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  1. Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2005 - Philosophy East and West 55 (1):15-32.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of anylackofmemoryofpastlives,the lack of proportionality between wrongdoing (...)
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  2.  62
    Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil.Whitley Kaufman - 2005 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Philosophy East and West. Routledge. pp. 222.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of anylackofmemoryofpastlives,the lack of proportionality between wrongdoing (...)
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  3.  29
    New Atheism and its Critics.Whitley Kaufman - 2019 - Philosophy Compass 14 (1):e12560.
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  4. Torture and the "Distributive Justice" Theory of Self-Defense: An Assessment.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1):93–115.
    The goal of this feature is to demonstrate that distributive justice is a flawed theory of self-defense and must be rejected, thus undercutting the argument that torture can be justified as self-defense.
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  5.  98
    Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil: A Reply to Critics.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):556-560.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of any lack of memory of past (...)
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  6. What's Wrong with Preventive War? The Moral and Legal Basis for the Preventive Use of Force.Whitley Kaufman - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3):23–38.
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  7.  33
    Justified Killing: The Paradox of Self-Defense.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    In Justified Killing, Whitley R. P. Kaufman argues that none of the leading theories adequately explains why it is permissible even to kill an innocent attacker in self-defense, given the basic moral prohibition against killing the innocent. Kaufman suggests that such an explanation can be found in the traditional Doctrine of Double Effect, according to which self-defense is justified because the intention of the defender is to protect himself rather than harm the attacker.
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  8.  68
    Self-Defense, Innocent Aggressors, and the Duty of Martyrdom.Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (1):78-96.
    On the traditional doctrine of self-defense, defensive force is permissible not only against Culpable Aggressors but against Innocent Aggressors as well (for example, psychotic aggressors). Some moral philosophers have recently challenged this view, arguing that one may not harm innocent attackers because morality requires culpability as an essential condition of being liable to defensive force. This essay examines and rejects this challenge as both a violation of common sense and as insufficiently grounded in convincing reasons from moral theory.
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  9.  71
    Is There a “Right” to Self‐Defense?Whitley Kaufman - 2004 - Criminal Justice Ethics 23 (1):20-32.
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  10.  84
    The Doctrine of Double Effect and the Trolley Problem.Whitley Kaufman - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (1):21-31.
    It is widely held by moral philosophers that J.J. Thomson’s “Loop Variant,” a version of the Trolley Problem first presented by her in 1985, decisively refutes the Doctrine of Double Effect as the right explanation of our moral intuitions in the various trolley-type cases.See Bruers and Brackman, “A Review and Systematization of the Trolley Problem,” Philosophia 42:2 : 251–269; T. Scanlon, Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame ; Peter Singer, “Ethics and Intuitions,” Journal of Ethics 9:314 : 331–352, p. 340; Matthew (...)
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  11.  29
    Poetic Naturalism: Sean Carroll, Science, and Moral Objectivity.Whitley Kaufman - 2017 - Zygon 52 (1):196-211.
    Physicist Sean Carroll has developed a new theory of the fundamental nature of reality, which he calls “Poetic Naturalism,” with the stated goal of developing a theory of what is real that is consistent with the findings of natural science. Carroll claims to prove that morality cannot be seen as objectively true. This essay argues that Carroll's conclusion is not convincing; there is no good reason to reject moral objectivity within a purely naturalistic worldview.
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  12.  68
    Revenge as the Dark Double of Retributive Punishment.Whitley Kaufman - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (2):317-325.
    It is an assumption widely shared by both retributivists and anti-retributivists that revenge is a morally impermissible basis for inflicting harm. Retributivists have thus exercised great ingenuity in demonstrating that retribution is fundamentally different from revenge. But this is, I argue, to misconstrue the problem. The problem is rather to recognize the essential continuity between revenge and retribution, and to address the question whether there is a moral basis for the very idea of inflicting harm in response to moral wrongdoing. (...)
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  13. Can Science Determine Moral Values? A Reply to Sam Harris.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2012 - Neuroethics 5 (1):55-65.
    Sam Harris’ new book “The Moral Landscape” is the latest in a series of attempts to provide a new “science of morality.” This essay argues that such a project is unlikely to succeed, using Harris’ text as an example of the major philosophical problems that would be faced by any such theory. In particular, I argue that those trying to construct a scientific ethics need pay far more attention to the tradition of moral philosophy, rather than assuming the debate is (...)
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  14.  49
    Review of Witzel's The Origin of World's Mythologies.Whitley Kaufman - 2013 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China (3).
    Review of Witzel's "The Origin of World Mythologies".
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  15.  41
    On a Purported Error About the Doctrine of Double Effect: A Reply to Sophie Botros.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2000 - Philosophy 75 (2):283-295.
  16. The Rise and Fall of the Mixed Theory of Punishment.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):37-57.
    In the middle of the twentieth century, many philosophers came to believe that the problem of morally justifying punishment had finally been solved. Defended most famously by Hart and Rawls, the so-called “Mixed Theory” of punishment claimed that justifying punishment required recognizing that the utilitarian and retributive theories were in fact answers to two different questions: utilitarianism answered the question of why we have punishment as an institution, while retribution answered the question of how to punish individual wrongdoers. We could (...)
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  17.  43
    McMahan, Jeff . Killing in War . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009 . Pp. 250. $35.00 (Cloth).Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Ethics 120 (2):399-404.
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  18. David Rodin and Henry Shue, Eds. Just and Unjust Warriors: The Moral and Legal Status of Soldiers. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (4):278-280.
     
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  19.  74
    James Hillman's A Terrible Love of War Chris Hedges' War Is A Force That Gives Us Meaning and Barbara Ehrenreich's Blood Rites.Whitley Kaufman - 2006 - Journal of Military Ethics 5 (1):67-73.
    (2006). James Hillman's A Terrible Love of War Chris Hedges’ War Is A Force That Gives Us Meaning and Barbara Ehrenreich's Blood Rites. Journal of Military Ethics: Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 67-73.
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  20.  59
    Understanding Honor: Beyond the Shame/Guilt Dichotomy.Whitley Kaufman - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):557-573.
    The concept of honor continues to be among the most widely misunderstood of human ideals. It has long been claimed that honor is an essentially external ideal, motivated by shame at one's appearance before others rather than an inward sense of guilt, the implication being that honor is a superficial moral ideal and one superseded by the higher ideal of the moral conscience. This account does not, however, stand up to scrutiny; honor is a genuinely "internal" value as much as (...)
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  21. E.J. Michael Witzel, The Origins of the World's Mythologies. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013, 688 Pp. ISBN: 9780199812851. [REVIEW]Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2013 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China 8 (3):518-523.
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  22.  55
    Terrorism, Self-Defense, and the Killing of the Innocent.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2004 - Social Philosophy Today 20:41-52.
    In this essay I analyze and defend the common sense moral conviction that terrorism, i.e., the use of violence against civilians for political or military purposes, is always morally impermissible. Terrorism violates the fundamental moral prohibition against harming the innocent, even to produce greater overall good. It is therefore just the sort of case that serves as a refutation of consequentialist moral theories. From a deontological perspective, the only remotely plausible forms of justification for a terrorist act would be that (...)
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  23.  35
    Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):114-118.
  24.  40
    Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):114-118.
    Henry David Thoreau’s legacy as a major figure in the American tradition seems assured. Though largely ignored in his own day, his book Walden is now considered an American classic, and the site of his cabin at Walden Pond is a regular pilgrimage destination for tourists. Yet less clear is how to characterize Thoreau and his contribution to American thought: Is he a naturalist? A literary figure? A social critic? A transcendentalist? Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy makes the argument that Thoreau (...)
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  25. Front Matter Front Matter (Pp. I-Iv).Richard Kenneth Atkins, Adam Glover, Katie Terezakis, Whitley Kaufman, Steven Levine, Seth Vannatta, Aaron Massecar, Robert Main & Jerome A. Stone - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):91-94.
  26. Charles Guignon, Ed., The Good Life Reviewed By.Whitley Rp Kaufman - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (1):39-40.
     
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  27. Charles Guignon, Ed., The Good Life. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20:39-40.
     
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  28. Douglas Husak, Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law.Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (3):192.
     
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  29. George P. Fletcher, The Grammar of Criminal Law Vol. 1: Foundations.Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (1):27.
     
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  30. Jenny Teichman, The Philosophy of War and Peace. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (3):228-230.
     
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  31. Paul Kahn, Out of Eden: Adam and Eve and the Problem of Evil. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2007 - Philosophy in Review 27:405-407.
     
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  32. Seinfeld and the Comic Vision.Whitley Kaufman - 2019 - Lexington Books.
    This book develops a theory of comedy by analyzing the television situation comedy Seinfeld and demonstrating how comedy presents a comic vision of the world, one that embraces human nature and its place in the world despite all the frustrations of everyday human life.
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  33.  1
    The Paradox of Self-Defense: Saving Oneself by Harming Another.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    Introduction -- The principles of self-defense -- The leading theories of self-defense -- The doctrine of double effect -- Double effect and common sense morality -- Can double effect justify self-defense? -- Conclusion: Justifying self-defense.
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  34. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, Ed. Moral Psychology, Volume 2. The Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (5):373-375.
     
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  35.  31
    Why Science Does Not Refute Free Will.Whitley R. Kaufman - 2014 - Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):219-225.
  36.  30
    The Truth About Originalism.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):39-54.
    Despite its relatively small number of advocates, the theory of constitutional interpretation known as “Originalism” continues to enjoy an out-sized influence in the United States. Originalists themselves like to say that “we are all Originalists now,” and claim that their theory has become the obvious, unstated position of all responsible lawyers, judges, and politicians. Indeed, they say, how could anyone deny the truth of Originalism, if all it means is that we as judges, lawyers, and citizens are bound to follow (...)
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  37. TA Cavanaugh, Double-Effect Reasoning Reviewed By.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (2):94-96.
     
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  38. What's Wrong With Preventive War? The Moral and Legal Basis for the Use of Preventive Force.Whitley Kaufman - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3).
    The question of the legitimacy of preventive war has been at the center of the debate about the proper response to terrorism and the legitimacy of the Iraq War.
     
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  39.  12
    Symposium on Punishment.Whitley Kaufman, At Nuyen & Stephen Kershnar - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):37-57.
    In the middle of the twentieth century, many philosophers came to believe that the problem of morally justifying punishment had finally been solved. Defended most famously by Hart and Rawls, the so-called “Mixed Theory” of punishment claimed that justifying punishment required recognizing that the utilitarian and retributive theories were in fact answers to two different questions: utilitarianism answered the question of why we have punishment as an institution, while retribution answered the question of how to punish individual wrongdoers. We could (...)
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  40.  30
    Does Animal Ethics Need a Darwinian Revolution?Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):807-818.
    A frequent argument is that Darwin’s theory of evolution has or should revolutionize our conception of the relation between humans and animals, though society has yet to take account of that revolution in our treatment of animals. On this view, after Darwin demonstrated the essential continuity of humans and animals, traditional morality must be rejected as speciesist in seeing humans as fundamentally distinct from other animals. In fact, the argument is of dubious merit. While there is plenty of room for (...)
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  41.  9
    Andrew Newberg, "Neurotheology: How Science Can Enlighten Us About Spirituality." Reviewed By.Whitley Kaufman - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (3):143-145.
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  42.  20
    Robert Doran, The Theory of the Sublime: From Longinus to Kant. Reviewed By. [REVIEW]Whitley Kaufman - 2015 - Philosophy in Review 35 (6):294-295.
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  43.  27
    Why Would Someone Do Wrong Knowingly?Whitley Kaufman - 2003 - Southwest Philosophy Review 19 (1):197-203.
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  44.  21
    Review Ethics: Twelve Lectures on the Philosophy of Morality Wiggins David Harvard UP Cambridge.Whitley Kaufman - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):77-81.
  45.  14
    Understanding Honor: Beyond the Shame/Guilt Dichotomy.Whitley Kaufman - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):557-573.
    The concept of honor continues to be among the most widely misunderstood of human ideals. It has long been claimed that honor is an essentially external ideal, motivated by shame at one's appearance before others rather than an inward sense of guilt, the implication being that honor is a superficial moral ideal and one superseded by the higher ideal of the moral conscience. This account does not, however, stand up to scrutiny; honor is a genuinely "internal" value as much as (...)
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  46.  4
    Jonathan Crowe, "Natural Law and the Nature of Law.".Whitley Kaufman - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (4):141-143.
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  47.  15
    Peter Barry , Evil and Moral Psychology . Reviewed By.Whitley Kaufman - 2013 - Philosophy in Review 33 (5):343-345.
  48.  4
    Kenneth Einar Himma, "Morality and the Nature of Law." Reviewed By.Whitley Kaufman - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (1):16-18.
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  49.  11
    Ethics: Twelve Lectures on the Philosophy of Morality (Review).Whitley Kaufman - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):77-81.
  50.  43
    The Lion’s Den, Othello, and the Limits of Consequentialism.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 1999 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):539-557.
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