We investigated the implicit learning of a linguistically relevant variable in a natural language context . Trial by trial subjective measures indicated that exposure to a form–animacy regularity led to unconscious knowledge of that regularity. Under the same conditions, people did not learn about another form–meaning regularity when a linguistically arbitrary variable was used instead of animacy . Implicit learning is constrained to acquire unconscious knowledge about features with high prior probabilities of being relevant in that domain.
With the rapid and unbalanced development of industry, a large amount of cultivated land is converted into industrial land with lower efficiency. The existing research is extensively concerned with industrial land use and industrial development in isolation, but little attention has been paid to the relationship between them. To help address this gap, the paper creates a new efficiency measure method for industrial land use combining Subvector Data Envelope Analysis with spatial analysis approach. The proposed model has been verified by (...) using the industrial land use data of 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2013. The spatial autocorrelation relationship between industrial development and industrial land use efficiency is explored. Furthermore, this paper examines the effects of industrial development on industrial land use efficiency by spatial panel data model. The results indicate that the industrial land use efficiency and the industrial development level in the provinces of eastern region are higher than those of the western region. The spatial distribution of industrial land use efficiency shows remarkable positive spatial autocorrelation. However, the level of industrial development has obvious negative spatial autocorrelation since 2009. The improvement of industrial development has a significant positive impact on the industrial land use efficiency. (shrink)
Under investigation in this paper is a -dimensional variable-coefficient generalized shallow water wave equation. The exact lump solutions of this equation are presented by virtue of its bilinear form and symbolic computation. Compared with the solutions of the previous cases, these solutions contain two inhomogeneous coefficients, which can show some interesting nonautonomous characteristics. Three types of dispersion coefficients are considered, including the periodic, exponential, and linear modulations. The corresponding nonautonomous lump waves have different characteristics of trajectories and velocities. The periodic (...) fission and fusion interaction between a lump wave and a kink soliton is discussed graphically. (shrink)
Collision-free autonomous path planning under a dynamic and uncertainty vineyard environment is the most important issue which needs to be resolved firstly in the process of improving robotic harvesting manipulator intelligence. We present and apply energy optimal and artificial potential field to develop a path planning method for six degree of freedom serial harvesting robot under dynamic uncertain environment. Firstly, the kinematical model of Six-DOF serial manipulator was constructed by using the Denavit-Hartenberg method. The model of obstacles was defined by (...) axis-aligned bounding box, and then the configuration space of harvesting robot was described by combining the obstacles and arm space of robot. Secondly, the harvesting sequence in path planning was computed by energy optimal method, and the anticollision path points were automatically generated based on the artificial potential field and sampling searching method. Finally, to verify and test the proposed path planning algorithm, a virtual test system based on virtual reality was developed. After obtaining the space coordinates of grape picking point and anticollision bounding volume, the path points were drew out by the proposed method. 10 times picking tests for grape anticollision path planning were implemented on the developed simulation system, and the success rate was up to 90%. The results showed that the proposed path planning method can be used to the harvesting robot. (shrink)
The number of articles published in open access journals has increased dramatically in recent years. Simultaneously, the quality of publications in these journals has been called into question. Few studies have explored the retraction rate from OAJs. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reasons for retractions of articles from OAJs in biomedical research. The Medline database was searched through PubMed to identify retracted publications in OAJs. The journals were identified by the Directory of Open Access Journals. (...) Data were extracted from each retracted article, including the time from publication to retraction, causes, journal impact factor, and country of origin. Trends in the characteristics related to retraction were determined. Data from 621 retracted studies were included in the analysis. The number and rate of retractions have increased since 2010. The most common reasons for retraction are errors, plagiarism, duplicate publication, fraud/suspected fraud and invalid peer review. The number of retracted articles from OAJs has been steadily increasing. Misconduct was the primary reason for retraction. The majority of retracted articles were from journals with low impact factors and authored by researchers from China, India, Iran, and the USA. (shrink)
Similar to mineral composition and organic geochemical features, laminae development significantly influences pore structure. Taking the lower third member of the Shahejie Shale, Zhanhua Sag, Eastern China as the research object, we introduced various methods to analyze the influence of laminae development on pore structure, including thin section observations, field emission scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, high-pressure mercury injection, nano-computed tomography, quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, and spontaneous imbibition. We draw the conclusions that various minerals present a (...) mixed distribution in nonlaminated shale, whereas laminated shale is characterized by alternating bright and dark laminae. Dark laminae comprise clay and quartz, whereas bright laminae consist of calcite. Microfractures are abundant at the edges of the bright and dark laminae. Nonlaminated shale possesses a pore volume of [Formula: see text] and a specific surface area of [Formula: see text]. In contrast, laminated shale has a PV of [Formula: see text] and an SSA of [Formula: see text] with good reservoir property. Pores, especially macropores and micropores, are much more developed in laminated shale than in nonlaminated shale. Interconnected pores in sheet form are extremely developed in laminated shale, whereas most of the interconnected pores in nonlaminated shale are distributed in isolated spherical and tubular forms. Because of the abundant interconnected pores and throats, laminated shale presents good connectivity. The slopes of the spontaneous imbibition curves in the first and second stages for laminated shale are greater than those for nonlaminated shale. Laminae development could provide microfractures as dominant pathways for fluid migration as well as promote the interconnection of pores, greatly increasing the connectivity of shale reservoirs. (shrink)
The purpose of this study was to observe secondary school physical education lessons on a variety of activities and determine the percentage of lesson time pupils were engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity , the percentage of lesson time allocated by teachers for pupils to engage in fitness activity or acquire health‐related fitness knowledge, and the percentage of time teachers used behaviour likely to encourage pupils to participate in health promoting physical activity. Subjects were 20 physical education teachers working (...) in one town in south‐west England. Two lessons of each teacher's choice in which they taught any activity to Years 7, 8, or 9 were videotaped. Lessons were coded with SOFIT, an observational instrument developed to quantify factors thought to promote health‐related fitness in physical education. Data generated by SOFIT were entered into a SAS programme to produce descriptive statistics. Results indicated that pupils spent little time in MVPA likely to promote health benefits, that teachers allocated no time for pupils to engage in fitness activities or receive fitness knowledge, and that teachers spent no time directly promoting or demonstrating fitness. (shrink)