Sob o patrocínio da CAPES, PROPP da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia-MG/ UFU, FAPEMIG, FAPESP e Fundação Fausto Castilho, esforços conjuntos da UFU, da Academia Polonesa de Ciências, da Universidade do Salento e da Universidade de Nápoles possibilitaram a realização, no final de 2017, da I Bienal Internacional de Filosofia de Uberlândia. Além da XX Semana de Filosofia da UFU, organizada em torno do tema A propósito da humanidade, cinco eventos compuseram a nossa primeira Bienal: o III Congresso Internacional “Vico” – (...) A língua de/em Vico; o III Colóquio Nacional “Kant” – As faculdades do ânimo: intuição e objetividade; o I Simpósio Internacional “Aristóteles” – Lógica e epistemologia; a I Jornada Nacional sobre escritores da Roma Antiga – Sêneca e, por fim, o III Seminário Internacional “Descartes” – A ideia de homem em Descartes. Por tal envergadura, esta Bienal reuniu muitos pesquisadores brasileiros e estrangeiros dos mais diversos campos da Filosofia e das Humanidades. O material que ora publicamos consiste em boa parte em textos das conferências do Seminário “Descartes”, posteriormente aperfeiçoados e desenvolvidos tanto em virtude dos debates iniciados na própria Bienal, quanto da interlocução e colaboração intelectual fomentadas a partir dela. [...] Apoio e financiamento: CAPES, FAPEMIG, PROPP/UFU, FAPESP, Fundação Fausto Castilho, Academia Polonesa de Ciências, Universidade do Salento e Universidade de Nápoles. (shrink)
Procuramos, neste texto, pensar o significado da rejeição da tradicional definição de homem efetuada por Descartes, quando tenta entender o que somos. Essa rejeição é resultado de um novo método de filosofar, que poderíamos designar como via das ideias – aquela que parte das forças do próprio espírito para examinar tudo o que ocorre nele e em qualquer outra coisa, evitando usar de pressuposições. A fim de marcar essa diferença de perspectiva e a reiterada disposição do filósofo francês em elaborá-la, (...) apontamos a limitação da noção de conceito – seja aquela da tradição aristotélica-escolástica, seja a pós-cartesiana, fortemente marcada pela representação científica – para dar conta da problemática do fenômeno humano. Nesse sentido, insistimos na riqueza e amplitude da noção de ideia – elaborada e reelaborada ao longo dos anos pelo filósofo – para enfrentar esse complexo fenômeno. Uma vez que o homem não é uma substância, a manifestação dos seus aspectos é sempre adjetiva, podendo qualificá-lo sem, contudo, propiciar a sua compreensão. Essa dificuldade de apreensão exige, portanto, que o estudo da ideia de homem explore até o limite a própria racionalidade humana Palavras-chave: Descartes. homem. ideia. conceito. definição. Considerations on the impossibility of defining man based on Descartes: The aim of this text is to reflect on the meaning of the rejection of the traditional definition of man performed by Descartes when he attempts to understand what we are. This rejection is the result of a new method of philosophizing, which we may designate as the way of ideas—that which emerges from the forces of one’s own spirit to examine all that occurs within it and in any other thing, avoiding the use of presuppositions. To highlight this difference of perspective and the reiterated willingness of this French philosopher in elaborating it, we indicate the limitation of the notion of concept—whether that of the Aristotelian-Scholastic tradition or the post-Cartesian tradition, strongly characterized by scientific representation—to deal with the problematic of the phenomenon of the human. In this respect, we stress the richness and amplitude of the notion of idea, elaborated and re-elaborated over years by this philosopher, to address this complex phenomenon. Since man is not a substance, the manifestation of his aspects is always adjectival, allowing qualification without, however, providing comprehension. This difficulty of perception therefore requires that the study of the idea of man explore human rationality itself to the greatest extent. Keywords: Descartes, man, idea, concept, definition Considérations sur l'impossibilité de définir l'homme à partir de Descartes Resumé: On se propose, dans ce texte, de réfléchir sur le sens du rejet de la définition traditionnelle de l'homme faite par Descartes, lorsqu'il tente de comprendre ce que nous sommes. Ce rejet est le résultat d'une nouvelle méthode de philosopher, que nous pourrions désigner comme la voie des idées - celle qui part des forces de l'esprit lui-même pour examiner tout ce qui se passe en lui et en toute autre chose, en évitant d'utiliser des présupposés. Pour marquer cette différence de perspective et la disposition réitérée du philosophe français dans son élaboration, nous soulignons la limitation de la notion de concept - soit celle de la tradition aristotélicienne-scolastique, soit celle post-cartésienne, fortement marquée par la représentation scientifique - pour rendre compte de la problématique du phénomène humain. En ce sens, nous insistons sur la richesse et l'amplitude de la notion d'idée - élaborée et retravaillée au fil des années par Descartes - pour faire face à ce phénomène complexe. Une fois l'homme n'est plus une substance, la manifestation de ses aspects reste toujours adjective, pouvant le qualifier sans toutefois favoriser sa compréhension. Cette difficulté d'appréhension exige donc que l'étude de l'idée de l'homme explore jusqu'à la limite la rationalité humaine elle-même. Mots-clés: Descartes, homme, idée, concept, définition. Data de registro: 17/11/2020 Data de aceite: 30/12/2020. (shrink)
A questão "se uma elocução perde seu significado com a destruição das coisas "surge como uma questão sobre o valor-verdade de declarações com um termo vazio como sujeito, a saber, como um subproblema do sofisma "Se 'omnis homo de necessitate est animal' é verdade quando não há homem algum ". Neste trabalho, trarei as discussões conforme elas se apresentam em "De signis" IV.2 de Roger Bacon, em "Quaestiones logicales", q. 2–3 de Peter John Olivi, no OHNEA de Boethius of Dacia, (...) e no OHNEA de Anonymus Alani. Tais textos nos apresentam quatro modos diversos de nos relacionarmos com a questão sobre significação para OHNEA e, assim, com quatro posições diferentes sobre a relação entre significação e referência vazia. Usarei Anonymus Alani como o fio conductor de minha análise, inserindo outras posições onde tal se fizer relevante. The question 'whether an utterance loses its signification with the destruction of things ' is raised as a question about the truth-value of assertions with an empty term as a subject, namely as a sub-problem of the sophism 'Whether "omnis homo de necessitate est animal" is true when no man exists '. In this paper, I shall introduce the discussions as they are present in Roger Bacon's "De signis" IV.2, Peter John Olivi's "Quaestiones logicales", q. 2–3, Boethius of Dacia's OHNEA, and Anonymus Alani's OHNEA. These texts present us with four different ways of relating the question about signification to OHNEA, and therefore with four different positions regarding the relation between signification and empty reference. I shall use Anonymus Alani as the guiding thread of my analysis, inserting other positions where it is relevant. (shrink)
The so-called "non-commutativity" of probability kinematics has caused much unjustified concern. When identical learning is properly represented, namely, by identical Bayes factors rather than identical posterior probabilities, then sequential probability-kinematical revisions behave just as they should. Our analysis is based on a variant of Field's reformulation of probability kinematics, divested of its (inessential) physicalist gloss.
Descartes' Meditations is one of the most thoroughly analyzed of all philosophical texts. Nevertheless, central issues in Descartes' thought remain unresolved, particularly the problem of the Cartesian Circle. Most attempts to deal with that problem have weakened the force of Descartes' own doubts or weakened the goals he was seeking. In this book, Stephen I. Wagner gives Descartes' doubts their strongest force and shows how he overcomes those doubts, establishing with metaphysical certainty the existence of a non-deceiving God and (...) the truth of his clear and distinct perceptions. Wagner's innovative and thorough reading of the text clarifies a wide range of other issues that have been left unclear by previous commentaries, including the nature of the cogito discovery and the relationship between Descartes' proofs of God's existence. His book will be of great interest to scholars and upper-level students of Descartes, early modern philosophy and theology. (shrink)
Common wisdom holds that communication is impossible when messages are costless and communicators have totally opposed interests. This article demonstrates that such wisdom is false. Non-convergent dynamics can sustain partial information transfer even in a zero-sum signalling game. In particular, I investigate a signalling game in which messages are free, the state-act payoffs resemble rock–paper–scissors, and senders and receivers adjust their strategies according to the replicator dynamic. This system exhibits Hamiltonian chaos and trajectories do not converge to equilibria. This persistent (...) out-of-equilibrium behaviour results in messages that do not perfectly reveal the sender's private information, but do transfer information as quantified by the Kullback–Leibler divergence. This finding shows that adaptive dynamics can enable information transmission even though messages at equilibria are meaningless. This suggests a new explanation for the evolution or spontaneous emergence of meaning: non-convergent adaptive dynamics. (shrink)
Understanding the evolutionary role of environmentally induced phenotypic variation (i.e., plasticity) is an important issue in developmental evolution. A major physiological response to environmental change is cellular stress, which is counteracted by generic stress reactions detoxifying the cell. A model, stress‐induced evolutionary innovation (SIEI), whereby ancestral stress reactions and their corresponding pathways can be transformed into novel structural components of body plans, such as new cell types, is described. Previous findings suggest that the cell differentiation cascade of a cell type (...) critical to pregnancy in humans, the decidual stromal cell, evolved from a cellular stress reaction. It is hypothesized that the stress reaction in these cells was elicited ancestrally via inflammation caused by embryo attachment. The present study proposes that SIEI is a distinct form of plasticity‐based evolutionary change leading to the origin of novel structures rather than adaptive transformation of pre‐existing characters. (shrink)
" Because characters and the conception of characters are central to all studies of evolution, and because evolution is the central organizing principle of biology, this book will appeal to a wide cross-section of biologists.
Suppose that several individuals who have separately assessed prior probability distributions over a set of possible states of the world wish to pool their individual distributions into a single group distribution, while taking into account jointly perceived new evidence. They have the option of first updating their individual priors and then pooling the resulting posteriors or first pooling their priors and then updating the resulting group prior. If the pooling method that they employ is such that they arrive at the (...) same final distribution in both cases, the method is said to be externally Bayesian, a property first studied by Madansky . We show that a pooling method for discrete distributions is externally Bayesian if and only if it commutes with Jeffrey conditioning, parameterized in terms of certain ratios of new to old odds, as in Wagner , rather than in terms of the posterior probabilities of members of the disjoint family of events on which such conditioning originates. (shrink)
Este artigo analisa a trajetória do Jardim da Infância da Escola Normal de São Paulo idealizada por republicanos paulistas que tinha como projeto a organização e modernização da instrução pública do estado em fins do século XIX. Mesmo fazendo parte do complexo construído para atender a educação do povo, o prédio idealizado para o Jardim da Infância não resistiu às pressões políticas e econômicas, e foi demolido em 1939. As razões da demolição deste prédio que pôs por terra (...) a estrutura física e administrativa da instituição, que teria perdido relevância na história de sua constituição serão apontadas bem como os valores defendidos e praticados que indicavam a suntuosa arquitetura pensada para esta instituição. Razões que levaram ao desmonte dessa escola na década de 1930, com as possíveis consonâncias e dissonâncias entre as autoridades políticas estão indicadas e analisadas. As transformações urbanas e sociais a partir da Proclamação da República aceleraram o crescimento econômico o qual se traduziu em mais capacidade de investimento para a cidade e ajudou a consolidar o desejo da nova elite de produzir um novo espaço urbano para viver. A modernização da cidade acompanhou essa visão. O palco da nova vida devia ser moderno, confortável e bonito. Seduzido pela propaganda oficial estadonovista e fascinado pelas mensagens de progresso, o povo – sem perceber – aplaudiu a agonia da República e saiu às ruas para venerar Getúlio, pai dos pobres. As constantes reformulações do ensino, as transformações urbanísticas e verticalização da cidade possibilitaram a Prestes Maia dar prosseguimento ao seu Plano de Avenidas e ruir com o prédio original e monumental dessa instituição escolar pública de atendimento a primeira infância. (shrink)
Carnap's ideal of explication has become a key concept in analytic philosophy and the basis of a method of analysis which may be considered as an alternative to various forms of naturalism, including Quine's conception of a naturalized epistemology. More recently, new light has been shed on this aspect of the classical Carnap-Quine debate by contemporary philosophers. Whereas Michael Friedman articulated a notion of relativized a priori which owes much to Carnap's internal/external distinction, André Carus attempted to restate Carnap's ideal (...) of explication in a way that bridges the gap between conceptual engineering and naturalism. On the other hand, Mark Wilson argued that concepts develop in unpredictable ways and cannot be planned in the way classical analytic philosophy has assumed from Frege and Russell onwards. This book consists of a series of defences as well as critiques of Carnap's programme, setting it in its historical context, discussing specific cases of explications, and enriching the on-going debate on conceptual engineering and naturalism in analytic philosophy.Carnap's ideal of explication has become a key concept in analytic philosophy and the basis of a method of analysis which may be considered as an alternative to various forms of naturalism, including Quine's conception of a naturalized epistemology. More recently, new light has been shed on this aspect of the classical Carnap-Quine debate by contemporary philosophers. Whereas Michael Friedman articulated a notion of relativized a priori which owes much to Carnap's internal/external distinction, André Carus attempted to restate Carnap's ideal of explication in a way that bridges the gap between conceptual engineering and naturalism. On the other hand, Mark Wilson argued that concepts develop in unpredictable ways and cannot be planned in the way classical analytic philosophy has assumed from Frege and Russell onwards. This book consists of a series of defences as well as critiques of Carnap's programme, setting it in its historical context, discussing specific cases of explications, and enriching the on-going debate on conceptual engineering and naturalism in analytic philosophy. (shrink)
Individuals are faced with the many opportunities to pirate. The decision to pirate or not may be related to an individual''s attitudes toward other ethical issues. A person''s ethical and moral predispositions and the judgments that they use to make decisions may be consistent across various ethical dilemmas and may indicate their likelihood to pirate software. This paper investigates the relationship between religion and a theoretical ethical decision making process that an individual uses when evaluating ethical or unethical situations. An (...) ethical decision making model was studied for general unethical scenarios and for the unethical behavior of software piracy. The research model was tested via path analysis using structural equation modeling and was found to be appropriate for the sample data. The results suggest that there is a relationship between religion and the stages of an ethical decision making process regarding general ethical situations and software piracy. (shrink)
The paper maps out an alternative to a behavioural (economic) approach to business ethics. Special attention is paid to the fundamental philosophical principle that any moral ‘ought’ implies a practical ‘can’, which the paper interprets with regard to the economic viability of moral agency of the firm under the conditions of the market economy, in particular competition. The paper details an economic understanding of business ethics with regard to classical and neo-classical views, on the one hand, and institutional, libertarian thought, (...) on the other hand. Implications are derived regarding unintentional and passive intentional moral agency of the firm. The paper moves on to suggest that moral agency can be economically viable in competitive ‘market’ interactions, which is conventionally disputed by classical/neo-classical and institutional, libertarian economics. The paper here conceptualises active moral agency of the firm as the utilisation of ethical capital in firm--stakeholder interactions. This yields a reinterpretation of instrumental stakeholder theory. (shrink)
Mobile health devices pose novel questions at the intersection of philosophy and technology. Many such applications not only collect sensitive data, but also aim at persuading users to change their lifestyle for the better. A major concern is that persuasion is paternalistic as it intentionally aims at changing the agent’s actions, chipping away at their autonomy. This worry roots in the philosophical conviction that perhaps the most salient feature of living autonomous lives is displayed via agency as opposed to patiency—our (...) lives go well in virtue of what we do, rather than what happens to us. Being persuaded by a device telling us how to conduct our lives seemingly renders the agent passive, an inert recipient of technological commands. This agential bias, however, has led to a marginalization of patiential characteristics that are just as much part of our lives as are agential characteristics. To appreciate the inherent interlocking of acting and being acted upon, it is vital to acknowledge that agency and patiency are correlates, not mutually exclusive opposites. Furthermore, it is unclear whether an action can only count as agential so long as its causes are internal. Drawing on the extended mind and extended will framework, I argue that mHealth applications merely serve as volitional aids to the agent’s internal cognition. Autonomously set goals can be achieved more effectively via technology. To be persuaded by an mHealth device does not mainly—let alone exclusively—emphasize patiency; on the contrary, it can be an effective tool for technologically enhancing agency. (shrink)
The present paper unravels ontological and normative conditions of personhood for the purpose of critiquing ‘Cognitivist Views’. Such views have attracted much attention and affirmation by presenting the ontology of personhood in terms of higher-order cognition on the basis of which normative practices are explained and justified. However, these normative conditions are invoked to establish the alleged ontology in the first place. When we want to know what kind of entity has full moral status, it is tempting to establish an (...) ontology that fits our moral intuitions about who should qualify for such unique normative standing. But this approach conflates personhood’s ontology and normativity insofar as it stresses the primacy of the former while implicitly presupposing the latter; it thereby suffers from a ‘Normative Fallacy’ by inferring from ‘ought’ to ‘is’. Following my critique of Cognitivism, I sketch an alternative conception, contending that, whereas the Cognitivist ontology of personhood presupposes the normative, a social ontology is constituted by it. In due consideration of evidence from developmental psychology, the social embeddedness of persons—manifested in the ability of taking a ‘second-person stance’—is identified as a key feature of personhood that precedes higher-order cognition, and is directly linked to basic normative concerns. (shrink)
The paper reconstructs in economic terms Friedman's theorem that the only social responsibility of firms is to increase their profits while staying within legal and ethical rules. A model of three levels of moral conduct is attributed to the firm: (1) self-interested engagement in the market process itself, which reflects according to classical and neoclassical economics an ethical ideal; (2) the obeying of the "rules of the game," largely legal ones; and (3) the creation of ethical capital, which allows moral (...) conduct to enter the market process beyond the rules of the game. Points (1) and (2) position the Friedman theorem in economic terms while point (3) develops an economic revision of the theorem, which was not seen by Friedman. Implications are spelled out for an instrumental stakeholder theory of the firm. (shrink)
This book argues that sociology has lost its ability to provide critical diagnoses of the present human condition because sociology has stopped considering the philosophical requirements of social enquiry. The book attempts to restore that ability by retrieving some of the key questions that sociologists tend to gloss over, inescapability and attainability. The book identifies five key questions in which issues of inescapability and attainability emerge. These are the questions of the certainty of our knowledge, the viability of our politics, (...) the continuity of our selves, the accessibility of the past, and the transparency of the future. The book demonstrates how these questions are addressed in different forms and by different intellectual means during the past 200 years and shows how they persist today. (shrink)
Jonathan Weisberg claims that certain probability assessments constructed by Jeffrey conditioning resist subsequent revision by a certain type of after-the-fact defeater of the reasons supporting those assessments, and that such conditioning is thus “inherently anti-holistic.” His analysis founders, however, in applying Jeffrey conditioning to a partition for which an essential rigidity condition clearly fails. Applied to an appropriate partition, Jeffrey conditioning is amenable to revision by the sort of after-the-fact defeaters considered by Weisberg in precisely the way that he demands.
Divided into two parts this book examines the train of social theory from the 19th century, through to the `organization of modernity', in relation to ideas of social planning, and as contributors to the `rationalistic revolution' of the `golden age' of capitalism in the 1950s and 60s. Part two examines key concepts in the social sciences. It begins with some of the broadest concepts used by social scientists: choice, decision, action and institution and moves on to examine the `collectivist alternative': (...) the concepts of society, culture and polity, which are often dismissed as untenable by postmodernists today. This is a major contribution to contemporary social theory and provides a host of essential insights into the task of social science today. (shrink)
Lewis signalling games are often used to explain how it is possible for simple agents to develop systems of conventional semantic meaning. In these games, all players obtain identical payoffs in every outcome. This is an unrealistic payoff structure, but it is often employed because it is thought that semantic meaning will not emerge if interests conflict. Here it is shown that not only is conventional meaning possible when interests conflict, but it is the most likely outcome in a finite (...) population model of learning known as the Moran process. On the basis of this result it is suggested that evolutionary game theory’s standard models may yield results that are systematically distorted for a class of signalling games that have the abstract structure of social dilemmas. 1 Introduction2 The Seduction Game3 Imitation Dynamics with Small Mutations4 Dynamics with Unverifiable Message5 Analysis of a Related Three-Strategy Game6 Conclusion. (shrink)
Compatibilist methods borrowed from the free will debate are often used to establish doxastic freedom and epistemic responsibility. Certain analogies between the formation of intention and belief make this approach especially promising. Despite being a compatibilist myself in the practical debate, I will argue that compatibilist methods fail to establish doxastic freedom. My rejection is not based on an argument against the analogy of free will and free belief. Rather, I aim at showing that compatibilist free will and free belief (...) are equally misguided because freedom is a concept that only applies to an agent’s actions and not to her mental attitudes. Compatibilist strategies that seek to define control by reason-responsiveness merely weaken the conditions for freedom such that arbitrary forms of control can be defined. I will demonstrate that these methods also commit to freedom of fear, freedom of hope and freedom of anger. However, I accept the compatibilist challenge to account for the addict’s and the paranoid’s unfreedom. I will sketch a unified approach to compatibilist free agency that does justice to these phenomena without the help of free will or free belief. (shrink)
As descrições da flora brasílica efectuadas desde a chegada de Pedro Álvares Cabral traduzem não só as perplexidades do passado no reconhecimento de exemplares botânicos desconhecidos na Europa, mas essencialmente formas de intelegibilidade distintas sobre um mesmo objecto, cuja exploração ao longo dos últimos quatro séculos tem vindo a acompanhar o desenvolvimento da ciência.Os primeiros registos de plantas de Terras de Vera Cruz, efectuados no século XVI, apresentam-se como limitados tanto pela forma narrativa e descritiva então corrente como pela subjectividade (...) do seu redactor. Algumas das lacunas destas formas descritivas foram preenchidas pelo recurso a elementos gráficos que procuravam veicular informação mais precisa quantoàs espécies botânicas identificadas.No século XVIII a Botânica assumiu-se como disciplina autónoma, adoptando-se desde então uma nomenclatura que se viria a considerar como internacional e um sistema de “catalogação” dos mais diversos tipos botânicos conhecidos, ainda extensível a outros por descobrir nomeadamente em terras do Brasil. Este processo objectivo não se sobrepôs às restantes abordagens subjectivas, coexistindo na actualidade. The descriptions of Brazilian flora made since the arrival of Pedro Álvares Cabral express not only the perplexities of those times in recognising botanical species unknown in Europe, but manly distinct forms of intelligibility concerning a same object, whose exploration all long last four centuries follow closely the science rise.The first registers of the plants of Vera Cruz, dated from sixteen century, they were limited as much for the narrative and descriptive form current in those times, as for the subjectivity of its redactor. Some of the gaps of these descriptive forms had been filled by the resource of graphical elements, which tried to propagate precise information of the botanical species identified. In century XVIII Botanic assumed it self as a autonomous subject, adapting since then a terminology that it would come to consider as international and a system of cataloguing of the different botanical types, still extensible to others for discovering, namely in lands of Brazil. This objective process was not overlapped to the remaining subjective approaches, coexisting in the present time. (shrink)
This article analyses whether benefits arising for human resource management from environmental management activities drive environmental management system implementation. Focusing on employee satisfaction and recruitment/retention, it tests this for German manufacturing firms in 2001 and 2006 and incorporates a rare longitudinal element into the analysis. It confirms positive associations of the benefit levels for both variables with environmental management system implementation on a large scale. Also it provides evidence that increasing levels of environmental management system implementation result from higher economic (...) benefits in the human resource domain. In doing so the article supplies needed quantitative evidence on important aspects of how sustainability relates to human resource management. (shrink)