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William Goodwin [19]William Mark Goodwin [5]William F. Goodwin [3]William M. Goodwin [3]
  1.  51
    The Adventures of Climate Science in the Sweet Land of Idle Arguments.Eric Winsberg & William Mark Goodwin - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 54:9-17.
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  2. Visual Representations in Science.William Goodwin - 2009 - Philosophy of Science 76 (3):372-390.
    This paper evaluates a general argument for the conclusion that visual representations in science must play the role of truth bearers if they are to figure as legitimate contributors to scientific arguments and explanations. The argument is found to be unsound. An alternative approach to assessing the role of visual representations in science is exemplified by an examination of the role of structural formulas in organic chemistry. Structural formulas are found not to play the role of truth bearers; nonetheless, they (...)
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  3.  65
    Structure, Function, and Protein Taxonomy.William Goodwin - 2011 - Biology and Philosophy 26 (4):533-545.
    This paper considers two recent arguments that structure should not be regarded as the fundamental individuating property of proteins. By clarifying both what it might mean for certain properties to play a fundamental role in a classification scheme and the extent to which structure plays such a role in protein classification, I argue that both arguments are unsound. Because of its robustness, its importance in laboratory practice, and its explanatory centrality, primary structure should be regarded as the fundamental distinguishing characteristic (...)
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  4.  56
    Scientific Understanding After the Ingold Revolution in Organic Chemistry.William Goodwin - 2007 - Philosophy of Science 74 (3):386-408.
    This paper characterizes the increase in ‘scientific understanding’ that resulted from the Ingold Revolution in organic chemistry. By describing both the sorts of explanations facilitated by Ingold’s Revolution and the sense in which organic chemistry was ‘unified’ by adopting these approaches to explanation, one can appreciate how this revolution led to a dramatic qualitative improvement in organic chemists’ understanding of the phenomena that they study. The explanatory unification responsible for this transformation in organic chemistry is contrasted with contemporary philosophical accounts (...)
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  5. How Do Structural Formulas Embody the Theory of Organic Chemistry?William Goodwin - 2010 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 61 (3):621-633.
    Organic chemistry provides fertile ground for scholars interested in understanding the role of non-linguistic representations in scientific thinking. In this discipline, it is not plausible to regard diagrams as simply heuristic aids for expressing or applying what is essentially a linguistic theory. Instead, it is more plausible to think of linguistic representation as supplementing theories whose principal expression is diagrammatic. Among the many sorts of diagrams employed by organic chemists, structural formulas are the most important. In this paper, by examining (...)
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  6. Scientific Understanding and Synthetic Design.William Goodwin - 2009 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (2):271-301.
    Next SectionOne of the indisputable signs of the progress made in organic chemistry over the last two hundred years is the increased ability of chemists to manipulate, control, and design chemical reactions. The technological expertise manifest in contemporary synthetic organic chemistry is, at least in part, due to developments in the theory of organic chemistry. By appealing to a notable chemist's attempts to articulate and codify the heuristics of synthetic design, this paper investigates how understanding theoretical organic chemistry facilitates progress (...)
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  7. Sustaining a Controversy: The Non-Classical Ion Debate.William Goodwin - 2013 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):787-816.
    This article examines a scientific controversy that raged for twenty years in physical organic chemistry during the second half of the twentieth century. After explaining what was at stake in the non-classical ion debate, I attempt—by examining the methodological reflections of some of the participants—a partial explanation of what sustained this controversy, particularly during its early stages. Instead of suggesting a breakdown of scientific method or the unavoidable historical contingency of scientific development, the endurance of this controversy instead reveals the (...)
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  8.  11
    Missing the Forest and Fish: How Much Does the 'Hawkmoth Effect' Threaten the Viability of Climate Projections?William M. Goodwin & Eric Winsberg - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (5):1122-1132.
    Roman Frigg and others have developed a general epistemological argument designed to cast doubt on the capacity of a broad range of mathematical models to generate “decision relevant predictions.” In this article, we lay out the structure of their argument—an argument by analogy—with an eye to identifying points at which certain epistemically significant distinctions might limit the force of the analogy. Finally, some of these epistemically significant distinctions are introduced and defended as relevant to a great many of the predictive (...)
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  9.  28
    Revolution and Progress in Medicine.William Goodwin - 2015 - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 36 (1):25-39.
    This paper adapts Kuhn’s conceptual framework to developmental episodes in the theory and practice of medicine. Previous attempts to understand the reception of Ignaz Semmelweis’s work on puerperal fever in Kuhnian terms are used as a starting point. The author identifies some limitations of these attempts and proposes a new way of understanding the core Kuhnian notions of “paradigm,” “progress,” and “revolution” in the context of a socially embedded technoscience such as medicine.
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  10.  48
    How Does the Theologizing of Physics Contribute to Global Warming?William Goodwin - 2009 - Environmental Philosophy 6 (2):21-42.
    In this paper I examine the sorts of arguments that motivate skepticism about the predictive powers of global climate models. I contend that these arguments work by contrasting the development and testing of global climate models with an idealized image of science drawn largely from a theologized model of fundamental physics. A richer appreciation of the methodology of a full range of successful empirical predictions—particularly in practical fields that study complex systems––can dispel some of these skeptical worries about climate science. (...)
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  11.  60
    Implementation and Innovation in Total Synthesis.William Goodwin - 2008 - Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):177-186.
    This article investigates how understanding the theory of organic chemistry facilitates the total synthesis of organic compounds. After locating the philosophical significance of this question within the methodology or epistemology of applied science, I summarize the results of previous work on this issue—roughly that theoretical organic chemistry underwrites a sequence of heuristic policies that help to isolate plausible synthetic routes from the array of possibilities provided by structural or descriptive organic chemistry. While this prior account makes a solid start, it (...)
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  12.  85
    Global Climate Modeling as Applied Science.William M. Goodwin - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):339-350.
    In this paper I argue that the appropriate analogy for “understanding what makes simulation results reliable” in global climate modeling is not with scientific experimentation or measurement, but—at least in the case of the use of global climate models for policy development—with the applications of science in applied design problems. The prospects for using this analogy to argue for the quantitative reliability of GCMs are assessed and compared with other potential strategies.
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  13.  23
    Experiments and Theory in the Preparative Sciences.William Goodwin - 2012 - Philosophy of Science 79 (4):429-447.
    In this essay I consider, by way of the reflections of accomplished synthetic chemists, how the experimental work of the synthetic organic chemist supports the testing, refinement, and creation of theories of organic chemistry. The role of experiments in modern Baconian sciences like organic chemistry is contrasted with their role in fields of more traditional philosophical concern, such as experimental physics.
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  14.  82
    Structure and Scientific Controversies.William Goodwin - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):101-110.
    In this paper, I highlight the importance of models and social structure to Kuhn’s conception of science, and then use these elements to sketch a Kuhnian classification of scientific controversies. I show that several important sorts of non-revolutionary scientific disagreements were both identified and analyzed in Structure. Ultimately, I contend that Kuhn’s conception of science supports an approach to scientific controversies that has the potential to both reveal the importantly different sources of scientific disagreements and to provide useful resources for (...)
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  15.  6
    Creating Reflective Engagement.William Goodwin - 2022 - Teaching Philosophy 45 (1):65-85.
    This paper describes an approach to teaching the philosophy of science to science students that was developed in a context where the course is a lower-level requirement for all natural science majors. This audience made it appropriate to reconsider standard approaches to the field and resulted in an innovative pedagogical strategy subsequently used, in modified form, in more traditional philosophical contexts. This paper describes the pedagogical approach, explains reasons for it, motivates more specific ways of enacting it, and assess its (...)
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  16.  31
    Structure and Scientific Controversies.William Goodwin - 2013 - Topoi 32 (1):101-110.
    In this paper, I highlight the importance of models and social structure to Kuhn’s conception of science, and then use these elements to sketch a Kuhnian classification of scientific controversies. I show that several important sorts of non-revolutionary scientific disagreements were both identified and analyzed in Structure. Ultimately, I contend that Kuhn’s conception of science supports an approach to scientific controversies that has the potential to both reveal the importantly different sources of scientific disagreements and to provide useful resources for (...)
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  17.  8
    Global Climate Modeling as Applied Science.William M. Goodwin - 2015 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):339-350.
    In this paper I argue that the appropriate analogy for “understanding what makes simulation results reliable” in Global Climate Modeling is not with scientific experimentation or measurement, but—at least in the case of the use of global climate models for policy development—with the applications of science in engineering design problems. The prospects for using this analogy to argue for the quantitative reliability of GCMs are assessed and compared with other potential strategies.
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  18.  12
    Ethics and Value in Indian Philosophy.William F. Goodwin - 1955 - Philosophy East and West 4 (4):321-344.
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  19. Coffa’s Kant and the Evolution of Accounts of Mathematical Necessity.William Mark Goodwin - 2010 - Synthese 172 (3):361 - 379.
    According to Alberto Coffa in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap, Kant’s account of mathematical judgment is built on a ‘semantic swamp’. Kant’s primitive semantics led him to appeal to pure intuition in an attempt to explain mathematical necessity. The appeal to pure intuition was, on Coffa’s line, a blunder from which philosophy was forced to spend the next 150 years trying to recover. This dismal assessment of Kant’s contributions to the evolution of accounts of mathematical necessity is fundamentally (...)
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  20.  16
    Quantum Chemistry and Organic Theory.William Goodwin - 2013 - Philosophy of Science 80 (5):1159-1169.
    In this essay I consider whether the theory of organic chemistry is reducible to the theory of quantum chemistry. Using philosophical machinery developed by James Woodward, I characterize the understanding provided by both theories. Then I argue that there are systematic reasons to suspect that quantum chemistry is incapable of supporting some of the significant explanations, predictions, and applications underwritten by an understanding of theoretical organic chemistry. Consequently, even should quantum chemistry be ‘reducible to’ quantum physics in some suitable sense, (...)
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  21.  24
    Coffa’s Kant and the Evolution of Accounts of Mathematical Necessity.William Mark Goodwin - 2010 - Synthese 172 (3):361-379.
    According to Alberto Coffa in The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap, Kant’s account of mathematical judgment is built on a ‘semantic swamp’. Kant’s primitive semantics led him to appeal to pure intuition in an attempt to explain mathematical necessity. The appeal to pure intuition was, on Coffa’s line, a blunder from which philosophy was forced to spend the next 150 years trying to recover. This dismal assessment of Kant’s contributions to the evolution of accounts of mathematical necessity is fundamentally (...)
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  22.  4
    Gaining Traction: Foothold Concepts and Exemplars in Conceptual Change.William Goodwin - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 90:145-152.
    This paper investigates the emergence of conformational analysis in organic chemistry as a case of conceptual change in science. In this case, the mechanism of conceptual change is identified as the emergence of a new exemplar. This new exemplar was made possible because of the identification of a distinctive chemical structure to which ‘foothold’ concepts were applicable. These concepts facilitated both clear explanation in the particular case, and the analogical extension of the conceptual innovation throughout the discipline. The case suggests (...)
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  23. Kant on the Generality of Model-Based Reasoning in Geometry.William Goodwin - 2019 - In Matthieu Fontaine, Cristina Barés-Gómez, Francisco Salguero-Lamillar, Lorenzo Magnani & Ángel Nepomuceno-Fernández (eds.), Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology. Springer Verlag.
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  24. Kant's Philosophy of Geometry.William Mark Goodwin - 2003 - Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley
    In my dissertation, I argue that contemporary interpretive work on Kant's philosophy of geometry has failed to understand properly the diagrammatic aspects of Euclidean reasoning. Attention to these aspects is amply repaid, not only because it provides substantial insight into the role of intuition in Kant's philosophy of mathematics, but also because it brings out both the force and the limitations of Kant's philosophical account of geometry. ;Kant characterizes the predecessors with which he was engaged as agreeing that mathematical judgments (...)
     
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  25.  65
    Diagrams and Explanation in Organic Chemistry.William Mark Goodwin - unknown
    Organic chemists have been able to develop a robust, theoretical understanding of the phenomena they study; however, the primary theoretical devices employed in this field are not mathematical equations or laws, as is the case in most other physical sciences. Instead it is the diagram, and in particular the structural formula, that carries the explanatory weight in the discipline. To understand how this is so, it is necessary to investigate both the nature of the diagrams employed in organic chemistry and (...)
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  26.  17
    Conflicting Conceptions of Construction in Kant’s Philosophy of Geometry.William Goodwin - 2018 - Perspectives on Science 26 (1):97-118.
    The notion of the "construction" or "exhibition" of a concept in intuition is central to Kant's philosophical account of geometry. Kant invokes this notion in all of his major Critical Era discussions of mathematics. The most extended discussion of mathematics, and geometry more specifically, occurs in "The Discipline of Pure Reason in its Dogmatic Employment." In this later section of the Critique, Kant makes it clear that construction-in-intuition is central to his philosophy of mathematics by presenting it as the defining (...)
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  27.  40
    The 'Passes-For' Fallacy and the Future of Critical Thinking.William Goodwin - 2010 - Argumentation 24 (3):363-374.
    In this paper, I characterize Susan Haack’s so called passes-for fallacy, analyze both what makes this inference compelling and why it is illegitimate, and finally explain why reflecting on the passes-for fallacy—and others like it—should become part of critical thinking pedagogy for humanities students. The analysis proceeds by examining a case of the passes-for fallacy identified by Haack in the work of Ruth Bleier. A charitable reconstruction of Bleier’s reasoning shows that it is enlightening to regard the passes-for fallacy as (...)
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  28.  26
    Visual Representations of Structure and the Dynamics of Scientific Modeling.William Goodwin - 2012 - Spontaneous Generations 6 (1):131-141.
    Understanding what is distinctive about the role of models in science requires characterizing broad patterns in how these models evolve in the face of experimental results. That is, we must examine not just model statics—how the model relates to theory, or represents the world, at some point in time—but also model dynamics—how the model both generates new experimental results and is modified in response to them. Visual representations of structure play a central role in the theoretical reasoning of organic chemists. (...)
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  29.  31
    Santayana's Naturalistic Reading of Indian Ontology and Axiology.William F. Goodwin - 1957 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 18 (2):147-168.
  30.  18
    Mysticism and Ethics: An Examination of Radhakrishnan's Reply to Schweitzer's Critique of Indian Thought.William F. Goodwin - 1956 - Ethics 67 (1):25-41.
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