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Wayne Christensen [20]W. D. Christensen [9]Wayne D. Christensen [6]Wayne David Christensen [4]
William N. Christensen [4]W. Christensen [3]W. N. Christensen [2]William Christensen [1]

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  1. Applying Intelligence to the Reflexes: Embodied Skills and Habits Between Dreyfus and Descartes.John Sutton, Doris McIlwain, Wayne Christensen & Andrew Geeves - 2011 - Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology 42 (1):78-103.
    ‘There is no place in the phenomenology of fully absorbed coping’, writes Hubert Dreyfus, ‘for mindfulness. In flow, as Sartre sees, there are only attractive and repulsive forces drawing appropriate activity out of an active body’1. Among the many ways in which history animates dynamical systems at a range of distinctive timescales, the phenomena of embodied human habit, skilful movement, and absorbed coping are among the most pervasive and mundane, and the most philosophically puzzling. In this essay we examine both (...)
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  2. The Process Dynamics of Normative Function.Wayne David Christensen & Mark H. Bickhard - 2002 - The Monist 85 (1):3-28.
    Outlines the etiological theory of normative functionality. Analysis of the autonomous system; Function of systems-oriented approaches; Specifications of system identity.
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  3. Putting Pressure on Theories of Choking: Towards an Expanded Perspective on Breakdown in Skilled Performance.Doris McIlwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2015 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 14 (2):253-293.
    There is a widespread view that well-learned skills are automated, and that attention to the performance of these skills is damaging because it disrupts the automatic processes involved in their execution. This idea serves as the basis for an account of choking in high pressure situations. On this view, choking is the result of self-focused attention induced by anxiety. Recent research in sports psychology has produced a significant body of experimental evidence widely interpreted as supporting this account of choking in (...)
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  4. To Think or Not To Think: The Apparent Paradox of Expert Skill in Music Performance.Andrew Geeves, Doris J. F. McIlwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2013 - Educational Philosophy and Theory (6):1-18.
    Expert skill in music performance involves an apparent paradox. On stage, expert musicians are required accurately to retrieve information that has been encoded over hours of practice. Yet they must also remain open to the demands of the ever-changing situational contingencies with which they are faced during performance. To further explore this apparent paradox and the way in which it is negotiated by expert musicians, this article profiles theories presented by Roger Chaffin, Hubert Dreyfus and Tony and Helga Noice. For (...)
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  5.  37
    Cognition in Skilled Action: Meshed Control and the Varieties of Skill Experience.Wayne Christensen, John Sutton & Doris J. F. McIlwain - 2016 - Mind and Language 31 (1):37-66.
    We present a synthetic theory of skilled action which proposes that cognitive processes make an important contribution to almost all skilled action, contrary to influential views that many skills are performed largely automatically. Cognitive control is focused on strategic aspects of performance, and plays a greater role as difficulty increases. We offer an analysis of various forms of skill experience and show that the theory provides a better explanation for the full set of these experiences than automatic theories. We further (...)
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  6. Autonomy and the Emergence of Intelligence: Organised Interactive Construction.W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - 2000 - Communication and Cognition-Artificial Intelligence 17 (3-4):133-157.
     
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  7.  29
    An Interactivist-Constructivist Approach to Intelligence: Self-Directed Anticipative Learning.W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - 2000 - Philosophical Psychology 13 (1):5 – 45.
    This paper outlines an original interactivist-constructivist approach to modelling intelligence and learning as a dynamical embodied form of adaptiveness and explores some applications of I-C to understanding the way cognitive learning is realized in the brain. Two key ideas for conceptualizing intelligence within this framework are developed. These are: intelligence is centrally concerned with the capacity for coherent, context-sensitive, self-directed management of interaction; and the primary model for cognitive learning is anticipative skill construction. Self-directedness is a capacity for integrative process (...)
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  8. The Sense of Agency and its Role in Strategic Control for Expert Mountain Bikers.Wayne Christensen, Kath Bicknell, Doris McIlwain & John Sutton - 2015 - Psychology of Consciousness: Theory, Research, and Practice 2 (3):340-353.
    Much work on the sense of agency has focused either on abnormal cases, such as delusions of control, or on simple action tasks in the laboratory. Few studies address the nature of the sense of agency in complex natural settings, or the effect of skill on the sense of agency. Working from 2 case studies of mountain bike riding, we argue that the sense of agency in high-skill individuals incorporates awareness of multiple causal influences on action outcomes. This allows fine-grained (...)
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  9.  49
    Mindreading as Social Expertise.John Michael, Wayne Christensen & Søren Overgaard - 2014 - Synthese 191 (5):1-24.
    In recent years, a number of approaches to social cognition research have emerged that highlight the importance of embodied interaction for social cognition (Reddy, How infants know minds, 2008; Gallagher, J Conscious Stud 8:83–108, 2001; Fuchs and Jaegher, Phenom Cogn Sci 8:465–486, 2009; Hutto, in Seemans (ed.) Joint attention: new developments in psychology, philosophy of mind and social neuroscience, 2012). Proponents of such ‘interactionist’ approaches emphasize the importance of embodied responses that are engaged in online social interaction, and which, according (...)
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  10.  24
    Self-Directed Agents.Wayne David Christensen & Cliff A. Hooker - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (Supplement):19-52.
    Wayne D. Christensen and Cliff A. Hooker.
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  11.  31
    Natural Sources of Normativity.Wayne Christensen - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (1):104-112.
  12. Reflections on Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning Toward an Integrated, Multidisciplinary Approach to Moral Cognition.Wayne Christensen & John Sutton - 2012 - In Robyn Langdon & Catriona Mackenzie (eds.), Emotions, Imagination, and Moral Reasoning. Psychology Press. pp. 327-347.
    B eginning with the problem of integrating diverse disciplinary perspectives on moral cognition, we argue that the various disciplines have an interest in developing a common conceptual framework for moral cognition research. We discuss issues arising in the other chapters in this volume that might serve as focal points for future investigation and as the basis for the eventual development of such a framework. These include the role of theory in binding together diverse phenomena and the role of philosophy in (...)
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  13. Expanding Expertise: Investigating a Musician’s Experience of Music Performance.Andrew Geeves, Doris Mcllwain, John Sutton & Wayne Christensen - 2010 - ASCS09: Proceedings of the 9th Conference of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science:106-113.
    Seeking to expand on previous theories, this paper explores the AIR (Applying Intelligence to the Reflexes) approach to expert performance previously outlined by Geeves, Christensen, Sutton and McIlwain (2008). Data gathered from a semi-structured interview investigating the performance experience of Jeremy Kelshaw (JK), a professional musician, is explored. Although JK’s experience of music performance contains inherently uncertain elements, his phenomenological description of an ideal performance is tied to notions of vibe, connection and environment. The dynamic nature of music performance advocated (...)
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  14.  99
    The Organization of Knowledge: Beyond Campbell's Evolutionary Epistemology.Wayne D. Christensen & Clifford A. Hooker - 1999 - Philosophy of Science 66 (3):249.
    Donald Campbell has long advocated a naturalist epistemology based on a general selection theory, with the scope of knowledge restricted to vicarious adaptive processes. But being a vicariant is problematic because it involves an unexplained epistemic relation. We argue that this relation is to be explicated organizationally in terms of the regulation of behavior and internal state by the vicariant, but that Campbell's selectionist approach can give no satisfactory account of it because it is opaque to organization. We show how (...)
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  15.  26
    Self-Directedness, Integration and Higher Cognition.Wayne David Christensen - unknown
    In this paper, I discuss connections between self-directedness, integration and higher cognition. I present a model of self-directedness as a basis for approaching higher cognition from a situated cognition perspective. According to this model increases in sensorimotor complexity create pressure for integrative higher order control and learning processes for acquiring information about the context in which action occurs. This generates complex articulated abstractive information processing, which forms the major basis for higher cognition. I present evidence that indicates that the same (...)
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  16.  70
    A Complex Systems Theory of Teleology.Wayne Christensen - 1996 - Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):301-320.
    Part I [sections 2–4] draws out the conceptual links between modern conceptions of teleology and their Aristotelian predecessor, briefly outlines the mode of functional analysis employed to explicate teleology, and develops the notion of cybernetic organisation in order to distinguish teleonomic and teleomatic systems. Part II is concerned with arriving at a coherent notion of intentional control. Section 5 argues that intentionality is to be understood in terms of the representational properties of cybernetic systems. Following from this, section 6 argues (...)
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  17. Representation and the Meaning of Life.Wayne D. Christensen - 2004 - In Hugh Clapin (ed.), Representation in Mind. Elsevier.
    Also published in Representation in mind : new approaches to mental representation / Hugh Clapin, Phillil Staines, Peter Slezak (eds.) : ISBN 008044394X.
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  18.  21
    The Decoupled Representation Theory of the Evolution of Cognition—A Critical Assessment.Wayne Christensen - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (2):361 - 405.
    Sterelny's Thought in a Hostile World ([2003]) presents a complex, systematically structured theory of the evolution of cognition centered on a concept of decoupled representation. Taking Godfrey-Smith's ([1996]) analysis of the evolution of behavioral flexibility as a framework, the theory describes increasingly complex grades of representation beginning with simple detection and culminating with decoupled representation, said to be belief-like, and it characterizes selection forces that drive evolutionary transformations in these forms of representation. Sterelny's ultimate explanatory target is the evolution of (...)
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  19.  37
    Critical Review of Chaffin, Imreh, and Crawford, Practicing Perfection: Memory and Piano Performance.Andrew Geeves, Wayne Christensen, John Sutton & Doris McIlwain - 2008 - Empirical Musicology Review 3 (3):163-172.
    How do concert pianists commit to memory the structure of a piece of music like Bach’s Italian Concerto, learning it well enough to remember it in the highly charged setting of a crowded performance venue, yet remaining open to the freshness of expression of the moment? Playing to this audience, in this state, now, requires openness to specificity, to interpretation, a working dynamicism that mere rote learning will not provide. Chaffin, Imreh and Crawford’s innovative and detailed research suggests that the (...)
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  20.  6
    Natural Sources of Normativity.Wayne Christensen - 2012 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 43 (1):104-112.
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  21. M IIIII I.Wayne Christensen - 2007 - In Don Ross, David Spurrett, Harold Kincaid & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.), Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. MIT Press. pp. 255.
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  22.  48
    Color Categories in Biological Evolution: Broadening the Palette.Wayne D. Christensen & Luca Tommasi - 2005 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (4):492-493.
    The general structure of Steels & Belpaeme's (S&B's) central premise is appealing. Theoretical stances that focus on one type of mechanism miss the fact that multiple mechanisms acting in concert can provide convergent constraints for a more robust capacity than any individual mechanism might achieve acting in isolation. However, highlighting the significance of complex constraint interactions raises the possibility that some of the relevant constraints may have been left out of S&B's own models. Although abstract modeling can help clarify issues, (...)
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  23.  72
    Self-Directedness: A Process Approach to Cognition. [REVIEW]Wayne D. Christensen - 2004 - Axiomathes 14 (1-3):157-175.
    Standard approaches to cognition emphasise structures (representations and rules) much more than processes, in part because this appears to be necessary to capture the normative features of cognition. However the resultant models are in?exible and face the problem of computational intractability. I argue that the ability of real world cognition to cope with complexity results from deep and subtle coupling between cognitive and non-cognitive processes. In order to capture this, theories of cognition must shift from a structural rule-de?ned conception of (...)
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  24.  41
    Ian Apperly, Mindreaders: The Cognitive Basis of Theory of Mind. [REVIEW]Wayne Christensen & John Michael - 2013 - Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 12 (4):907-914.
  25.  69
    Neuroscience in Context: The New Flagship of the Cognitive Sciences.Wayne D. Christensen & Luca Tomassi - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (1):78-83.
    © 2006 Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research.
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  26. Cognition as High-Order Control.Wayne Christensen - manuscript
    In order to investigate cognition fundamental assumptions must be made about what, in general terms, it is. In cognitive science it is usually assumed that cognition is computational and representational. There have been well known disputes over these assumptions, with rival claims that cognition is dynamical, situated and embodied. In this paper I emphasize the relations between cognition and control. I present a model of cognition that makes the claim that it is a form of high-order control, and I argue (...)
     
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  27.  18
    12 The Evolutionary Origins of Volition.Wayne Christensen - 2007 - In Don Ross, David Spurrett, Harold Kincaid & G. Lynn Stephens (eds.), Distributed Cognition and the Will: Individual Volition and Social Context. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 255.
  28.  42
    Critical Review of 'Practicing Perfection: Memory & Piano Performance'.Wayne Christensen, Doris McIlwain, John Sutton & Andrew Geeves - 2008 - Empirical Musicology Review 3 (3).
    How do concert pianists commit to memory the structure of a piece of music like Bach’s Italian Concerto, learning it well enough to remember it in the highly charged setting of a crowded performance venue, yet remaining open to the freshness of expression of the moment? Playing to this audience, in this state, now, requires openness to specificity, to interpretation, a working dynamicism that mere rote learning will not provide. Chaffin, Imreh and Crawford’s innovative and detailed research suggests that the (...)
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  29.  2
    Review: Churchland Symposium. [REVIEW]W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (4):871 - 878.
  30.  14
    Two Sides to a Theist's Coin.William N. Christensen & John King-Farlow - 1970 - Philosophical Studies 19:172-180.
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  31.  31
    Towards a New Science of the Mind: Wide Content and the Metaphysics of Organizational Properties in Nonlinear Dynamic Models.Cliff A. Hooker & Wayne D. Christensen - 1998 - Mind and Language 13 (1):98-109.
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  32.  15
    Sartre's Interpretation of Consciousness as Spontaneous.William Christensen - 1972 - Philosophical Studies 21:172-185.
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  33.  7
    Neuroscience in Context: The New Flagship of the Cognitive Sciences.Wayne David Christensen & Luca Tommasi - 2006 - Biological Theory 1 (1):78-83.
    Cognitive neuroscience has come to be viewed as the flagship of the cognitive sciences and is transforming our understanding of the nature of mind. In this paper we survey several research fields in cognitive neuroscience and note that they are making rapid progress on fundamental issues. Lateralization research is developing a comparative framework for evolutionary analysis, and is identifying individual- and population-level factors that favor brain asymmetries. Neuroeconomics is creating a research framework for studying valuation mechanisms in the brain that (...)
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  34.  4
    Faith: And Faith in Hypotheses.John King-Farlow & William N. Christensen - 1971 - Religious Studies 7 (2):113 - 124.
    Debate continues to rage among philosophers of religion over Anthony Flew's famous little paper ‘Theology and Falsification’ and the responses it provoked, most notably R. M. Hare's response that religious claims are in no way like scientific hypotheses. For now, twenty years later, we still find many theists taking a similar tack to Hare's. A particularly interesting example is J. F. Miller in Religious Studies, 1969, who replies to Flew that propositions like ‘God loves mankind’ cannot be subject to falsifiability (...)
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  35.  2
    Flexible Goal Attribution in Early Mindreading.John Michael & Wayne Christensen - 2016 - Psychological Review 123 (2):219-227.
  36.  8
    Churchland Symposium. [REVIEW]W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - 1998 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (4):871-878.
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  37.  9
    Oughts in Pure and Practical Reason (Some Metaphilosophical Morals).John King-Farlow & William Niels Christensen - 1980 - Metaphilosophy 11 (3-4):252-255.
  38.  2
    Self-Directed Agents.W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - 2001 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 31 (sup1):18-52.
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  39.  2
    Gambling on Other Minds-Human and Divine.William N. Christensen & John King-Farlow - 1971 - Sophia 10 (April):1-6.
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  40. ASC09.W. Christensen, E. Schier & J. Sutton (eds.) - 2009 - Macquarie Center for Cognitive Science.
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  41. Adaptiveness and Adaptation: There's More Than Selection.W. D. Christensen, John Collier & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy. Submitted.
  42. Adaptiveness and Adaptation: A New Autonomy-Theoretic Analysis and Critique.W. D. Christensen, J. D. Collier & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Biology and Philosophy.
     
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  43. Aquinas and the Justification of War: "Establishmentarian Misconstructions".W. N. Christensen - 1971 - The Thomist 35 (1):94.
     
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  44. A General Interactivist-Constructivist Model of Intentionality.W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Contemporary Naturalist Theories of Evolution and Intentionality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Special Supplementary Volume.
     
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  45. Francis H. Parker, "Reason and Faith Revisited: The Aquinas Lecture, 1971". [REVIEW]W. N. Christensen - 1972 - The Thomist 36 (1):163.
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  46. Review of KM Ford, C. Glymour & PJ Hayes (Eds) Android Epistemology. [REVIEW]W. Christensen - 1997 - Philosophical Psychology 10:130-132.
  47. The Interactivist-Constructivist Approach to Evolution and Intentionality.W. D. Christensen & C. A. Hooker - forthcoming - Contemporary Naturalist Theories of Evolution and Intentionality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
     
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  48. Two Sides to a Theist’s Coin.William N. Christensen & John King-Farlow - 1970 - Philosophical Studies 19:172-180.
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  49. Marc De Mey, The Cognitive Paradigm: An Integrated Understanding of Scientific Development.W. Herfel & W. Christensen - 2000 - Minds and Machines 10 (1):161-165.
     
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