's Trolley Problem and Judith Thomson's Violinist thought experiment. -/- These modules are free to use for classroom or research/x-phi purposes. This set of modules is optimized for the HTC Vive. If you have an Oculus Rift, please see our VR modules optimized for the rift. -/- *Requires an HTC Vive and VR capable computer. To access the simulation, (...) uncompress the .zip folder and run the executable (.exe) file. (shrink)
For VR systems, one of its core parts is to present people with a real and immersive 3D simulation environment. This paper uses real-time computer graphics technology, three-dimensional modeling technology, and binocular stereo vision technology to study the multivisual animation character objects in virtual reality technology; designs a binocular stereo vision animation system; designs and produces a three-dimensional model; and develops a virtual multivisual animation scene application. The main research content and work performed in the text include the research of (...) the basic graphics rendering pipeline process and the analysis and research of each stage of the rendering pipeline. It mainly analyzes the 3D graphics algorithm used in the three-dimensional geometric transformation of computer graphics and studies the basic texture technology, basic lighting model, and other image output processes used in the fragment processing stage. Combined with the development needs of the subject, the principles of 3D animation rendering production software and 3D graphics modeling are studied, and the solid 3D model displayed in the virtual reality scene is designed and produced. This article also reflects the application of virtual reality in multivisual animation character design from the side, so it has realistic value and application prospects. (shrink)
As the development of artificial intelligence technology, the deep-learning -based Virtual Reality technology, and DL technology are applied in human-computer interaction, and their impacts on modern film and TV works production and audience psychology are analyzed. In film and TV production, audiences have a higher demand for the verisimilitude and immersion of the works, especially in film production. Based on this, a 2D image recognition system for human body motions and a 3D recognition system for human body motions based on (...) the convolutional neural network algorithm of DL are proposed, and an analysis framework is established. The proposed systems are simulated on practical and professional datasets, respectively. The results show that the algorithm's computing performance in 2D image recognition is 7–9 times higher than that of the Open Pose method. It runs at 44.3 ms in 3D motion recognition, significantly lower than the Open Pose method's 794.5 and 138.7 ms. Although the detection accuracy has dropped by 2.4%, it is more efficient and convenient without limitations of scenarios in practical applications. The AI-based VR and DL enriches and expands the role and application of computer graphics in film and TV production using HCI technology theoretically and practically. (shrink)
The German problem dominated among the priorities of the Polish diplomacy after 1960. The stalemate was broken by the visit of the Prime Minister Józef Cyrankiewicz in Vienna in September 1965. Józef Cyrankiewicz’s visit in Austria highlighted new possibilities in Austrian-Polish relations. The old policy of Minister Adam Rapacki had been conceived in a difficult period and had no impact on the international environment. The article aims to characterises of the conditions for developing Polish-Austrian relations in the late 60s. The (...) articles poses several questions: how far policy towards Germany stimulated relations with Austria and how Polish authorities saw the possibilities of economic cooperation with Vienna and finally how they prepared for this cooperation. The difficult economic situation in Poland required resuming cooperation with the West. The meeting in Vienna developed further bilateral relations in a very positive way. The Minister Bruno Kreisky recognized in the Polish government both a partner and a neighbour to cooperate. Cyrankiewicz’s visit launched the ratification processes of many bilateral agreements which developed trade in the Eastern Europe. (shrink)
With the development and application of information technology, the digitization of information management and the virtualization of physical models have become very important technical application fields in the world. The establishment of the 3D landscape model and the realization of the 3D geographic information system are based on this, and there is not only a wide range of development prospects in many aspects such as urban planning and management, planning and design, local government construction, housing industry development, land monitoring and (...) management, and environmental monitoring and evaluation. There are not only research studies and formulations but also a practical significance in other analysis, evaluation, decision making, and other departments. In recent years, the research of 3D city modeling has been developed rapidly, and most of the existing 2D-GIS can be transformed into 3D visual landscape. Based on the three-dimensional geographic information system and desktop drawing software AutoCAD, this paper takes the two-dimensional line drawing of a residential district as the base map, expounds the design process of the three-dimensional simulation model of the urban community from the aspects of map preprocessing, building simulation model construction, texture mapping, and virtual visualization, and discusses the problems encountered in it. The main contributions of this paper are that this technology puts forward a new solution for the integrated corridor operation and maintenance management, greatly improves the intelligent management level of the integrated corridor operation and maintenance work, and simplifies the complex integrated corridor operation and maintenance management. It is helpful to improve the work efficiency of operation and maintenance, reduce the dependence of personnel, and respond to the long-term construction needs of the smart city at the same time. (shrink)
The Congress shows two tendencies: (1) A growing open-mindedness and concern for the surrounding pacific cultures and the West. (2) A Renaissance of classical studies in order to fuse genuine chinese with western ideas in a new transcultural dialogue. Occidental provincialists are invited to enter the debate.
Congress on "Modern Cultural Relations between East and West". Dezember 15-19 in Beijing, People's Republic of China. The Congress shows two tendencies: (1) A growing open-mindedness and concern for the surrounding pacific cultures and the West. (2) A Renaissance of classical studies in order to fuse genuine chinese with western ideas in a new transcultural dialogue. Occidental provincialists are invited to enter the debate.
Report on a symposium “Analytical Philosophy of Science today”, July 23–24, 1995, in Beijing. The symposium demonstrates the actual interest and familiarity of Chinese researchers with Western philosophy of science and especially with analytical philosophizing. Main topics were diagnoses of the actual state of the art, discussion and critique of some classics and classical analytical conceptions, application of analytical thinking on hermeneutical problems, and its possible social function.
The following article reviews a partial translation of the first chapter of two commentaries on Maitreyanātha’s Abhisamayālaṃkāra - the Abhisamayālaṃkāravṛtti by Ārya Vimuktisena, and the Abhisamayālakārālokā by Haribhadra. The publication of these two important commentaries in a single volume is useful in that it allows the reader to compare the similar views of the two commentators, yet explore the differences between the longer and shorter versions of Prajñāpāramitā sūtras that they explain. Sparham’s translation style is quite literal, and more technically (...) accurate than that of Edward Conze, the well-known earlier translator of numerous Prajñāpāramitā sūtras. Although increased use of subdivision headings from the Abhisamayālaṃkāra would have helped readers navigate their way through some of the longer sections, Sparham has nevertheless provided English readers with perhaps the most important contribution to Prajñāpāramitā studies since Conze’s The Large Sutra on Perfect Wisdom, published over 30 years ago. (shrink)