The introduction of Greek philosophy into the Muslim world left an indelible mark on Islamic intellectual history. Philosophical discourse became a constant element in even traditionalist Islamic sciences. However, Aristotelian metaphysics gave rise to doctrines about God and the universe that were found highly objectionable by a number of Muslim theologians, among whom the fourteenth-century scholar Ibn Taymiyya stood foremost. Ibn Taymiyya, one of the greatest and most prolific thinkers in medieval Islam, held Greek logic responsible for the `heretical' metaphysical (...) conclusions reached by Islamic philosophers, theologians, mystics, and others. He therefore set out to refute philosophical logic, a task which culminated in one of the most devastating attacks ever levelled against the logical system upheld by the early Greeks, the later commentators, and their Muslim followers. His argument is grounded in an empirical approach that in many respects prefigures the philosophies of the British empiricists. Professor Hallaq's translation, with a substantial introduction and extensive notes, makes this important work available to a wider audience for the first time. (shrink)
The comprehension of living organisms in all their complexity poses a major challenge to the biological sciences. Recently, systems biology has been proposed as a new candidate in the development of such a comprehension. The main objective of this paper is to address what systems biology is and how it is practised. To this end, the basic tools of a systems biological approach are explored and illustrated. In addition, it is questioned whether systems biology ‘revolutionizes’ molecular biology and ‘transcends’ its (...) assumed reductionism. The strength of this claim appears to depend on how molecular and systems biology are characterised and on how reductionism is interpreted. Doing credit to molecular biology and to methodological reductionism, it is argued that the distinction between molecular and systems biology is gradual rather than sharp. As such, the classical challenge in biology to manage, interpret and integrate biological data into functional wholes is further intensified by systems biology’s use of modelling and bioinformatics, and by its scale enlargement. (shrink)
Viewing the brain as an organ of approximate Bayesian inference can help us understand how it represents the self. We suggest that inferred representations of the self have a normative function: to predict and optimise the likely outcomes of social interactions. Technically, we cast this predict-and-optimise as maximising the chance of favourable outcomes through active inference. Here the utility of outcomes can be conceptualised as prior beliefs about final states. Actions based on interpersonal representations can therefore be understood as minimising (...) surprise – under the prior belief that one will end up in states with high utility. Interpersonal representations thus serve to render interactions more predictable, while the affective valence of interpersonal inference renders self-perception evaluative. Distortions of self-representation contribute to major psychiatric disorders such as depression, personality disorder and paranoia. The approach we review may therefore operationalise the study of interpersonal representations in pathological states. (shrink)
In light of the development of “CRISPR” technology, new promising advances in therapeutic and preventive approaches have become a reality. However, with it came many ethical challenges. The most recent worldwide condemnation of the first use of CRISPR to genetically modify a human embryo is the latest example of ethically questionable use of this new and emerging field. Monotheistic religions are very conservative about such changes to the human genome and can be considered an interference with God’s creation. Moreover, these (...) changes could cause perpetual changes to future generations. The Muslim scholars establish their decisions by addressing five foundations of Islamic law i.e. “maqāṣid al sharı̄`a”; the purposes of the law. These are dın̄, nafs, nasl, `aql and māl. To achieve this, the five principles should all be met before approval of an experiment like the Chinese embryo modifications; Qaṣd which is achieved in this case as it aims to protect the embryo from HIV. Yaqın̄ and Ḍarar were not satisfied as they require strong scientific certainty of the procedures, and evidence of safety. Ḍarūra by which the alternatives being compared; in this case more established and proven safe alternatives to protect the HIV transmission from the father are available, so this principle is not met. The final principle is `Urf, by which the social context of using any contemporary technology should be taken in consideration, and clearly this was not achieved. Collectively, germline changes are rejected from an Islamic perspective until the five principles are fulfilled. In the Chinese Twins gene editing case, there was clearly no justification or support for it according to the Muslim Jurisprudence laws. These laws and approaches can serve as an ethical checklist for such controversial research, especially in early stages of the research. (shrink)
Neuroscience is advancing at a rapid pace, with new technologies and approaches that are creating ethical challenges not easily addressed by current ethical frameworks and guidelines. One fascinating technology is neuroimaging, especially functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Although still in its infancy, fMRI is breaking new ground in neuroscience, potentially offering increased understanding of brain function. Different populations and faith traditions will likely have different reactions to these new technologies and the ethical challenges they bring with them. Muslims are approximately (...) one-fifth of world population and they have a specific and highly regulated ethical and moral code, which helps them deal with scientific advances and decision making processes in an Islamically ethical manner. From this ethical perspective, in light of the relevant tenets of Islam, neuroimaging poses various challenges. The privacy of spirituality and the thought process, the requirement to put community interest before individual interest, and emphasis on conscious confession in legal situations are Islamic concepts that can pose a challenge for the use of something intrusive such as an fMRI. Muslim moral concepts such as There shall be no harm inflicted or reciprocated in Islam and Necessities overrule prohibitions are some of the criteria that might appropriately be used to guide advancing neuroscience. Neuroscientists should be particularly prudent and well prepared in implementing neuroscience advances that are breaking new scientific and ethical ground. Neuroscientists should also be prepared to assist in setting the ethical frameworks in place in advance of what might be perceived as runaway applications of technology. (shrink)
El estudio de dos formularios notariales del siglo vii/xiii, uno sirio y el otro andalusí, muestra que el discurso sobre las modalidades de comunicación escrita preceptuadas para los jueces refleja una estrecha relación entre la doctrina y la realidad de la práctica legal. Uno de los aspectos de esta relación es el cambio que tuvo que experimentar la doctrina discursiva bajo la presión de las prácticas judiciales cotidianas.
In agile software processes, the issue of team size is an important one. In this work we look at how to find the optimal, or near optimal, self-organizing team size using a genetic algorithm which considers team communication efforts. Communication, authority, roles, and learning are the team’s performance characteristics. The GA has been developed according to performance characteristics. A survey was used to evaluate the communication weight factors, which were qualitatively assessed and used in the algorithm’s objective function. The GA (...) experiments were performed in different stages: each stage results were tested and compared with the previous results. The results show that self-organizing teams of sizes ranged from five to nine members scored more. The model can be improved by adding other team characteristics, i.e. software development efforts and costs. (shrink)
Via a historical reconstruction, this paper primarily demonstrates how the societal debate on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) gradually extended in terms of actors involved and concerns reflected. It is argued that the implementation of recombinant DNA technology out of the laboratory and into civil society entailed a “complex of concerns.” In this complex, distinctions between environmental, agricultural, socio-economic, and ethical issues proved to be blurred. This fueled the confusion between the wider debate on genetic modification and the risk assessment of (...) transgenic crops in the European Union. In this paper, the lasting skeptical and/or ambivalent attitude of Europeans towards agro-food biotechnology is interpreted as signaling an ongoing social request – and even a quest – for an evaluation of biotechnology with Sense and Sensibility. In this (re)quest, a broader-than-scientific dimension is sought for that allows addressing the GMO debate in a more “sensible” way, whilst making “sense” of the different stances taken in it. Here, the restyling of the European regulatory frame on transgenic agro-food products and of science communication models are discussed and taken to be indicative of the (re)quest to move from a merely scientific evaluation and risk-based policy towards a socially more robust evaluation that takes the “non-scientific” concerns at stake in the GMO debate seriously. (shrink)
A preoccupation with the subject of freedom became a core issue in the construction of all modern political ideologies. Here, Wael Abu-'Uksa examines the development of the concept of freedom in nineteenth-century Arab political thought, its ideological offshoots, their modes, and their substance as they developed the dynamics of the Arabic language. Abu-'Uksa traces the transition of the idea of freedom from a term used in a predominantly non-political way, through to its popularity and near ubiquity at the dawn (...) of the twentieth century. Through this, he also analyzes the importance of associated concepts such as liberalism, socialism, progress, rationalism, secularism, and citizenship. He employs a close analysis of the development of the language, whilst at the same time examining the wider historical context within which these semantic shifts occurred: the rise of nationalism, the power of the Ottoman court, and the state of relations with Europe. (shrink)
This paper analyses the actual meaning of a transcendental philosophy of biology, and does so by exploring and actualising the epistemological and metaphysical value of Kant's viewpoint on living systems. It finds inspiration in the Kantian idea of living systems intrinsically resisting objectification, but critically departs from Kant's philosophical solution in as far as it is based in a subjectivist dogmatism. It attempts to overcome this dogmatism, on the one hand by explicitly taking into account the conditions of possibility at (...) the side of the subject, and on the other hand by embedding both the living and the knowing system into an ontology of complexly organized dynamical systems. This paper fits into the transcendental perspective in acknowledging the need to analyse the conditions of knowability, prior to the contents of what is known. But it also contributes to an expansion and an actualisation of the issue of transcendentality itself by considering the conditions of possibility at the side of the object as intrinsically linked to the conditions of possibility at the side of the subject. (shrink)
En el presente artículo se propone crear un margen conceptual para la construcción de una criminología fenomenológica que aborde el conocimiento de cómo se interpretan las conductas de las personas a través de las percepciones de otros, enfocado a la constitución de la conducta criminal, delincuencial, violenta o antisocial, que, siendo estos provenientes de la naturaleza de variadas ciencias, provoca tener horizontes amplios en el entendimiento que en la misma esencia lo vuelven complejo, la criminología actual, tiene en sí, varios (...) objetos de estudio que ha tomado de aquellas ciencias que tienen en su qué hacer lo relacionado con el crimen, de tal modo, desde el derecho, se estudia el delito y sus elementos, desde la psiquiatría y psicología, la conducta antisocial y su desarrollo, de la sociología, la conducta desviada patológica y su formación, el trabajo social, aporta otras interpretaciones, lo mismo, cuando corresponde a la antropología de la violencia, su historia, percepciones, cambios culturales, entre muchas otras. En ello radica la complejidad en la armonización de objetos de estudio que encuentran reunión en la criminología en una integración interdisciplinaria, pero esta se agota ante la abrumante realidad criminal que afecta a la aldea global, donde poco tiempo permite a la reflexión, necesitando con urgencia la intervención. El caso abordado aquí, es dar esa aproximación a una criminología fenomenológica, que pasará previo a su desarrollo, por el proceso de especialización de la criminología, soltando por momentos el paradigma clásico, para avanzar al futuro en la sistematización de teorías de otras ciencias, para generar un banco de conocimientos, que permitirán a posteriori, desarrollar sus propias concepciones e interpretaciones. No hay algo malo en la especialización, es parte de la evolución y maduración. (shrink)
Low heart rate causes a risk of death, heart disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, monitoring the heart rate is critical because of the heart’s function to discover its irregularity to detect the health problems early. Rapid technological advancement allows healthcare sectors to consolidate and analyze massive health-based data to discover risks by making more accurate predictions. Therefore, this work proposes a real-time prediction system for heart rate, which helps the medical care providers and patients avoid heart rate risk in real (...) time. The proposed system consists of two phases, namely, an offline phase and an online phase. The offline phase targets developing the model using different forecasting techniques to find the lowest root mean square error. The heart rate time-series dataset is extracted from Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care. Recurrent neural network, long short-term memory, gated recurrent units, and bidirectional long short-term memory are applied to heart rate time series. For the online phase, Apache Kafka and Apache Spark have been used to predict the heart rate in advance based on the best developed model. According to the experimental results, the GRU with three layers has recorded the best performance. Consequently, GRU with three layers has been used to predict heart rate 5 minutes in advance. (shrink)
To design and develop AI-based cybersecurity systems ), users can justifiably trust, one needs to evaluate the impact of trust using machine learning and deep learning technologies. To guide the design and implementation of trusted AI-based systems in IDS, this paper provides a comparison among machine learning and deep learning models to investigate the trust impact based on the accuracy of the trusted AI-based systems regarding the malicious data in IDs. The four machine learning techniques are decision tree, K nearest (...) neighbour, random forest, and naïve Bayes. The four deep learning techniques are LSTM and GRU. Two datasets are used to classify the IDS attack type, including wireless sensor network detection system and KDD Cup network intrusion dataset. A detailed comparison of the eight techniques’ performance using all features and selected features is made by measuring the accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-score. Considering the findings related to the data, methodology, and expert accountability, interpretability for AI-based solutions also becomes demanded to enhance trust in the IDS. (shrink)
Presumed catholic or christian influence inside the french speaking green party of Belgium is a very strong stereotype since 1981. Nevertheless no scientific work has ever proved that supposition. Starting from a large survey among the 2 500 Ecolo's members, the authors examine and analyze the inventory of fixtures. They present the main features of the members and distinguish the outlines of catholic and non-catholic's members.
In this paper, the concept of microstructural slip is introduced in the flow of micropolar fluids pertinent to model various physical situations. The flow is modeled by a set of PDEs which are transformed to a nonlinear system of ODEs by employing boundary layer transformations. The system of governing equations is implemented using MATLAB bvp4c function along with the initial-boundary conditions. The code is validated by comparing the computed results in the limiting case with the available literature. Influence of microstructural (...) slip on the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number along with hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer profiles is studied and discussed. It is found that, in the presence of microstructural slip, the microrotational velocity boundary layer thickness decreases up to a maximum of 37.5% in its value, in comparison to the case where there is no microstructural slip effect. The results predict that, in the presence of first-order translational slip, the microrotations have shown counterrotational phenomena in comparison to the case where there is no translational slip effect. Moreover, second-order translational slip results in declining the microrotational velocity and associated layer thickness. (shrink)
In this article, a behavioral study of three-dimensional squeezing flow of nanofluids with magnetic effect in a rotating channel has been performed. Using Navier–Stokes equations along with suitable similarity transformations, a nonlinear coupled ordinary differential system has been derived which models the 3D squeezing flow of nanofluids with lower permeable stretching porous wall where the channel is also rotating. The base fluid in the channel is considered to be water that contains different nanoparticles including silicon, copper, silver, gold, and platinum. (...) The homotopy perturbation method is employed for the solution of highly nonlinear coupled system. For validation purpose, system of equations is also solved through the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg scheme and results are compared with homotopy solutions, and excellent agreement has been found between analytical and numerical results. Also, validation has been performed by finding average residual error of the coupled system. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters such as nanoparticle volume fraction, suction parameter, characteristic parameter of the flow, magnetic parameter, rotation parameter, and different types of nanoparticles are studied graphically. (shrink)