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Wendy A. Rogers [36]Wendy Anne Rogers [2]
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Wendy A. Rogers
Macquarie University
  1.  42
    The Line-Drawing Problem in Disease Definition.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):405-423.
    Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within “dysfunction-requiring” accounts of disease, such as (...)
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  2.  25
    Getting Clearer on Overdiagnosis.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):580-587.
    Overdiagnosis refers to diagnosis that does not benefit patients because the diagnosed condition is not a harmful disease in those individuals. Overdiagnosis has been identified as a problem in cancer screening, diseases such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and a range of mental illnesses including depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this paper, we describe overdiagnosis, investigate reasons why it occurs, and propose two different types. Misclassification overdiagnosis arises because the diagnostic threshold for the disease in question has (...)
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  3.  36
    Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):3-15.
    Many health care systems include programs that allow patients in exceptional circumstances to access medical interventions of as yet unproven benefit. In this article we consider the ethical justifications for?and demands on?these special access programs (SAPs). SAPs have a compassionate basis: They give patients with limited options the opportunity to try interventions that are not yet approved by standard regulatory processes. But while they signal that health care systems can and will respond to individual suffering, SAPs have several disadvantages, including (...)
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  4.  26
    Current Dilemmas in Defining the Boundaries of Disease.Jenny Doust, Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):350-366.
    Boorse’s biostatistical theory states that diseases should be defined in ways that reflect disturbances of biological function and that are objective and value free. We use three examples from contemporary medicine that demonstrate the complex issues that arise when defining the boundaries of disease: polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction. We argue that the biostatistical theory fails to provide sufficient guidance on where the boundaries of disease should be drawn, contains ambiguities relating to choice of reference class, (...)
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  5.  26
    A New Approach to Defining Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (4):402-420.
    In this paper, we examine recent critiques of the debate about defining disease, which claim that its use of conceptual analysis embeds the problematic assumption that the concept is classically structured. These critiques suggest, instead, developing plural stipulative definitions. Although we substantially agree with these critiques, we resist their implication that no general definition of “disease” is possible. We offer an alternative, inductive argument that disease cannot be classically defined and that the best explanation for this is that the concept (...)
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  6.  9
    Against the Use and Publication of Contemporary Unethical Research: The Case of Chinese Transplant Research.Wendy C. Higgins, Wendy A. Rogers, Angela Ballantyne & Wendy Lipworth - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):678-684.
    Recent calls for retraction of a large body of Chinese transplant research and of Dr Jiankui He’s gene editing research has led to renewed interest in the question of publication, retraction and use of unethical biomedical research. In Part 1 of this paper, we briefly review the now well-established consequentialist and deontological arguments for and against the use of unethical research. We argue that, while there are potentially compelling justifications for use under some circumstances, these justifications fail when unethical practices (...)
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  7.  13
    Revisiting the Equity Debate in COVID-19: ICU is No Panacea.Angela Ballantyne, Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki Entwistle & Cindy Towns - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):641-645.
    Throughout March and April 2020, debate raged about how best to allocate limited intensive care unit resources in the face of a growing COVID-19 pandemic. The debate was dominated by utility-based arguments for saving the most lives or life-years. These arguments were tempered by equity-based concerns that triage based solely on prognosis would exacerbate existing health inequities, leaving disadvantaged patients worse off. Central to this debate was the assumption that ICU admission is a valuable but scarce resource in the pandemic (...)
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  8.  27
    Ethical Issues Raised by Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis: A Matter for Public Health?Wendy A. Rogers, Wendy L. Craig & Vikki A. Entwistle - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (8):590-598.
    Current practices of identifying and treating small indolent thyroid cancers constitute an important but in some ways unusual form of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis refers to diagnoses that generally harm rather than benefit patients, primarily because the diagnosed condition is not a harmful form of disease. Patients who are overdiagnosed with thyroid cancer are harmed by the psycho-social impact of a cancer diagnosis, as well as treatment interventions such partial or total thyroidectomy, lifelong thyroid replacement hormone, monitoring, surgical complications and other side (...)
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  9.  19
    Précising Definitions as a Way to Combat Overdiagnosis.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary J. Walker - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1019-1025.
  10.  40
    Challenging the Epistemological Foundations of EBM: What Kind of Knowledge Does Clinical Practice Require?Katrina J. Hutchison & Wendy A. Rogers - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):984-991.
    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine . We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question (...)
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  11.  20
    Casting the Net Too Wide on Overdiagnosis: Benefits, Burdens and Non-Harmful Disease.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (11):717-719.
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  12.  13
    Device Representatives in Hospitals: Are Commercial Imperatives Driving Clinical Decision-Making?Quinn Grundy, Katrina Hutchison, Jane Johnson, Brette Blakely, Robyn Clay-Wlliams, Bernadette Richards & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):589-592.
    Despite concerns about the relationships between health professionals and the medical device industry, the issue has received relatively little attention. Prevalence data are lacking; however, qualitative and survey research suggest device industry representatives, who are commonly present in clinical settings, play a key role in these relationships. Representatives, who are technical product specialists and not necessarily medically trained, may attend surgeries on a daily basis and be available to health professionals 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to provide (...)
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  13.  13
    Risk, Overdiagnosis and Ethical Justifications.Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki A. Entwistle & Stacy M. Carter - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (4):231-248.
    Many healthcare practices expose people to risks of harmful outcomes. However, the major theories of moral philosophy struggle to assess whether, when and why it is ethically justifiable to expose individuals to risks, as opposed to actually harming them. Sven Ove Hansson has proposed an approach to the ethical assessment of risk imposition that encourages attention to factors including questions of justice in the distribution of advantage and risk, people’s acceptance or otherwise of risks, and the scope individuals have to (...)
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  14.  17
    Analysing the Ethics of Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis: A Pathogenic Vulnerability.Wendy A. Rogers - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):129-140.
    Breast cancer screening aims to help women by early identification and treatment of cancers that might otherwise be life-threatening. However, breast cancer screening also leads to the detection of some cancers that, if left undetected and untreated, would not have damaged the health of the women concerned. At the time of diagnosis, harmless cancers cannot be identified as non-threatening, therefore women are offered invasive breast cancer treatment. This phenomenon of identifying non-harmful cancers is called overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is morally problematic as (...)
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  15.  22
    Introduction: The Boundaries of Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):343-349.
    Although health and disease occupy opposite ends of a spectrum, distinguishing between them can be difficult. This is the “line-drawing” problem. The papers in this special issue engage with this challenge of delineating the boundaries of disease. The authors explore different views as to where the boundary between disease and nondisease lies, and related questions, such as how we can identify, or decide, what counts as a disease and what does not; the nature of the boundary between the two categories; (...)
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  16.  25
    Reframing the Debate Around State Responses to Infertility: Considering the Harms of Subfertility and Involuntary Childlessness.Rebecca C. H. Brown, Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki A. Entwistle & Siladitya Bhattacharya - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (3):290-300.
    Many countries are experiencing increasing levels of demand for access to assisted reproductive technologies. Policies regarding who can access ART and with what support from a collective purse are highly contested, raising questions about what state responses are justified. Whilst much of this debate has focused on the status of infertility as a disease, we argue that this is something of a distraction, since disease framing does not provide the far-reaching, robust justification for state support that proponents of ART seem (...)
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  17.  36
    Addressing Within-Role Conflicts of Interest in Surgery.Wendy A. Rogers & Jane Johnson - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (2):219-225.
    In this paper we argue that surgeons face a particular kind of within-role conflict of interests, related to innovation. Within-role conflicts occur when the conflicting interests are both legitimate goals of professional activity. Innovation is an integral part of surgical practice but can create within-role conflicts of interest when innovation compromises patient care in various ways, such as by extending indications for innovative procedures or by failures of informed consent. The standard remedies for conflicts of interest are transparency and recusal, (...)
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  18.  16
    Diagnosis, Narrative Identity, and Asymptomatic Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):307-321.
    An increasing number of patients receive diagnoses of disease without having any symptoms. These include diseases detected through screening programs, as incidental findings from unrelated investigations, or via routine checks of various biological variables like blood pressure or cholesterol. In this article, we draw on narrative identity theory to examine how the process of making sense of being diagnosed with asymptomatic disease can trigger certain overlooked forms of harm for patients. We show that the experience of asymptomatic disease can involve (...)
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  19.  15
    Reasonableness, Credibility, and Clinical Disagreement.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - AMA Journal of Ethics 19 (2):176-182.
    Evidence in medicine can come from more or less trustworthy sources and be produced by more or less reliable methods, and its interpretation can be disputed. As such, it can be unclear when disagreements in medicine result from different, but reasonable, interpretations of the available evidence and when they result from unreasonable refusals to consider legitimate evidence. In this article, we seek to show how assessments of the relevance and implications of evidence are typically affected by factors beyond that evidence (...)
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  20.  16
    Practical Ethics for General Practice.Wendy A. Rogers - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    The aim of this book is to provide an accessible account of ethics in general practice, addressing concerns identified by practitioners. It contains many examples and allows the reader to gain practical insights into how to identify and analyze the ethical issues they encounter in everyday general practice.
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  21.  12
    Response to Bjorn Hofmann: Clarifying Overdiagnosis Without Losing Conceptual Complexity.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):1120-1121.
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  22.  33
    Fragility, Uncertainty, and Healthcare.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary J. Walker - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (1):71-83.
    Medicine seeks to overcome one of the most fundamental fragilities of being human, the fragility of good health. No matter how robust our current state of health, we are inevitably susceptible to future illness and disease, while current disease serves to remind us of various frailties inherent in the human condition. This article examines the relationship between fragility and uncertainty with regard to health, and argues that there are reasons to accept rather than deny at least some forms of uncertainty. (...)
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  23.  51
    Is There a Tension Between Doctors' Duty of Care and Evidence-Based Medicine?Wendy A. Rogers - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):277-287.
    The interaction between evidence-based medicineand doctors' duty of care to patients iscomplex. One the one hand, there is surely anobligation to take account of the bestavailable evidence when offering health care topatients. On the other hand, it is equallyimportant to be aware of important shortcomingsin the processes and practices ofevidence-based medicine. There are tensionsbetween the population focus of evidence-basedmedicine and the duties that doctors have toindividual patients. Implementingevidence-based medicine may have unpredictableconsequences upon the overall quality of healthcare. Patients may have (...)
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  24.  34
    Social Justice and Pandemic Influenza Planning: The Role of Communication Strategies.Connal Lee, Wendy A. Rogers & Annette Braunack-Mayer - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (3):223-234.
    Department of Medical Education, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001. Tel. : +61-8-7225-1111; Fax: +61-8-8204-5675; Email: lee0359{at}flinders.edu.au ' + u + '@ ' + d + ' '/ /- ->.This paper analyses the role of communication strategies in pandemic influenza planning. Our central concern is with the extent to which nations are using communication to address issues of social justice. Issues associated with disadvantage and vulnerability to infection in the event of an influenza pandemic raise (...)
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  25.  16
    Smoke and Mirrors: Unanswered Questions and Misleading Statements Obscure the Truth About Organ Sources in China.Wendy A. Rogers, Torsten Trey, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Madeleine Bridgett, Katrina A. Bramstedt & Jacob Lavee - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):552-553.
  26.  10
    Virtue Ethics and Public Health: A Practice-Based Analysis.Wendy Anne Rogers - 2004 - Monash Bioethics Review 23 (1):10-21.
    Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical (...)
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  27.  13
    Special Access Programs Warrant Further Critical Attention: Authors' Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations”.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):W1 - W2.
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  28.  8
    Toward an Understanding of Age-Related Memory and Visual Search Effects.Arthur D. Fisk & Wendy A. Rogers - 1991 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 120 (2):131-149.
  29.  7
    General Slowing Alone Cannot Explain Age-Related Search Effects: Reply to Cerella.Arthur D. Fisk, Donald L. Fisher & Wendy A. Rogers - 1992 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 121 (1):73-78.
  30.  3
    Ethics, Pandemic Planning and Communications.Wendy A. Rogers & Connal Lee - 2006 - Monash Bioethics Review 25 (4):9-18.
    In this article we examine the role and ethics of communications in planning for an influenza pandemic. We argue that ethical communication must not only he effective, so that pandemic plans can be successfully implemented, communications should also take specific account of the needs of the disadvantaged, so that they are not further disenfranchised. This will require particular attention to the role of the mainstream media which may disadvantage the vulnerable through misrepresentation and exclusion.
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  31.  5
    Testing Relationships: Ethical Arguments for Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with HbA1C.Chris Degeling, Melanie Rock & Wendy A. Rogers - 2012 - Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):180-183.
    Since the 1990s, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1C) has been the gold standard for monitoring glycaemic control in people diagnosed as having either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Discussions are underway about diagnosing diabetes mellitus on the basis of HbA1C titres and using HbA1C tests to screen for T2DM. These discussions have focused on the relative benefits for individual patients, with some attention directed towards reduced costs to healthcare systems and benefits to society. We argue that (...)
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  32.  7
    "Toward an Understanding of Age-Related Memory and Visual Search Effects": Clarification.Arthur D. Fisk & Wendy A. Rogers - 1993 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 122 (2):165-165.
  33.  23
    Details Matter—Definitions and Context Can’T Be Glossed Over When Managing Innovation.Jane Johnson, Katrina Hutchison & Wendy A. Rogers - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):28-29.
    Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2019, Page 28-29.
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  34.  13
    Whistle-Blowing in the Medical Curriculum: A Response to Faunce.Nigel Palmer & Wendy Anne Rogers - 2005 - Monash Bioethics Review 24 (1):50-58.
    We agree with Faunce’s proposal that academic legitimacy is important in ensuring that whistle-blowing is included in medical curricula. We disagree, however, with the assertion that this is best achieved by means of an over-arching theoretical foundation for health care whistle-blowing of the kind suggested by Faunce. We propose that systematic theoretical justification is neither the sole nor the main determinant of academic legitimacy when it comes to matters for inclusion in medical school curricula, and outline an alternative view, together (...)
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  35.  2
    Introduction to December 2013 Issue.Wendy A. Rogers - 2013 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied 19 (4):285-286.
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  36.  4
    Responding to Unethical Research: The Importance of Transparency.Wendy A. Rogers, Wendy C. Higgins, Angela Ballantyne & Wendy Lipworth - 2020 - Journal of Medical Ethics 46 (10):691-692.
    We thank Goldstein and Peterson, Caplan, and Bramstedt for engaging with our paper on the ethics of publishing and using Chinese transplant research that involves organs procured from executed prisoners.1–4 In that paper, we examine consequentialist and deontological arguments for and against using data from unethical research. Goldstein and Peterson question the relationship between the social and scientific value of the research and the decision to publish the results. They argue that the failure to publish scientifically valid and socially valuable (...)
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  37.  5
    The Ethical and Epistemic Roles of Narrative in Person Centred Healthcare.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2020 - European Journal of Person Centred Healthcare 8 (3):345-354.
    Positive claims about narrative approaches to healthcare suggest they could have many benefits, including supporting person-centred healthcare (PCH). Narrative approaches have also been criticised, however, on both theoretical and practical grounds. In this paper we draw on epistemological work on narrative and knowledge to develop a conception of narrative that responds to these concerns. We make a case for understanding narratives as accounts of events in which the way each event is described as influenced by the ways other events in (...)
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