Despite abundant evidence associating CD38 overexpression and CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection, no causal relation has been investigated. To address this issue, a series of mechanisms are proposed, supported by evidence from different fields, by which CD38 overexpression can facilitate CD4 T cell depletion in HIV infection. According to this model, increased catalytic activity of CD38 may reduce CD4 T cells’ cytoplasmic nicotin‐amide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), leading to a chronic Warburg effect. This will reduce mitochondrial function. Simultaneously, CD38's (...) catalytic products ADPR and cADPR may be transported to the cytoplasm, where they can activate calcium channels and increase cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, further altering mitochondrial integrity. These mechanisms will decrease the viability and regenerative capacity of CD4 T cells. These hypotheses can be tested experimentally, and might reveal novel therapeutic targets. (shrink)
Foundationalists and coherentists disagree over the structure of the part of the mental state corpus that is relevant for epistemic achievement (Bonjour, 1999; Dancy, 1989; Haack, 1993; Sosa, 1980; Pollock and Cruz, 1999). Given the goals of a theory of epistemic justification and the trajectory of the debate over the last three decades, it is not difficult to see how structural questions possess a kind of immediacy. In order to undertake an epistemic evaluation of a belief, one intuitive and appealing (...) strategy is to investigate the reasons for that belief to determine whether it is epistemically positive, where the reasons are typically other beliefs. This demands that we must in turn determine whether the reasons for the belief are themselves justified. A regress looms (and thus a regress argument is in the making), and foundationalism and coherentism propose proprietary views on the structural relations between beliefs with an eye toward resolving it. (shrink)
Caspar David Friedrich was the quintessential Romantic figure, portraying the Sublime in his landscape paintings. The Romantic period, particularly in Germany, England, and France, was characterized by the full development of aesthetics as a separate branch of philosophy. The terrible Sublime was contrasted with the more formal elements of Beauty. In this paper, Dr. dela Cruz similarly compares the inarticulable aesthetic sensibility and the more formal method of logical analysis, underscoring her own transition from philosophy to creative writing. She provides (...) a philosophical analysis of what picture theorists call the “visual metaphor” in Friedrich’s key works, in particular “The Wanderer Above a Sea of Fog” and “On the Sailingboat.” Her engagement with these works takes the form of a creative piece—an ekphrastic poem—integrated in a philosophical paper, which is also simultaneously about the aesthetics of that literary form. (shrink)
Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Normative fragment of natural language make up sentences that express acts and describe norms. In this fragment there are criteria of logic thuth and relation of consequence between sentences which constitute a natural deontic logic. This paper adopts at ranslation function from the set of sentences of the normative fragment of natural language in to the set of formulae in the (...) formal language and claims that such function translates logically true sentences of the natural language into provable formulae of the formal calculus. With Von Wright's deontic calculus (1951), it does not fit and generates paradoxes, which are known as Prior's paradoxes. Cruz's paraconsistent deontic propositional calculus, D 1 (1993) avoids some paradoxes, except that generated by the formula OB-O (A- B). One builds a relevant deontic propositional calculus that aims to avoid these paradoxes and keeps intact all other fundamental features of deontic operators, since the formula B - (A - B) is improable in some relavant calculi.  . (shrink)
This study investigates professional tax practitioners' ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in cases involving client pressure to adopt aggressive reporting positions, an issue that has been identified as the most difficult ethical/moral problem facing public accounting practitioners. The multidimensional ethics scale (MES) was used to measure the extent to which a hypothetical behavior was consistent with five ethical philosophies (moral equity, contractualism, utilitarianism, relativism, and egoism). Responses from a sample of 67 tax professionals supported the existence of all dimensions of (...) the MES other than egoism. Regressions of ethical judgments and behavioral intentions on the MES dimensions indicate that ethical decision making is most heavily influenced by the moral equity dimension, followed by the contractualism dimension. In contrast, the utilitarianism and relativism dimensions were only related to ethical judgments and behavioral intentions in isolated instances. (shrink)
Este artigo aborda a complexa questão da diversidade no campo da Educação, considerando que tal abordagem não prescinde do tema da desigualdade de gênero em suas diversas manifestações. A metodologia utilizada apoia-se em análises de fontes bibliográficas, documentais e em resultados de pesquisas de campo com diferentes dimensões teórico-metodológicas. Partiu-se do pressuposto fundamental de que as relações sociais de gênero são construídas no âmbito da vida em sociedade. A questão própria da educação relaciona-se com a produção das identidades socialmente construídas (...) pelos indivíduos a fim de se reconhecerem uns aos outros nos diferentes campos de atuação. Em outras palavras, os agentes sociais interagem, produzem e reproduzem formas de socialização/formação segundo algumas disposições – ou seja, ações recorrentes que são incorporadas e/ou subvertidas na prática social – e nos permitem refletir sobre como a identidade se constituiu. Romper com a reprodução de modelos e crenças estruturados sobre as relações de gênero, por exemplo, permite à escola tornar-se espaço problematizador das diferenças e desigualdades, uma vez que pode lançar mão de temas transversais, possíveis de serem articulados ao currículo, vinculando-os ao cotidiano dos alunos, do qual as relações de gênero fazem parte de maneira intrínseca. (shrink)
Conceptual congruency effects are biases induced by an irrelevant conceptual dimension of a task (e.g., location in vertical space) on the processing of another, relevant dimension (e.g., judging words’ emotional evaluation). Such effects are a central empirical pillar for recent views about how the mind/brain represents concepts. In the present paper, we show how attentional cueing (both exogenous and endogenous) to each conceptual dimension succeeds in modifying both the manifestation and the symmetry of the effect. The theoretical implications of this (...) finding are discussed. (shrink)
Internalism in epistemology is the view that all the factors relevant to the justification of a belief are importantly internal to the believer, while externalism is the view that at least some of those factors are external. This extremely modest first approximation cries out for refinement (which we undertake below), but is enough to orient us in the right direction, namely that the debate between internalism and externalism is bound up with the controversy over the correct account of the distinction (...) between justified beliefs and unjustified beliefs.1 Understanding that distinction has occasionally been obscured by attention to the analysis of knowledge and to the Gettier problem, but our view is that these problems, while interesting, should not completely seduce philosophers away from central questions about epistemic justification. A plausible starting point in the discussion of justification is that the distinction between justified beliefs and unjustified beliefs is not the same as the distinction between true beliefs and false beliefs. This follows from the mundane observation that it is possible to rationally believe.. (shrink)
Bodies of afro descendant women carry not only the historical marks of suffering and dispossession. For they are also told stories of resistance, faith and ancestry, and as social constructions, such bodies are presented as drawings of the cultural diversity that permeates individual and collective identities. Thus, this paper has the approaches around the body beyond the biological and discusses further socio-cultural marks on afro descendant feminist bodies, making allusions and images appear in Brazilian literature and speeches on such bodies.
This paper describes a one-day workshop format for introducing ethics into the engineering curriculum prepared at the University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM). It responds to the ethics criteria newly integrated into the accreditation process by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology (ABET). It also employs an ethics across the curriculum (EAC) approach; engineers identify the ethical issues, write cases that dramatize these issues, and then develop exercises making use of these cases that are specially tailored to mainstream (...) engineering classes. The different activities and strategies employed in this workshop are set forth. Specific references are made to the cases and exercises developed as a result of these workshops. The paper ends by summarizing the different assessments made of the workshop by addressing the following questions: how did it contribute to the overall ABET effort at UPRM; could other universities benefit from a similar activity; and how did the participants evaluate the workshop? (shrink)
What is the simulation theory? Arguments for simulation theory Simulation theory versus theory theory Simulation theory and cognitive science Versions of simulation theory A possible test of the simulation theory.
Over the past two decades the growth of the organic sector has been accompanied by a shift away from first party, or peer review, systems of certification and towards third party certification, in which a disinterested party is responsible for the development of organic standards and the verification of producer compliance. This paper explores some of the limitations of the third party certification model and presents the case of Mexico as an example of how an alternative form of participatory certification (...) has emerged. The paper suggests that participatory guarantee systems (PGS) are reflective of the growing “beyond organic” movement, which focuses on reconstructing the local and re-embedding food systems into their socio-ecological contexts. It argues that PGS offers a number of benefits for producers and consumers, particularly in the South, but that it faces a number of challenges as well, such as a lack of formal recognition, social conflicts and dependence on donated resources. (shrink)
Transhumanist thought on overpopulation usually invokes the welfare of present human beings and the control over future generation, thus minimizing the need and meaning of new births. Here we devise a framework for a more thorough screening of the relevant literature, to have a better appreciation of the issue of natality. We follow the lead of Hannah Arendt and Brent Waters in this respect. With three overlapping categories of words, headed by “natality,” “birth,” and “intergenerations,” a large sample of books (...) on transhumanism is scrutinized, showing the lack of sustained reflection on the issue. After this preliminary scrutiny, a possible defense of natality in face of modern and transhumanist thought is marshaled, evoking a number of desirable human traits. One specific issue, the impact of modern values on natality, is further explored, reiterating that concerns about overpopulation and enhanced humans should keep in sight the natural cycle of birth and death. (shrink)
A partir das reflexões do último Merleau-Ponty sobre a ontologia clássica e sua compreensão do ser, particularmente n? O visível e o invisível , podemos descobrir certas questões que aproximam sua filosofia da de Espinosa. Ao repassar algumas delas, esperamos mostrar ao menos a pertinência de uma investigação acerca das relações entre espinosismo e merleau-pontysmo.
No prefácio das Obras póstumas de Espinosa, o inacabado Compêndio de gramática da língua hebraica é apresentado como um trabalho que, segundo a intenção do autor, quando concluída, assumiria a forma de uma exposição more geometrico da gramática hebraica. Nos estudos espinosanos, muitas vezes se buscou determinar o aspecto geométrico do trabalho, sobretudo em comparação com a Ética , ou então renegá-lo, afirmando a incongruência de aplicar-se tal método a um objeto, um idioma, inapreensível à geometria. A partir da reconsideração (...) desses argumentos e do estudo de algumas passagens do Compêndio , acreditamos ser possível concluir que a obra era realmente redigida como uma exposição geométrica da gramática hebraica, o que se revela especialmente pela presença de um movimento ordenado e dedutivo a comandar sua composição. (shrink)
The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen–Bohm (EPRB) experiment performed with random variable and spatially separated analyzers is a milestone test in the controversy between Objective Local Theories (OLT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM). Only a few OLT are still possible. Some of the surviving OLT (specifically, the so called non-ergodic theories) would be undetectable in the averaged statistical values, but they may leave their trace in the time dynamics. For, while QM predicts random processes, the OLT of this kind predict the existence of regularities that (...) may be revealed as a low dimensional object in the phase space. We perform a numerical analysis of the time-resolved data recorded in that experiment to unveil any hypothetical low dimensional dynamics that may be present. We find no consistent indication of such dynamics except for one data file, the longest of all in the real time. The possible causes of these dynamics are discussed. (shrink)
We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at (...) ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. (shrink)
The debate between the theory-theory and simulation has largely ignored issues of cognitive architecture. In the philosophy of psychology, cognition as symbol manipulation is the orthodoxy. The challenge from connectionism, however, has attracted vigorous and renewed interest. In this paper I adopt connectionism as the antecedent of a conditional: If connectionism is the correct account of cognitive architecture, then the simulation theory should be preferred over the theory-theory. I use both developmental evidence and constraints on explanation in psychology to support (...) this claim. (shrink)
Descartes estabeleceu conceitos através dos quais explicaria sua tese geral para o movimento dos corpos. Em total desacordo, Newton realizou um ostensivo ataque a teoria cartesiana concluindo que o movimento assumido pelo filosofo francês não deveria ser considerado como um movimento real. O diálogo desenvolvido ao longo da discussão, fundamentada na teoria newtoniana referente à natureza física do mundo, demonstra de forma sutil e refinada as observações precisas feitas por Newton acerca das contradições a que levavam o desenvolvimento dos conceitos (...) propostos por Descartes. Imbuída de espírito físico-filosófico, este artigo tem por objetivo elucidar as “ficções” cartesianas, bem como demonstrar a forma pela qual Newton buscou refutá-las: contrapondo a referida teoria de movimento com a sua. (shrink)
The present article approaches, from the point of view of research practices, the debate on how to consider knowledge in terms of the objectivity/subjectivity pair, especially when the topics studied involve the researcher directly. Specifically, the article will focus on situated knowledge, arguing for rigorous but non-neutral objectivity and for the legitimacy of producing scientific knowledge from the perspective of those involved in the issues studied. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo llevar al campo de las prácticas de investigación el (...) debate respecto a cómo considerar al conocimiento en las claves objetividad/subjetividad, más aún cuando las temáticas a trabajar implican directamente al investigador. En particular, se centrará en el planteamiento de los conocimientos situados, donde junto con fundamentar una objetividad rigurosa pero no neutral, se afirma la legitimidad de producir conocimiento científico desde quienes están implicados en las problemáticas estudiadas. (shrink)
When a great thinker of the Spanish Golden Age, such as Vitoria, Molina or Suárez, inquires about the fundamental cause which justifies a licit declaration of war, “injury” is included as one of these causes. Here, “injury” is understood as an infringement of a right, an injustice committed and for which restitution has not been made. Among the injuries which may licitly be considered a justification for war, there is the “insult to honor”, especially to the honor of the Nation (...) and the honor of the Sovereign. The difficulty in accepting this justification for war lies in making a demarcation between the interest of the Sovereign and the interest of the People, i.e. the men who make up the community, who are the immediate depositaries of power. For these thinkers, honor is always owed to the People. This is because a State, a Nation, a People, has the right to enjoy respect for its institutions, laws and customs, as an integral part of its own life. (shrink)
We study statements about countable and well-ordered unions and their relation to each other and to countable and well-ordered forms of the axiom of choice. Using WO as an abbreviation for “well-orderable”, here are two typical results: The assertion that every WO family of countable sets has a WO union does not imply that every countable family of WO sets has a WO union; the axiom of choice for WO families of WO sets does not imply that the countable union (...) of countable sets is WO. (shrink)
Este artigo objetiva fazer um resgate histórico da infância no Brasil a partir do período denominado filantrópico-higienista até os dias atuais. Inicia com o Movimento da Escola Nova, com a instauração sutil das formas de disciplinarização. Logo, a introdução da Psicologia nas políticas públicas se ..
Tanto Espinosa quanto Nietzsche promoveram uma análise crítica da moral vigente; ambos terminam por descobrir a falsidade da concepção de valores transcendentes. No caso específico de Nietzsche, tal operação o conduz a determinar a criação de valores como uma tarefa imperativa aos novos filósofos. O mesmo poderia ser dito de Espinosa? Não encontraríamos no espinosismo algo que se aproximasse de uma necessidade de criar valores? Buscamos responder a tais questões mediante uma análise do início do Tratado da emenda do intelecto.
La obra de Leo Löwental, destacado representante de la Teoría crítica, se ha ocupado de la destrucción del individuo en el mundo contemporáneo. La «herencia de Calibán» que aquí traducimos es un ejemplo de ese análisis.
Let me begin by saying that I am sympathetic to the simulation theory, especially where it is conceived of as a crucial and central addition alongside the theory-theory as the explanation of our capacity to attribute mental states, rather than as an exclusive and exhaustive account by itself.1 I part company with Professor Stueber, however, in that I view the recent simulation theory/theory- theory controversy as subject to resolution primarily through empirical findings. Still, it cannot be denied that Stueber has (...) helped to crystallize elements of the simulation theory/theory-theory debate that have been lurking all along, and has illuminated an important avenue of inquiry into the status of simulation. (shrink)
Una lectura de la "Erkenntnis-kritische Vorrede" a Ursprung des deutsches Trauerspiels busca determinar en qué sentido Benjamin efectúa, en la teoría de las ideas allí esbozada, lo que él mismo llamó después una "tranposicion" del concepto goetheano de Urphänomen. El cotejo con algunos de los naturw..
Mealey's (1995a) psychological explanation of the sociopath's antisocial activity appeals to an incomplete or nonstandard theory of mind. This is not the only possible mechanism of mental state attribution. The simulation theory of mental state ascription offers a better hope of explaining the diverse elements of sociopathy reported by Mealey.
Ralph Burhoe developed his proposals for a social reformation at a time when the “two cultures” debate was still active. It is suggested here that Burhoe, sharing with his contemporaries an understanding of culture that was Western and normative in character, overlooked the distinction between the culture of the elites and popular culture, and consequently between religion as presented by theologians and church officials and popular religion. Therefore, his proposals for the revitalization of traditional religions, even if implemented, would not (...) work. Some contradictions within his own program are pointed out, and the social role of the sciences after World War II, as well as the ambiguities of their presence in the so-called underdeveloped nations, is analyzed. As a positive conclusion, it is suggested that Burhoe's main contribution should be sought, not in his outline for a social reformation, but in his role as an organizer of the dialogue between religion and science. (shrink)
El presente artículo tiene por objetivo llevar al campo de las prácticas de investigación el debate respecto a cómo considerar al conocimiento en las claves objetividad/subjetividad, más aún cuando las temáticas a trabajar implican directamente al investigador. En particular, se centrará en el plant..
Two compelling and persistent projects of contemporary epistemology are engaging skepticism and searching for adequate epistemic principles. The former, of course, can be traced in various forms through the ancients and moderns, and the last decade has seen skepticism debated with renewed vigor. The centrality of skepticism in epistemology is manifest. It both presents a foil against which positive epistemic theses may be modified and tested, and offers powerful arguments that perhaps even lead to the conclusion that skepticism correctly captures (...) our ultimate epistemic condition (Stroud, 1984). (shrink)
Las relaciones entre la filosofía y la literatura han estado determinadas por la discusión y exclusión recíprocas. En este trabajo se plantea el origen de estas relaciones, considerando mito y logos como manifestación de una realidad única. Esta realidad se configura a partir de la confusión que se produce entre ser y parecer, que se plantea en el desvelamiento de la realidad a través de la creación materializada en la escritura. En este sentido, se puede considerar que la filosofía es (...) literatura de conocimiento' porque en su esfuerzo por esclarecer la realidad, por descubrir la verdad de las cosas y por hacer comprensible el bagaje conceptual de que dispone, hace uso de la belleza estilística que le brinda la literatura. (shrink)
Let me begin by signaling my enthusiasm both for the specific case offered by Cummins et al. against teleosemantics and for the overall framework from which this work derives. If the first approximation of the idea is that there will be material implicit in a representation that can be exploited by a cognitive agent that later acquires the right abilities to extract this material, and if this material looks a great deal like content, then the teleosemanticist will find accommodating it (...) challenging. Moreover, the distinction between representation and indication is intriguing and important, and the discussion of structural transformation and isomorphism is illuminating. While Cummins has been urging these themes for some time now, it seems to me that they have not been sufficiently appreciated in the literature. (shrink)
Philosophical naturalism is the thesis that the entirety of the universe is composed of natural things or processes, and philosophers including Aristotle, Hume, Hegel, Nietzsche, Foucault, Mackie, and Fodor subscribe, in some sense, to it. This elusive commitment has been variously interpreted to mean that everything in the universe is physical or material, or that everything is amenable to scientific investigation, or that nothing is supernatural, or that nothing is known a priori, or that everything is natural in some broader (...) sense of that word. Thus, the thesis is sometimes metaphysical, sometimes epistemological, and sometimes methodological. Indeed, depending on its guise, philosophical naturalism has sometimes seemed a bland and uncontroversial truism, while in others it has seemed a daring, provocative, and, to some, manifestly false view. In this seminar, we will aim to come to grips with philosophical naturalism. Our first project will be to understand different kinds of naturalism, and our second will be to assess whether there is any reason to believe of any of those kinds that it is true. We will attend especially closely to historical and contemporary naturalism in ethics, epistemology, language, and mind. (shrink)
La conciencia de un sujeto es condensación de la conciencia social del momento histórico de su constitución. La conciencia se forma con referentes de diversos modos de apropiación de lo real que se convierten en condición de incorporación de nuevos referentes, los cuales son traducidos a su lógica d..
Kant developed a philosophy of histoy where the conjiic& the wa>: has a fundamental role in the develop of the society and in the politicals relations. Is common to associate him with the project of a perpetual pace but, was not looking for a pact of pace among nations but to a programm..