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Wendy Rogers [32]Wendy A. Rogers [31]Wendy Anne Rogers [2]
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Wendy A. Rogers
Macquarie University
  1. Why Bioethics Needs a Concept of Vulnerability.Wendy Rogers, Catriona Mackenzie & Susan Dodds - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):11-38.
  2.  17
    Getting Clearer on Overdiagnosis.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2016 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 22 (4):580-587.
    Overdiagnosis refers to diagnosis that does not benefit patients because the diagnosed condition is not a harmful disease in those individuals. Overdiagnosis has been identified as a problem in cancer screening, diseases such as chronic kidney disease and diabetes, and a range of mental illnesses including depression and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this paper, we describe overdiagnosis, investigate reasons why it occurs, and propose two different types. Misclassification overdiagnosis arises because the diagnostic threshold for the disease in question has (...)
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  3.  32
    The Line-Drawing Problem in Disease Definition.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary Jean Walker - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):405-423.
    Biological dysfunction is regarded, in many accounts, as necessary and perhaps sufficient for disease. But although disease is conceptualized as all-or-nothing, biological functions often differ by degree. A tension is created by attempting to use a continuous variable as the basis for a categorical definition, raising questions about how we are to pinpoint the boundary between health and disease. This is the line-drawing problem. In this paper, we show how the line-drawing problem arises within “dysfunction-requiring” accounts of disease, such as (...)
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  4.  44
    The Ethics of Uterus Transplantation.Ruby Catsanos, Wendy Rogers & Mianna Lotz - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (2):65-73.
    Human uterus transplantation is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as (...)
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  5.  34
    Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):3-15.
    Many health care systems include programs that allow patients in exceptional circumstances to access medical interventions of as yet unproven benefit. In this article we consider the ethical justifications for?and demands on?these special access programs (SAPs). SAPs have a compassionate basis: They give patients with limited options the opportunity to try interventions that are not yet approved by standard regulatory processes. But while they signal that health care systems can and will respond to individual suffering, SAPs have several disadvantages, including (...)
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  6.  88
    Vulnerability in Research Ethics: A Way Forward.Margaret Meek Lange, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds - 2013 - Bioethics 27 (6):333-340.
    Several foundational documents of bioethics mention the special obligation researchers have to vulnerable research participants. However, the treatment of vulnerability offered by these documents often relies on enumeration of vulnerable groups rather than an analysis of the features that make such groups vulnerable. Recent attempts in the scholarly literature to lend philosophical weight to the concept of vulnerability are offered by Luna and Hurst. Luna suggests that vulnerability is irreducibly contextual and that Institutional Review Boards (Research Ethics Committees) can only (...)
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  7.  21
    Current Dilemmas in Defining the Boundaries of Disease.Jenny Doust, Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):350-366.
    Boorse’s biostatistical theory states that diseases should be defined in ways that reflect disturbances of biological function and that are objective and value free. We use three examples from contemporary medicine that demonstrate the complex issues that arise when defining the boundaries of disease: polycystic ovary syndrome, chronic kidney disease, and myocardial infarction. We argue that the biostatistical theory fails to provide sufficient guidance on where the boundaries of disease should be drawn, contains ambiguities relating to choice of reference class, (...)
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  8. Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy.Catriona Mackenzie, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds (eds.) - 2013 - Oup Usa.
    This volume breaks new ground by investigating the ethics of vulnerability. Drawing on various ethical traditions, the contributors explore the nature of vulnerability, the responsibilities owed to the vulnerable, and by whom.
     
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  9.  14
    Précising Definitions as a Way to Combat Overdiagnosis.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary J. Walker - 2018 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 24 (5):1019-1025.
  10.  20
    Ethical Issues Raised by Thyroid Cancer Overdiagnosis: A Matter for Public Health?Wendy A. Rogers, Wendy L. Craig & Vikki A. Entwistle - 2017 - Bioethics 31 (8):590-598.
    Current practices of identifying and treating small indolent thyroid cancers constitute an important but in some ways unusual form of overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis refers to diagnoses that generally harm rather than benefit patients, primarily because the diagnosed condition is not a harmful form of disease. Patients who are overdiagnosed with thyroid cancer are harmed by the psycho-social impact of a cancer diagnosis, as well as treatment interventions such partial or total thyroidectomy, lifelong thyroid replacement hormone, monitoring, surgical complications and other side (...)
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  11.  19
    Defining Disease in the Context of Overdiagnosis.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy Rogers - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 20 (2):269-280.
    Recently, concerns have been raised about the phenomenon of ‘overdiagnosis’, the diagnosis of a condition that is not causing harm, and will not come to cause harm. Along with practical, ethical, and scientific questions, overdiagnosis raises questions about our concept of disease. In this paper, we analyse overdiagnosis as an epistemic problem and show how it challenges many existing accounts of disease. In particular, it raises ques- tions about conceptual links drawn between disease and dysfunction, harm, and risk. We argue (...)
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  12.  14
    Bioethics and Activism: A Natural Fit?Wendy Rogers - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (8):881-889.
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  13.  22
    A New Approach to Defining Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 43 (4):402-420.
    In this paper, we examine recent critiques of the debate about defining disease, which claim that its use of conceptual analysis embeds the problematic assumption that the concept is classically structured. These critiques suggest, instead, developing plural stipulative definitions. Although we substantially agree with these critiques, we resist their implication that no general definition of “disease” is possible. We offer an alternative, inductive argument that disease cannot be classically defined and that the best explanation for this is that the concept (...)
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  14.  24
    Addressing Deficits and Injustices: The Potential Epistemic Contributions of Patients to Research.Katrina Hutchison, Wendy Rogers & Vikki A. Entwistle - 2017 - Health Care Analysis 25 (4):386-403.
    Patient or public involvement in health research is increasingly expected as a matter of policy. In theory, PPI can contribute both to the epistemic aims intrinsic to research, and to extrinsically valued features of research such as social inclusion and transparency. In practice, the aims of PPI have not always been clear, although there has been a tendency to encourage the involvement of so-called ordinary people who are regarded as representative of an assumed patient perspective. In this paper we focus (...)
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  15.  9
    Casting the Net Too Wide on Overdiagnosis: Benefits, Burdens and Non-Harmful Disease.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (11):717-719.
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  16.  4
    Bioethics and Activism.Heather Draper, Greg Moorlock, Wendy Rogers & Jackie Leach Scully - 2019 - Bioethics 33 (8):853-856.
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  17.  35
    Challenging the Epistemological Foundations of EBM: What Kind of Knowledge Does Clinical Practice Require?Katrina J. Hutchison & Wendy A. Rogers - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):984-991.
    This paper raises questions about the epistemological foundations of evidence-based medicine . We argue that EBM is based upon reliabilist epistemological assumptions, and that this is appropriate - we should focus on identifying the most reliable processes for generating and collecting medical knowledge. However, we note that this should not be reduced to narrow questions about which research methodologies are the best for gathering evidence. Reliable processes for generating medical evidence might lie outside of formal research methods. We also question (...)
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  18.  11
    Potential Conflict of Interest and Bias in the RACGP’s Smoking Cessation Guidelines: Are GPs Provided with the Best Advice on Smoking Cessation for Their Patients?Ross MacKenzie & Wendy Rogers - 2015 - Public Health Ethics 8 (3):319-331.
    Patient visits are an important opportunity for general practitioners to discuss the risks of smoking and cessation strategies. In Australia, the guidelines on cessation published by the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners represent a key resource for GPs in this regard. The predominant message of the Guidelines is that pharmacotherapy should be recommended as first-line therapy for smokers expressing an interest in quitting. This, however, ignores established evidence about the success of unassisted quitting. Our analysis of the Guidelines identifies (...)
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  19.  15
    Introduction: The Boundaries of Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 42 (4):343-349.
    Although health and disease occupy opposite ends of a spectrum, distinguishing between them can be difficult. This is the “line-drawing” problem. The papers in this special issue engage with this challenge of delineating the boundaries of disease. The authors explore different views as to where the boundary between disease and nondisease lies, and related questions, such as how we can identify, or decide, what counts as a disease and what does not; the nature of the boundary between the two categories; (...)
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  20.  25
    Getting Clearer About Surgical Innovation : A New Definition and a New Tool to Support Responsible Practice.Katrina Hutchison, Wendy Rogers, Anthony Eyers & Mianna Lotz - unknown
    OBJECTIVES: This article presents an original definition of surgical innovation and a practical tool for identifying planned innovations. These will support the responsible introduction of surgical innovations. BACKGROUND: Frameworks developed for the safer introduction of surgical innovations rely upon identifying cases of innovation; oversight cannot occur unless innovations are identified. However, there is no consensus among surgeons about which interventions they consider innovative; existing definitions are vague and impractical. METHODS: Using conceptual analysis, this article synthesizes findings from relevant literature, and (...)
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  21.  29
    Evidence-Based Medicine and Women: Do the Principles and Practice of EBM Further Women's Health?Wendy Rogers - 2004 - Bioethics 18 (1):50-71.
    Clinicians and policy makers the world over are embracing evidence-based medicine. The promise of EBM is to use summaries of research evidence to determine which healthcare interventions are effective and which are not, so that patients may benefit from effective interventions and be protected from useless or harmful ones. EBM provides an ostensibly rational and objective means of deciding whether or not an intervention should be provided on the basis of its effectiveness, in theory leading to fair and effective healthcare (...)
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  22.  14
    Analysing the Ethics of Breast Cancer Overdiagnosis: A Pathogenic Vulnerability.Wendy A. Rogers - 2019 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 22 (1):129-140.
    Breast cancer screening aims to help women by early identification and treatment of cancers that might otherwise be life-threatening. However, breast cancer screening also leads to the detection of some cancers that, if left undetected and untreated, would not have damaged the health of the women concerned. At the time of diagnosis, harmless cancers cannot be identified as non-threatening, therefore women are offered invasive breast cancer treatment. This phenomenon of identifying non-harmful cancers is called overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is morally problematic as (...)
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  23.  11
    Device Representatives in Hospitals: Are Commercial Imperatives Driving Clinical Decision-Making?Quinn Grundy, Katrina Hutchison, Jane Johnson, Brette Blakely, Robyn Clay-Wlliams, Bernadette Richards & Wendy A. Rogers - 2018 - Journal of Medical Ethics 44 (9):589-592.
    Despite concerns about the relationships between health professionals and the medical device industry, the issue has received relatively little attention. Prevalence data are lacking; however, qualitative and survey research suggest device industry representatives, who are commonly present in clinical settings, play a key role in these relationships. Representatives, who are technical product specialists and not necessarily medically trained, may attend surgeries on a daily basis and be available to health professionals 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to provide (...)
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  24.  25
    Reframing the Debate Around State Responses to Infertility: Considering the Harms of Subfertility and Involuntary Childlessness.Rebecca C. H. Brown, Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki A. Entwistle & Siladitya Bhattacharya - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (3):290-300.
    Many countries are experiencing increasing levels of demand for access to assisted reproductive technologies. Policies regarding who can access ART and with what support from a collective purse are highly contested, raising questions about what state responses are justified. Whilst much of this debate has focused on the status of infertility as a disease, we argue that this is something of a distraction, since disease framing does not provide the far-reaching, robust justification for state support that proponents of ART seem (...)
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  25.  20
    Gender and Trust in Medicine: Vulnerabilities, Abuses, and Remedies.Wendy Rogers & Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (1):48-66.
    Trust is taken to be one of the foundational values in the doctor-patient relationship, facilitating access to the benefits of health care and providing a guarantee against possible harms. Despite this foundational role, some doctors betray the trust of their patients. Trusting involves granting discretionary powers and makes the truster vulnerable to the trustee. Patients trust medical practitioners to act with goodwill and to act competently. Some patients carry pre-existing vulnerabilities, for reasons such as gender, poverty, age, ethnicity, or disability, (...)
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  26.  23
    Joint Issues – Conflicts of Interest, the ASR Hip and Suggestions for Managing Surgical Conflicts of Interest.Jane Johnson & Wendy Rogers - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):63.
    Financial and nonfinancial conflicts of interest in medicine and surgery are troubling because they have the capacity to skew decision making in ways that might be detrimental to patient care and well-being. The recent case of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) hip provides a vivid illustration of the harmful effects of conflicts of interest in surgery.
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  27.  22
    Details Matter—Definitions and Context Can’T Be Glossed Over When Managing Innovation.Jane Johnson, Katrina Hutchison & Wendy A. Rogers - 2019 - American Journal of Bioethics 19 (6):28-29.
    Volume 19, Issue 6, June 2019, Page 28-29.
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  28.  25
    Justice in Health Research: What is the Role of Evidence-Based Medicine?Wendy Rogers & Angela Ballantyne - 2009 - Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 52 (2):188-202.
  29.  12
    Reasonableness, Credibility, and Clinical Disagreement.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - AMA Journal of Ethics 19 (2):176-182.
    Evidence in medicine can come from more or less trustworthy sources and be produced by more or less reliable methods, and its interpretation can be disputed. As such, it can be unclear when disagreements in medicine result from different, but reasonable, interpretations of the available evidence and when they result from unreasonable refusals to consider legitimate evidence. In this article, we seek to show how assessments of the relevance and implications of evidence are typically affected by factors beyond that evidence (...)
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  30.  11
    Diagnosis, Narrative Identity, and Asymptomatic Disease.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy A. Rogers - 2017 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 38 (4):307-321.
    An increasing number of patients receive diagnoses of disease without having any symptoms. These include diseases detected through screening programs, as incidental findings from unrelated investigations, or via routine checks of various biological variables like blood pressure or cholesterol. In this article, we draw on narrative identity theory to examine how the process of making sense of being diagnosed with asymptomatic disease can trigger certain overlooked forms of harm for patients. We show that the experience of asymptomatic disease can involve (...)
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  31.  9
    Response to Bjorn Hofmann: Clarifying Overdiagnosis Without Losing Conceptual Complexity.Wendy A. Rogers & Yishai Mintzker - 2017 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 23 (5):1120-1121.
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  32.  33
    Fragility, Uncertainty, and Healthcare.Wendy A. Rogers & Mary J. Walker - 2016 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 37 (1):71-83.
    Medicine seeks to overcome one of the most fundamental fragilities of being human, the fragility of good health. No matter how robust our current state of health, we are inevitably susceptible to future illness and disease, while current disease serves to remind us of various frailties inherent in the human condition. This article examines the relationship between fragility and uncertainty with regard to health, and argues that there are reasons to accept rather than deny at least some forms of uncertainty. (...)
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  33.  31
    Addressing Within-Role Conflicts of Interest in Surgery.Wendy A. Rogers & Jane Johnson - 2013 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 10 (2):219-225.
    In this paper we argue that surgeons face a particular kind of within-role conflict of interests, related to innovation. Within-role conflicts occur when the conflicting interests are both legitimate goals of professional activity. Innovation is an integral part of surgical practice but can create within-role conflicts of interest when innovation compromises patient care in various ways, such as by extending indications for innovative procedures or by failures of informed consent. The standard remedies for conflicts of interest are transparency and recusal, (...)
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  34. Gender Inequalities in Health Research : An Australian Perspective.Belinda Bennett, Isabel Karpin, Angela Ballantyne & Wendy Rogers - 2008 - In Michael D. A. Freeman (ed.), Law and Bioethics / Edited by Michael Freeman. Oxford University Press.
  35.  10
    Vulnerability and Bioethics.Wendy Rogers - 2013 - In Catriona Mackenzie, Wendy Rogers & Susan Dodds (eds.), Vulnerability: New Essays in Ethics and Feminist Philosophy. Oup Usa. pp. 60.
  36.  14
    Smoke and Mirrors: Unanswered Questions and Misleading Statements Obscure the Truth About Organ Sources in China.Wendy A. Rogers, Torsten Trey, Maria Fiatarone Singh, Madeleine Bridgett, Katrina A. Bramstedt & Jacob Lavee - 2016 - Journal of Medical Ethics 42 (8):552-553.
  37.  50
    Is There a Tension Between Doctors' Duty of Care and Evidence-Based Medicine?Wendy A. Rogers - 2002 - Health Care Analysis 10 (3):277-287.
    The interaction between evidence-based medicineand doctors' duty of care to patients iscomplex. One the one hand, there is surely anobligation to take account of the bestavailable evidence when offering health care topatients. On the other hand, it is equallyimportant to be aware of important shortcomingsin the processes and practices ofevidence-based medicine. There are tensionsbetween the population focus of evidence-basedmedicine and the duties that doctors have toindividual patients. Implementingevidence-based medicine may have unpredictableconsequences upon the overall quality of healthcare. Patients may have (...)
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  38.  32
    Social Justice and Pandemic Influenza Planning: The Role of Communication Strategies.Connal Lee, Wendy A. Rogers & Annette Braunack-Mayer - 2008 - Public Health Ethics 1 (3):223-234.
    Department of Medical Education, Flinders University of South Australia, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001. Tel. : +61-8-7225-1111; Fax: +61-8-8204-5675; Email: lee0359{at}flinders.edu.au ' + u + '@ ' + d + ' '/ /- ->.This paper analyses the role of communication strategies in pandemic influenza planning. Our central concern is with the extent to which nations are using communication to address issues of social justice. Issues associated with disadvantage and vulnerability to infection in the event of an influenza pandemic raise (...)
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  39.  9
    When is Sex-Specific Research Appropriate?Wendy Rogers & Angela Ballantyne - 2008 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 1 (2):36-57.
    Inclusion in research is a question of both scientific validity of research results and just distribution of the benefits of medical research within a community. Therefore, inappropriate exclusions from research can be regulated as a matter of science or a matter of ethics. In this paper we examine the definitions of appropriate/fair inclusion in the Australian and U.S. regulatory systems and discuss the processes for interpreting and implementing these normative standards. In the second part of the paper, we present original (...)
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  40.  8
    Reply to Ackermann.Ross MacKenzie & Wendy Rogers - 2016 - Public Health Ethics 9 (1):121-122.
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  41. Is Sex-Selective Abortion Morally Justified and Should It Be Prohibited?Wendy Rogers, Angela Ballantyne & Heather Draper - 2007 - Bioethics 21 (9):520–524.
  42.  3
    Defining Disease in the Context of Overdiagnosis.Mary Jean Walker & Wendy Rogers - 2017 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy: A European Journal 20 (2):269-280.
    Recently, concerns have been raised about the phenomenon of 'overdiagnosis', the diagnosis of a condition that is not causing harm, and will not come to cause harm. Along with practical, ethical, and scientific questions, overdiagnosis raises questions about our concept of disease. In this paper, we analyse overdiagnosis as an epistemic problem and show how it challenges many existing accounts of disease. In particular, it raises questions about conceptual links drawn between disease and dysfunction, harm, and risk. We argue that (...)
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  43.  13
    Practical Ethics for General Practice.Wendy A. Rogers - 2004 - Oxford University Press.
    The aim of this book is to provide an accessible account of ethics in general practice, addressing concerns identified by practitioners. It contains many examples and allows the reader to gain practical insights into how to identify and analyze the ethical issues they encounter in everyday general practice.
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  44.  9
    Virtue Ethics and Public Health: A Practice-Based Analysis.Wendy Anne Rogers - 2004 - Monash Bioethics Review 23 (1):10-21.
    Public health plays an important, albeit often unnoticed, role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. The activities of public health are complex, performed by multiple professionals, and range from the innocuous to the intrusive. Ethical analyses in public health reflect some of this complexity and fragmentation, with no one approach able to capture the full range of ethical considerations raised by public health activities. There are however, good reasons why we should pursue such analyses. Providing a robust ethical (...)
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  45.  15
    Strengthening the Ethical Assessment of Placebo-Controlled Surgical Trials: Three Proposals.Wendy Rogers, Katrina Hutchison, Zoë C. Skea & Marion K. Campbell - 2014 - BMC Medical Ethics 15 (1):78.
    Placebo-controlled surgical trials can provide important information about the efficacy of surgical interventions. However, they are ethically contentious as placebo surgery entails the risk of harms to recipients, such as pain, scarring or anaesthetic misadventure. This has led to claims that placebo-controlled surgical trials are inherently unethical. On the other hand, without placebo-controlled surgical trials, it may be impossible to know whether an apparent benefit from surgery is due to the intervention itself or to the placebo effect.
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  46.  11
    Special Access Programs Warrant Further Critical Attention: Authors' Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Ethical Justifications for Access to Unapproved Medical Interventions: An Argument for (Limited) Patient Obligations”.Mary Jean Walker, Wendy A. Rogers & Vikki Entwistle - 2014 - American Journal of Bioethics 14 (11):W1 - W2.
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  47.  11
    Risk, Overdiagnosis and Ethical Justifications.Wendy A. Rogers, Vikki A. Entwistle & Stacy M. Carter - 2019 - Health Care Analysis 27 (4):231-248.
    Many healthcare practices expose people to risks of harmful outcomes. However, the major theories of moral philosophy struggle to assess whether, when and why it is ethically justifiable to expose individuals to risks, as opposed to actually harming them. Sven Ove Hansson has proposed an approach to the ethical assessment of risk imposition that encourages attention to factors including questions of justice in the distribution of advantage and risk, people’s acceptance or otherwise of risks, and the scope individuals have to (...)
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  48.  9
    Editors’ Introduction.Wendy Rogers, Catriona Mackenzie & Susan Dodds - 2012 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 5 (2):1-10.
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  49.  2
    Ethics, Pandemic Planning and Communications.Wendy A. Rogers & Connal Lee - 2006 - Monash Bioethics Review 25 (4):9-18.
    In this article we examine the role and ethics of communications in planning for an influenza pandemic. We argue that ethical communication must not only he effective, so that pandemic plans can be successfully implemented, communications should also take specific account of the needs of the disadvantaged, so that they are not further disenfranchised. This will require particular attention to the role of the mainstream media which may disadvantage the vulnerable through misrepresentation and exclusion.
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  50.  15
    Introduction.Wendy Rogers - 2009 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 2 (2):1-4.
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