We give a survey of the study of nonstandard models in recursion theory and reverse mathematics. We discuss the key notions and techniques in effective computability in nonstandard models, and their applications to problems concerning combinatorial principles in subsystems of second order arithmetic. Particular attention is given to principles related to Ramsey’s Theorem for Pairs.
Management ownership has ethical consequences because it has an interest alignment effect or an entrenchment effect. In this paper, we investigate the ethical consequences of management ownership in China using accounting conservatism as the direct measure of entrenchment and alignment between shareholders and managers. We argue and find that the ethical effect of management ownership differs significantly in firms with different ultimate controlling shareholders. Specifically, management ownership in non-state-owned enterprises has an alignment effect, while management ownership has less of an (...) alignment effect in state-owned enterprises than in NSOEs. These results show that the ethical consequences of management ownership are moderated by the nature of ultimate controlling ownership. (shrink)
A set Asubset of or equal toω is called computably enumerable , if there is an algorithm to enumerate the elements of it. For sets A,Bsubset of or equal toω, we say that A is bounded Turing reducible to reducible to) B if there is a Turing functional, Φ say, with a computable bound of oracle query bits such that A is computed by Φ equipped with an oracle B, written image. Let image be the structure of the c.e. bT-degrees, (...) the c.e. degrees under the bounded Turing reductions. In this paper we study the continuity properties in image. We show that for any c.e. bT-degree image, there is a c.e. bT-degree image such that for any c.e. bT-degree image, image if and only if image. We prove that the analog of the Seetapun local noncappability theorem from the c.e. Turing degrees also holds in image. This theorem demonstrates that every image is noncappable with any nontrivial degree below some image. (shrink)
Communication is rule governed; so are greetings which serve as a polite way of communication. The rules vary depending on the cultural context or the cultural context helps to define the rules and so communication rules are culturally diverse. It is important for foreign language learners to learn that communication rules are both culturally and contextually bound to achieve effective and efficient communication.
We give a survey of the study of nonstandard models in recursion theory and reverse mathematics. We discuss the key notions and techniques in effective computability in nonstandard models. and their applications to problems concerning combinatorial principles in subsystems of second order arithmetic. Particular attention is given to principles related to Ramsey's Theorem for Pairs.