Information spreading on multiplex networks has been investigated widely. For multiplex networks, the relations of each layer possess different extents of intimacy, which can be described as weighted multiplex networks. Nevertheless, the effect of weighted multiplex network structures on information spreading has not been analyzed comprehensively. We herein propose an information spreading model on a weighted multiplex network. Then, we develop an edge-weight-based compartmental theory to describe the spreading dynamics. We discover that under any adoption threshold of two subnetworks, reducing (...) weight distribution heterogeneity does not alter the growth pattern of the final adoption size versus information transmission probability while accelerating information spreading. For fixed weight distribution, the growth pattern changes with the heterogeneous of degree distribution. There is a critical initial seed size, below which no global information outbreak can occur. Extensive numerical simulations affirm that the theoretical predictions agree well with the numerical results. (shrink)
We study the strength of RRT32, Rainbow Ramsey Theorem for colorings of triples, and prove that RCA0 + RRT32 implies neither WKL0 nor RRT42 source. To this end, we establish some recursion theoretic properties of cohesive sets and rainbows for colorings of pairs. We show that every sequence admits a cohesive set of non-PA Turing degree; and that every ∅′-recursive sequence admits a low3 cohesive set.
The ethics-related beliefs of Chinese international graduate students are heavily influenced by their academic cultural background, and given the nature of that culture, they often face challenges when adapting to the U.S. academic environment. This qualitative study examines Chinese graduate students’ perceptions of the differences between Chinese and American academic integrity practices and the effects of those differences on their ethical practices and adaptations in a graduate program in the United States. Data were collected via semistructured interviews in a public (...) university in the United States. Findings suggest that perceptions of academic integrity in Chinese universities are influenced by Confucian philosophy, collectivist assumptions, and a resultant convenience mind-set. These cultural premises clash with academic expectations in the United States. Participants describe how they, and their Chinese peers, navigate U.S. integrity standards and provide recommendations for ways that U.S. schools can help them better adjust. We expand on those and provide recommendations for university personnel. (shrink)
In the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant presents the Principle of Anticipations of Perception as follows: ‘In all appearances the real, which is an object of the sensation, has intensive magnitude, i.e., a degree.’ This paper defends the tenability and coherence of Kant’s argument by solving three prominent difficulties identified by commentators. Firstly, on my interpretation, the schema of the category of ‘limitation’ presents an infinite sphere of possible realities, which provides the transcendental basis for the Principle. Secondly, I take (...) Kant’s otherwise problematic examples of intensive magnitudes to show how we determine a degree according to an ordinal sequence that is constituted by cardinal quantities. Thirdly, I distinguish in Kant’s writings the categorical continuity concerning the a priori principle and the empirical continuity concerning a posteriori sensations. While the former is necessary, the latter is merely possible; but we must nevertheless assume the latter as a cognitive aim. (shrink)
This paper explores the nature of mathematical beauty from a Kantian perspective. According to Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment, satisfaction in beauty is subjective and non-conceptual, yet a proof can be beautiful even though it relies on concepts. I propose that, much like art creation, the formulation and study of a complex demonstration involves multiple and progressive interactions between the freely original imagination and taste. Such a proof is artistic insofar as it is guided by beauty, namely, the (...) mere feeling about the imagination’s free lawfulness. The beauty in a proof’s process and the perfection in its completion together facilitate a transition from subjective to objective purposiveness, a transition that Kant himself does not address in the third Critique. (shrink)
In this paper, we will prove that the plus cupping degrees generate a definable ideal on c.e. degrees different from other ones known so far, thus answering a question asked by Li and Yang (Proceedings of the 7th and the 8th Asian Logic Conferences. World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2003).
The epistemological version of structural realism, proposed by Cao Tianyu, has great influence in the philosophy of science. Syntheses has published a special volume discussing the topic. Cao criticizes anti-realism, as well as the epistemic and ontic versions of structural realism. From the concepts of structure, ontology, and construction, he analyzes the objectivity of scientific theories as having five aspects: construction, historicity, holism, revision, and revolution. This paper systematically analyzes and comments on Cao's structural realism. The author agrees with his (...) criticism of the under-determination thesis, is neutral to his argument against ontological discontinuity, and questions his universal language argument. (shrink)
The debate between the dynamical and the statistical interpretations of natural selection is centred on the question of whether all explanations that employ the concepts of natural selection and drift are reducible to causal explanations. The proponents of the statistical interpretation answer negatively, but insist on the fact that selection/drift arguments are explanatory. However, they remain unclear on where the explanatory power comes from. The proponents of the dynamical interpretation answer positively and try to reduce selection/drift arguments to some of (...) the most prominent accounts of causal explanation. In turn, they face the criticism raised by statisticalists that current accounts of causation have to be violated in some of their core conditions or otherwise used in a very loose manner in order to account for selection/drift explanations. We propose a reconciliation of both interpretations by conveying evolutionary explanations within the unificationist model of scientific explanation. Therefore, we argue that the explanatory power in natural selection arguments is a result of successful unification of individual- and population-level facts. A short case study based on research on sympatric speciation will be presented as an example of how population- and individual-level facts are unified to explain the morphological mosaic of bill shape in island scrub jays. (shrink)
In the third Critique, Kant claims that beauty is the symbol of morality and that the consideration of this relation is a duty. This paper declares Kant’s argument to be twofold: firstly, experience of beauty strengthens our moral feeling. Secondly, in judging the beautiful, we assume some indeterminate purpose underlying nature, based on which we can conceive of nature as cooperative with our practical pursuit. Hence, for the sake of moral cultivation and moral motivation, it is our duty to regard (...) beauty as the special symbol of morality. (shrink)
Resource support between individuals is of particular importance in controlling or mitigating epidemic spreading, especially during pandemics. However, there remains the question of how we can protect ourselves from being infected while helping others by donating resources in fighting against the epidemic. To answer the question, we propose a novel resource allocation model by considering the awareness of self-protection of individuals. In the model, a tuning parameter is introduced to quantify the reaction strength of individuals when they are aware of (...) the disease. And then, a coupled model of resource allocation and disease spreading is proposed to study the impact of self-awareness on resource allocation and its impact on the dynamics of epidemic spreading. Through theoretical analysis and extensive Monte Carlo simulations, we find that in the stationary state, the system converges to two states: the whole healthy or the completely infected, which indicates an abrupt increase in the prevalence when there is a shortage of resources. More importantly, we find that too cautious and too selfless for the people during the outbreak of an epidemic are both not suitable for disease control. Through extensive simulations, we locate the optimal point, at which there is a maximum value of the epidemic threshold, and an outbreak can be delayed to the greatest extent. At last, we study further the effects of the network structure on the coupled dynamics. We find that the degree heterogeneity promotes the outbreak of disease, and the network structure does not alter the optimal phenomenon in behavior response. Based on the results of this study, a constructive suggestion is that in the face of a global pandemic, individuals or countries should strengthen mutual support and cooperation while doing their own prevention to suppress the epidemic optimally. (shrink)
The industry treats the distributed acoustic sensing system, which uses an optical fiber cable in vertical seismic profiling data acquisition, as a new and fast-growing technology. The high-quality data set acquired from the DAS acquisition system can produce high-precision VSP images and obtain more detailed checkshots. However, in field data, the acquired VSP data set suffers from strong coherent DAS coupling noise. Many factors may cause coherent DAS coupling noise, such as the cable slapping and ringing due to the physical (...) placement, the regular swing of the wireline in the well, and the uncoupling between the fiber cable and the casing. This DAS coupling noise reduces the signal-to-noise ratio and affects the subsequent processing and interpretation. Removing the DAS coupling noise can help to improve the quality of the VSP data set acquired with the DAS system. We have developed a sparse-optimization-based DAS coupling noise removing method. In the DAS-based VSP data set, the effective signal and the coupling noise have distinct morphological characteristics. The effective VSP signal has a wide bandwidth, whereas the DAS coupling noise appears in some narrow frequency bands in the frequency domain. The continuous wavelet transform and the discrete cosine transform can sparsely represent the effective VSP signal and DAS coupling noise, respectively. Therefore, we choose these two transforms as two sparse dictionaries and combine them to form an overcomplete dictionary. The morphological component analysis can use the morphological difference between different components and the overcomplete dictionary to sparsely represent all components in the complicated signal. Based on the MCA theory, we use the block coordinate relaxation algorithm to separate the effective VSP signal and DAS coupling noise. Applications on a synthetic data set and two field data sets have validated the effectiveness of our method. (shrink)
This paper analyses the stress effect of cross-regional transfer of resource-exhausted enterprises from eastern China to central and Western China. A tripartite evolutionary game model including the central government, the local government of the operation recipient region, and the resource-exhausted transfer enterprises is established under the assumption of limited rationality. By analysing the evolutionary equilibrium and using MATLAB, for example, analysis, the relationship between equilibrium probability and various parameters, as well as the key influencing factors of equilibrium strategy were explored. (...) The research shows, first, that the degree of punishment imposed by the central government on the local governments, the implementation of regulation by the local governments, and the amount of rewards/punishments implemented by the local governments for transfer enterprises are the key factors affecting evolutionary stability. Second, it shows that the local governments’ penalty for transfer enterprises has a significant impact on the convergence speed of enterprises’ strategic choice to “Completely Control Pollution.” Finally, from the perspective of the relationships between the central government and the local governments, as well as with transfer enterprises, countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to effectively prevent the stress effect of the cross-regional transfer behaviour of resource-exhausted enterprises. (shrink)
Since the publication of The Structure of Scientific Revolution , relativism, resulting from the concepts of paradigm and paradigm shift, becomes one of the central problems in the philosophy of science. The author of this dissertation agrees with Thomas Kuhn in his criticism of the Logical Positivism, but denies that relativism arrives as a direct consequence. In this dissertation, the author tries to tackle the problem by analyzing some underlying basic concepts, e.g. paradigm, language and rationality. Firstly, he points out (...) that a hard-core model of paradigm, as understood by I. Lakatos, is not totally appropriate for an all-rounded understanding of a paradigm. Rather, among the elements certain "family resemblance" comes to the surface, they are therefore regarded as belonging to the same paradigm. A paradigm is not a hindrance to but an exemplar for our learning. And a paradigm shift needs not result in a total switch over, it could be a revolution with inheritance. Secondly, the incommesurability of languages does not mean the breakdown of communication between different linguistic communities. True bilinguals can achieve cross-paradigm understanding. In addition, due to the creative activities within a language, the problem of untranslatability could be solved. Finally, rationality, rather than assuming a hierarchical structure, could be taken as a reticulated model. As a result, various disagreements at the axiological level could be rationally resolved. ;The author also tackles in passing some issues concerning language and rationality in the Chinese tradition of science, and compares this tradition with that of the western. (shrink)
In this paper, we investigate the finite-time synchronization control for a class of nonlinear coupled multiweighted complex networks with Markovian switching and time-varying delay analytically and quantitatively. The value of this study lies in four aspects: First, it designs the finite-time synchronization controller to make the NCMWCNs with Markovian switching and time-varying delay achieve global synchronization in finite time. Second, it derives two kinds of finite-time estimation approaches by analyzing the impact of the nonlinearity of nonlinear coupled function on synchronization (...) dynamics and synchronization convergence time. Third, it presents the relationship between Markovian switching parameters and synchronization problems of subsystems and the overall system. Fourth, it provides some numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (shrink)
This paper argues that the structural obscurity in Kant’s Critique of the Power of Judgment reflects his tacit employment of three correlated but distinct notions: necessity considered as the universal validity of the judgment of taste; necessity considered as a feature of the judgment itself; and necessity considered as a feature of the mental free harmony that obtains in judging certain forms with taste. These distinctions have not been sufficiently recognized by commentators so far. Clarification of these three notions can (...) shed new light on the structure of the first part of Kant’s third Critique as well as on debates over the plausibility of his claims regarding taste. (shrink)
The problem of unmeasured parameters estimation for distributed control systems is studied in this paper. The Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy model which can appropriate any nonlinear systems is employed, and based on the model, an observer-based fuzzy H∞ filter which has robustness against time-delay, external noise, and system uncertainties is designed. The sufficient condition for the existence of the desired filter is derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities solutions. Moreover, the underdetermined estimation problem in which the number of sensors available is (...) typically less than the number of state variables to be estimated is specifically addressed. A systematic method is proposed to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension for the estimation of the filter, and the optimal transformation matrix is selected via iterative solution to minimize the estimated error. Finally, a simulation example for turbofan aeroengine is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, and the estimated error is less than 2.5%. (shrink)
A set of natural numbers B is computably enumerable in and strictly above (or c.e.a. for short) another set C if C < T B and B is computably enumerable in C. A Turing degree b is c.e.a. c if b and c respectively contain B and C as above. In this paper, it is shown that if b is c.e.a. c then b is c.e.a. some 1-generic g.