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  1.  84
    Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil.Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - In Kevin Timpe (ed.), Arguing about religion. New York: Routledge. pp. 222.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of anylackofmemoryofpastlives,the lack of proportionality between wrongdoing (...)
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  2. Karma, Rebirth, and the Problem of Evil.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2005 - Philosophy East and West 55 (1):15-32.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of anylackofmemoryofpastlives,the lack of proportionality between wrongdoing (...)
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  3. The Doctrine of Double Effect and the Trolley Problem.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2016 - Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (1):21-31.
    It is widely held by moral philosophers that J.J. Thomson’s “Loop Variant,” a version of the Trolley Problem first presented by her in 1985, decisively refutes the Doctrine of Double Effect as the right explanation of our moral intuitions in the various trolley-type cases.See Bruers and Brackman, “A Review and Systematization of the Trolley Problem,” Philosophia 42:2 : 251–269; T. Scanlon, Moral Dimensions: Permissibility, Meaning, Blame ; Peter Singer, “Ethics and Intuitions,” Journal of Ethics 9:314 : 331–352, p. 340; Matthew (...)
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  4.  7
    Honor and revenge: a theory of punishment.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2013 - New York: Springer.
    The problem of punishment -- Punishment as crime prevention -- Can retributive punishment be justified? -- The mixed theory of punishment -- Retribution and revenge -- What is the purpose of retribution? -- Making sense of honor -- Is punishment justified?
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  5.  86
    Self-defense, innocent aggressors, and the duty of martyrdom.Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (1):78-96.
    On the traditional doctrine of self-defense, defensive force is permissible not only against Culpable Aggressors but against Innocent Aggressors as well (for example, psychotic aggressors). Some moral philosophers have recently challenged this view, arguing that one may not harm innocent attackers because morality requires culpability as an essential condition of being liable to defensive force. This essay examines and rejects this challenge as both a violation of common sense and as insufficiently grounded in convincing reasons from moral theory.
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  6. Karma, rebirth, and the problem of evil: A reply to critics.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2007 - Philosophy East and West 57 (4):556-560.
    The doctrine of karma and rebirth is often praised for its ability to offer a successful solution to the Problem of Evil. This essay evaluates such a claim by considering whether the doctrine can function as a systematic theodicy, as an explanation of all human suffering in terms of wrongs done in either this or past lives. This purported answer to the Problem of Evil must face a series of objections, including the problem of any lack of memory of past (...)
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  7.  69
    New Atheism and its critics.Whitley Kaufman - 2018 - Philosophy Compass 14 (1):e12560.
    What is the significance of the New Atheist movement? This essay argues that it has hindered rather than advanced the philosophical debate, presenting a one‐sided caricature of religion rather than serious intellectual engagement with the topic.
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  8. Torture and the "Distributive Justice" Theory of Self-Defense: An Assessment.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Ethics and International Affairs 22 (1):93–115.
    The goal of this feature is to demonstrate that distributive justice is a flawed theory of self-defense and must be rejected, thus undercutting the argument that torture can be justified as self-defense.
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  9. What's wrong with preventive war? The moral and legal basis for the preventive use of force.Whitley Kaufman - 2005 - Ethics and International Affairs 19 (3):23–38.
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  10.  81
    Is there a “right” to self‐defense?Whitley Kaufman - 2004 - Criminal Justice Ethics 23 (1):20-32.
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  11.  48
    Justified Killing: The Paradox of Self-Defense.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    In Justified Killing, Whitley R. P. Kaufman argues that none of the leading theories adequately explains why it is permissible even to kill an innocent attacker in self-defense, given the basic moral prohibition against killing the innocent. Kaufman suggests that such an explanation can be found in the traditional Doctrine of Double Effect, according to which self-defense is justified because the intention of the defender is to protect himself rather than harm the attacker.
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  12.  47
    On a purported error about the doctrine of double effect: A reply to Sophie Botros.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2000 - Philosophy 75 (2):283-295.
    In a recent edition of the journal Philosophy, Sophie Botros asserts that modern ethical theorists have badly misunderstood the role of the Doctrine of Double Effect, turning it into a device by which to prohibit actions which are deemed impermissible; whereas the true function of the Doctrine is rather one of justifying actions. In my reply, I argue that Dr Botros has misunderstood the Doctrine: that its ‘prohibitive’ and its ‘justificatory’ roles are merely two sides of the same coin, since (...)
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  13.  44
    Poetic naturalism: Sean Carroll, science, and moral objectivity.Whitley Kaufman - 2017 - Zygon 52 (1):196-211.
    Physicist Sean Carroll has developed a new theory of the fundamental nature of reality, which he calls “Poetic Naturalism,” with the stated goal of developing a theory of what is real that is consistent with the findings of natural science. Carroll claims to prove that morality cannot be seen as objectively true. This essay argues that Carroll's conclusion is not convincing; there is no good reason to reject moral objectivity within a purely naturalistic worldview.
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  14. Revenge as the Dark Double of Retributive Punishment.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2016 - Philosophia 44 (2):317-325.
    It is an assumption widely shared by both retributivists and anti-retributivists that revenge is a morally impermissible basis for inflicting harm. Retributivists have thus exercised great ingenuity in demonstrating that retribution is fundamentally different from revenge. But this is, I argue, to misconstrue the problem. The problem is rather to recognize the essential continuity between revenge and retribution, and to address the question whether there is a moral basis for the very idea of inflicting harm in response to moral wrongdoing. (...)
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  15. Review of Witzel's The Origin of World's Mythologies.Whitley Kaufman - 2013 - Frontiers of Philosophy in China (3).
    Review of Witzel's "The Origin of World Mythologies".
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  16. Can Science Determine Moral Values? A Reply to Sam Harris.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2010 - Neuroethics 5 (1):55-65.
    Sam Harris’ new book “The Moral Landscape” is the latest in a series of attempts to provide a new “science of morality.” This essay argues that such a project is unlikely to succeed, using Harris’ text as an example of the major philosophical problems that would be faced by any such theory. In particular, I argue that those trying to construct a scientific ethics need pay far more attention to the tradition of moral philosophy, rather than assuming the debate is (...)
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  17. The Rise and Fall of the Mixed Theory of Punishment.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):37-57.
    In the middle of the twentieth century, many philosophers came to believe that the problem of morally justifying punishment had finally been solved. Defended most famously by Hart and Rawls, the so-called “Mixed Theory” of punishment claimed that justifying punishment required recognizing that the utilitarian and retributive theories were in fact answers to two different questions: utilitarianism answered the question of why we have punishment as an institution, while retribution answered the question of how to punish individual wrongdoers. We could (...)
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  18.  15
    The Rights-Forfeiture Theory of Punishment.Whitley Kaufman - 2022 - In Matthew C. Altman (ed.), The Palgrave Handbook on the Philosophy of Punishment. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 313-331.
    The rights-forfeiture theory of punishment attempts to explain and justify the practice of punishment by arguing that wrongdoers in virtue of their wrongdoing have forfeited the right not to be punished. The theory however faces many challenges, including how to explain just what right or rights have been forfeited. Most problematic for the theory is that, in claiming that wrongdoers forfeit their rights, it seems merely to restate the claim that punishment is morally permissible rather than providing an explanation of (...)
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  19.  26
    The Rise and Fall of the Mixed Theory of Punishment.Whitley Kaufman, At Nuyen & Stephen Kershnar - 2008 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (1):37-57.
    In the middle of the twentieth century, many philosophers came to believe that the problem of morally justifying punishment had finally been solved. Defended most famously by Hart and Rawls, the so-called “Mixed Theory” of punishment claimed that justifying punishment required recognizing that the utilitarian and retributive theories were in fact answers to two different questions: utilitarianism answered the question of why we have punishment as an institution, while retribution answered the question of how to punish individual wrongdoers. We could (...)
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  20.  13
    What Is Good and Why: The Ethics of Well-Being.Richard Kenneth Atkins, Adam Glover, Katie Terezakis, Whitley Kaufman, Steven Levine, Seth Vannatta, Aaron Massecar, Robert Main & Jerome A. Stone - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):91-94.
  21.  3
    Human nature and the limits of Darwinism.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2016 - New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book compares two competing theories of human nature: the more traditional theory espoused in different forms by centuries of western philosophy and the newer, Darwinian model. In the traditional view, the human being is a hybrid being, with a lower, animal nature and a higher, rational or “spiritual” component. The competing Darwinian account does away with the idea of a higher nature and attempts to provide a complete reduction of human nature to the evolutionary goals of survival and reproduction. (...)
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  22.  13
    Andrew Newberg, "Neurotheology: How Science Can Enlighten Us About Spirituality." Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2019 - Philosophy in Review 39 (3):143-145.
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  23.  16
    Christopher Bennett, The Apology Ritual: A Philosophical Theory of Punishment Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Philosophy in Review 30 (1):6-7.
  24. Charles Guignon, ed., The Good Life Reviewed by.Whitley Rp Kaufman - 2000 - Philosophy in Review 20 (1):39-40.
     
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  25.  48
    Does Animal Ethics Need a Darwinian Revolution?Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2014 - Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 17 (4):807-818.
    A frequent argument is that Darwin’s theory of evolution has or should revolutionize our conception of the relation between humans and animals, though society has yet to take account of that revolution in our treatment of animals. On this view, after Darwin demonstrated the essential continuity of humans and animals, traditional morality must be rejected as speciesist in seeing humans as fundamentally distinct from other animals. In fact, the argument is of dubious merit. While there is plenty of room for (...)
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  26. Douglas Husak, Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law.Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (3):192.
     
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  27.  16
    Ethics: Twelve Lectures on the Philosophy of Morality.Whitley Kaufman - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):77-81.
  28.  17
    George Levine, ed. , The Joy of Secularism . Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2012 - Philosophy in Review 32 (4):300-303.
  29. George P. Fletcher, The Grammar of Criminal Law Vol. 1: Foundations.Whitley Kaufman - 2009 - Philosophy in Review 29 (1):27.
     
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  30.  9
    Jonathan Crowe, "Natural Law and the Nature of Law.".Whitley Kaufman - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (4):141-143.
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  31.  49
    McMahan, Jeff . Killing in War . New York: Oxford University Press, 2009 . Pp. 250. $35.00 (cloth).Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Ethics 120 (2):399-404.
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  32.  9
    John R. Shook and Paul Kurtz, eds., The Future of Naturalism. Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2010 - Philosophy in Review 30 (5):379-381.
  33.  14
    Joshua Stuchlik, "Intention and Wrongdoing: In Defense of Double Effect.".Whitley Kaufman - 2022 - Philosophy in Review 42 (4):42-44.
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  34.  13
    Kenneth Einar Himma, "Morality and the Nature of Law." Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2020 - Philosophy in Review 40 (1):16-18.
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  35.  20
    Peter Barry , Evil and Moral Psychology . Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2013 - Philosophy in Review 33 (5):343-345.
  36.  10
    Peter Olsthoorn, Honor in Political and Moral Philosophy.Whitley Kaufman - 2015 - Social Theory and Practice 41 (4):755-758.
  37.  28
    Ethics: Twelve Lectures on the Philosophy of Morality.Whitley Kaufman - 2012 - The Pluralist 7 (2):77-81.
  38.  44
    Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):114-118.
  39.  6
    Seinfeld and the Comic Vision.Whitley Kaufman - 2019 - Lexington Books.
    This book develops a theory of comedy by analyzing the television situation comedy Seinfeld and demonstrating how comedy presents a comic vision of the world, one that embraces human nature and its place in the world despite all the frustrations of everyday human life.
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  40. TA Cavanaugh, Double-Effect Reasoning Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2008 - Philosophy in Review 28 (2):94-96.
     
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  41.  51
    Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):114-118.
    Henry David Thoreau’s legacy as a major figure in the American tradition seems assured. Though largely ignored in his own day, his book Walden is now considered an American classic, and the site of his cabin at Walden Pond is a regular pilgrimage destination for tourists. Yet less clear is how to characterize Thoreau and his contribution to American thought: Is he a naturalist? A literary figure? A social critic? A transcendentalist? Thoreau’s Importance for Philosophy makes the argument that Thoreau (...)
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  42.  58
    The Lion’s Den, Othello, and the Limits of Consequentialism.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 1999 - Southern Journal of Philosophy 37 (4):539-557.
  43.  13
    The Paradox of Self-Defense: Saving Oneself by Harming Another.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2009 - Lexington Books.
    Introduction -- The principles of self-defense -- The leading theories of self-defense -- The doctrine of double effect -- Double effect and common sense morality -- Can double effect justify self-defense? -- Conclusion: Justifying self-defense.
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  44.  70
    Terrorism, Self-Defense, and the Killing of the Innocent.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2004 - Social Philosophy Today 20:41-52.
    In this essay I analyze and defend the common sense moral conviction that terrorism, i.e., the use of violence against civilians for political or military purposes, is always morally impermissible. Terrorism violates the fundamental moral prohibition against harming the innocent, even to produce greater overall good. It is therefore just the sort of case that serves as a refutation of consequentialist moral theories. From a deontological perspective, the only remotely plausible forms of justification for a terrorist act would be that (...)
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  45.  14
    Terrorism, Self-Defense, and the Killing of the Innocent.Whitley R. P. Kaufman - 2004 - Social Philosophy Today 20:41-52.
    In this essay I analyze and defend the common sense moral conviction that terrorism, i.e., the use of violence against civilians for political or military purposes, is always morally impermissible. Terrorism violates the fundamental moral prohibition against harming the innocent, even to produce greater overall good. It is therefore just the sort of case that serves as a refutation of consequentialist moral theories. From a deontological perspective, the only remotely plausible forms of justification for a terrorist act would be that (...)
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  46.  43
    The Truth about Originalism.Whitley Kaufman - 2014 - The Pluralist 9 (1):39-54.
    Despite its relatively small number of advocates, the theory of constitutional interpretation known as “Originalism” continues to enjoy an out-sized influence in the United States. Originalists themselves like to say that “we are all Originalists now,” and claim that their theory has become the obvious, unstated position of all responsible lawyers, judges, and politicians. Indeed, they say, how could anyone deny the truth of Originalism, if all it means is that we as judges, lawyers, and citizens are bound to follow (...)
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  47.  66
    Understanding Honor.Whitley Kaufman - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):557-573.
    The concept of honor continues to be among the most widely misunderstood of human ideals. It has long been claimed that honor is an essentially external ideal, motivated by shame at one's appearance before others rather than an inward sense of guilt, the implication being that honor is a superficial moral ideal and one superseded by the higher ideal of the moral conscience. This account does not, however, stand up to scrutiny; honor is a genuinely "internal" value as much as (...)
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  48.  27
    Understanding Honor.Whitley Kaufman - 2011 - Social Theory and Practice 37 (4):557-573.
    The concept of honor continues to be among the most widely misunderstood of human ideals. It has long been claimed that honor is an essentially external ideal, motivated by shame at one's appearance before others rather than an inward sense of guilt, the implication being that honor is a superficial moral ideal and one superseded by the higher ideal of the moral conscience. This account does not, however, stand up to scrutiny; honor is a genuinely "internal" value as much as (...)
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  49.  14
    William Lad Sessions , Honor For Us: A Philosophical Analysis, Interpretation, and Defense . Reviewed by.Whitley Kaufman - 2011 - Philosophy in Review 31 (6):458-460.
  50.  43
    Why Science Does Not Refute Free Will.Whitley R. Kaufman - 2014 - Southwest Philosophy Review 30 (1):219-225.
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