We investigated the implicit learning of a linguistically relevant variable in a natural language context . Trial by trial subjective measures indicated that exposure to a form–animacy regularity led to unconscious knowledge of that regularity. Under the same conditions, people did not learn about another form–meaning regularity when a linguistically arbitrary variable was used instead of animacy . Implicit learning is constrained to acquire unconscious knowledge about features with high prior probabilities of being relevant in that domain.
The number of articles published in open access journals has increased dramatically in recent years. Simultaneously, the quality of publications in these journals has been called into question. Few studies have explored the retraction rate from OAJs. The purpose of the current study was to determine the reasons for retractions of articles from OAJs in biomedical research. The Medline database was searched through PubMed to identify retracted publications in OAJs. The journals were identified by the Directory of Open Access Journals. (...) Data were extracted from each retracted article, including the time from publication to retraction, causes, journal impact factor, and country of origin. Trends in the characteristics related to retraction were determined. Data from 621 retracted studies were included in the analysis. The number and rate of retractions have increased since 2010. The most common reasons for retraction are errors, plagiarism, duplicate publication, fraud/suspected fraud and invalid peer review. The number of retracted articles from OAJs has been steadily increasing. Misconduct was the primary reason for retraction. The majority of retracted articles were from journals with low impact factors and authored by researchers from China, India, Iran, and the USA. (shrink)
The purpose of this study was to observe secondary school physical education lessons on a variety of activities and determine the percentage of lesson time pupils were engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity , the percentage of lesson time allocated by teachers for pupils to engage in fitness activity or acquire health‐related fitness knowledge, and the percentage of time teachers used behaviour likely to encourage pupils to participate in health promoting physical activity. Subjects were 20 physical education teachers working (...) in one town in south‐west England. Two lessons of each teacher's choice in which they taught any activity to Years 7, 8, or 9 were videotaped. Lessons were coded with SOFIT, an observational instrument developed to quantify factors thought to promote health‐related fitness in physical education. Data generated by SOFIT were entered into a SAS programme to produce descriptive statistics. Results indicated that pupils spent little time in MVPA likely to promote health benefits, that teachers allocated no time for pupils to engage in fitness activities or receive fitness knowledge, and that teachers spent no time directly promoting or demonstrating fitness. (shrink)