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William Hirstein [39]William Stafford Hirstein [1]
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William Hirstein
Elmhurst College
  1. Three Laws of Qualia: What Neurology Tells Us About the Biological Functions of Consciousness.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1997 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (5-6):429-457.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia’ based on a loose analogy with Newton's three laws of classical mechanics. First, they are irrevocable: (...)
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  2.  54
    Brain Fiction: Self-Deception and the Riddle of Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2005 - MIT Press.
    This first book-length study of confabulation breaks ground in both philosophy and cognitive science.
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  3. The Science of Art: A Neurological Theory of Aesthetic Experience.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1999 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 6 (6-7):15-41.
    We present a theory of human artistic experience and the neural mechanisms that mediate it. Any theory of art has to ideally have three components. The logic of art: whether there are universal rules or principles; The evolutionary rationale: why did these rules evolve and why do they have the form that they do; What is the brain circuitry involved? Our paper begins with a quest for artistic universals and proposes a list of ‘Eight laws of artistic experience’ -- a (...)
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  4. The Perception of Phantom Limbs: The D. O. Hebb Lecture.Vilayanur S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1998 - Brain 121:1603-1630.
  5. Capgras Syndrome: A Novel Probe for Understanding the Neural Representation of the Identity and Familiarity of Persons.William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran - 1997 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 264:437-444.
  6. Autonomic Responses of Autistic Children to People and Objects.William Hirstein, Portia Iversen & V. S. Ramachandran - 2001 - Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 268:1883-1888..
    Several recent lines of inquiry have pointed to the amygdala as a potential lesion site in autism. Because one function of the amygdala may be to produce autonomic arousal at the sight of a signi¢cant face, we compared the responses of autistic children to their mothers’ face and to a plain paper cup. Unlike normals, the autistic children as a whole did not show a larger response to the person than to the cup. We also monitored sympathetic activity in autistic (...)
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  7. The Misidentification Syndromes as Mindreading Disorders.William Hirstein - 2010 - Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 15 (1-3):233-260.
    The patient with Capgras’ syndrome claims that people very familiar to him have been replaced by impostors. I argue that this disorder is due to the destruction of a representation that the patient has of the mind of the familiar person. This creates the appearance of a familiar body and face, but without the familiar personality, beliefs, and thoughts. The posterior site of damage in Capgras’ is often reported to be the temporoparietal junction, an area that has a role in (...)
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  8. Child Soldiers, Executive Functions, and Culpability.Tyler Fagan, William Hirstein & Katrina Sifferd - 2016 - International Criminal Law Review 16 (2):258-286.
    Child soldiers, who often appear to be both victims and perpetrators, present a vexing moral and legal challenge: how can we protect the rights of children while seeking justice for the victims of war crimes? There has been little stomach, either in domestic or international courts, for prosecuting child soldiers—but neither has this challenge been systematically addressed in international law. Establishing a uniform minimum age of criminal responsibility would be a major step in the right direction; we argue that such (...)
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  9. Ethics and the Brains of Psychopaths: The Significance of Psychopathy for Our Ethical and Legal Theories.William Hirstein & Katrina Sifferd - 2014 - In Charles Wolfe (ed.), Brain Theory: Essays in Critical Neurophilosophy. London: Springer. pp. 149-170.
    The emerging neuroscience of psychopathy will have several important implications for our attempts to construct an ethical society. In this article we begin by describing the list of criteria by which psychopaths are diagnosed. We then review four competing neuropsychological theories of psychopathic cognition. The first of these models, Newman’s attentional model, locates the problem in a special type of attentional narrowing that psychopaths have shown in experiments. The second and third, Blair’s amygdala model and Kiehl’s paralimbic model represent the (...)
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  10. Introduction: What is Confabulation?William Hirstein - 2009 - In Confabulation: Views From Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
  11.  73
    The Legal Self: Executive Processes and Legal Theory.William Hirstein & Katrina Sifferd - 2011 - Consciousness and Cognition 20 (1):151-176.
    When laws or legal principles mention mental states such as intentions to form a contract, knowledge of risk, or purposely causing a death, what parts of the brain are they speaking about? We argue here that these principles are tacitly directed at our prefrontal executive processes. Our current best theories of consciousness portray it as a workspace in which executive processes operate, but what is important to the law is what is done with the workspace content rather than the content (...)
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  12.  42
    Grounding Responsibility in Something (More) Solid.William Hirstein & Katrina Sifferd - 2018 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 41.
    The cases that Doris chronicles of confabulation are similar to perceptual illusions in that, while they show the interstices of our perceptual or cognitive system, they fail to establish that our everyday perception or cognition is not for the most part correct. Doris's account in general lacks the resources to make synchronic assessments of responsibility, partially because it fails to make use of knowledge now available to us about what is happening in the brains of agents.
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  13. Confabulation: Views From Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy.William Hirstein (ed.) - 2009 - Oxford University Press.
    [This download contains the introductory chapter.] People confabulate when they make an ill-grounded claim that they honestly believe is true, for example in claiming to recall an event from their childhood that never actually happened. This interdisciplinary book brings together some of the leading thinkers on confabulation in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and philosophy.
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  14. Self-Deception and Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2000 - Philosophy of Science 67 (3):S418-S429.
    Cases in which people are self-deceived seem to require that the person hold two contradictory beliefs, something which appears to be impossible or implausible. A phenomenon seen in some brain-damaged patients known as confabulation (roughly, an ongoing tendency to make false utterances without intent to deceive) can shed light on the problem of self-deception. The conflict is not actually between two beliefs, but between two representations, a 'conceptual' one and an 'analog' one. In addition, confabulation yields valuable clues about the (...)
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  15.  44
    Confabulations About Personal Memories, Normal and Abnormal.William Hirstein - 2011 - In Suzanne Nalbantian (ed.), The Memory Process: Neuroscientific and Humanistic Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 217-232.
  16.  65
    On the Criminal Culpability of Successful and Unsucessful Psychopaths.Katrina Sifferd & William Hirstein - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (1):129-140.
    The psychological literature now differentiates between two types of psychopath:successful (with little or no criminal record) and unsuccessful (with a criminal record). Recent research indicates that earlier findings of reduced autonomic activity, reduced prefrontal grey matter, and compromised executive activity may only be true of unsuccessful psychopaths. In contrast, successful psychopaths actually show autonomic and executive function that exceeds that of normals, while having no difference in prefrontal volume from normals. We argue that many successful psychopaths are legally responsible for (...)
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  17. Cognitive Science: An Introduction to Mind and Brain.Daniel Kolak, William Hirstein, Peter Mandik & Jonathan Waskan - 2006 - Routledge.
    Cognitive Science is a major new guide to the central theories and problems in the study of the mind and brain. The authors clearly explain how and why cognitive science aims to understand the brain as a computational system that manipulates representations. They identify the roots of cognitive science in Descartes - who argued that all knowledge of the external world is filtered through some sort of representation - and examine the present-day role of Artificial Intelligence, computing, psychology, linguistics and (...)
     
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  18.  34
    The Paradoxical Self.William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran - 2011 - In Narinder Kapur (ed.), The Paradoxical Brain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 94-109.
  19. Memories of Art.William Hirstein - 2013 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (2):146 - 147.
    Although the art-historical context of a work of art is important to our appreciation of it, it is our knowledge of that history that plays causal roles in producing the experience itself. This knowledge is in the form of memories, both semantic memories about the historical circumstances, but also episodic memories concerning our personal connections with an artwork. We also create representations of minds in order to understand the emotions that artworks express.
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  20.  82
    Conscious States: Where Are They in the Brain and What Are Their Necessary Ingredients?William Hirstein - 2013 - Mens Sana Monographs 11 (1):230-238.
    One of the final obstacles to understanding consciousness in physical terms concerns the question of whether conscious states can exist in posterior regions of the brain without active connections to the brain's prefrontal lobes. If they can, difficult issues concerning our knowledge of our conscious states can be resolved. This paper contains a list of types of conscious states that may meet this criterion, including states of coma, states in which subjects are absorbed in a perceptual task, states in brains (...)
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  21.  85
    Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2009 - In Patrick Wilken, Axel Cleermans & Timothy Bayne (eds.), The Oxford Companion to Consciousness. Oxford University Press. pp. 174-177.
    When people confabulate, they make an ill-grounded claim that they honestly believe is true, for example recalling an event from their childhood that never actually happened. This interdisciplinary book brings together some of the leading thinkers on confabulation in neuroscience, psychiatry, psychology, and philosophy.
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  22.  59
    Consciousness Despite Network Underconnectivity in Autism: Another Case of Consciousness Without Prefrontal Activity?William Hirstein - 2015 - In Rocco Gennaro (ed.), Disturbed Consciousness: New Essays on Psychopathology and Theories of Consciousness. The M. I. T, Press. pp. 249-263.
    Recent evidence points to widespread underconnectivity in autistic brains owing to deviant white matter, the fibers that make long connections between areas of the cortex. Subjects with autism show measurably fewer long-range connections between the parietal and prefrontal cortices. These findings may help shed light on the current debate in the consciousness literature about whether conscious states require both prefrontal and parietal/temporal components. If it can be shown that people with autism have conscious states despite such underconnectivity, this would constitute (...)
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  23. Legal Insanity and Executive Function.Katrina Sifferd, William Hirstein & Tyler Fagan - 2017 - In Mark White (ed.), The Insanity Defense: Multidisciplinary Views on Its History, Trends, and Controversies. Praeger. pp. 215-242.
    In this chapter we will argue that the capacities necessary to moral and legal agency can be understood as executive functions in the brain. Executive functions underwrite both the cognitive and volitional capacities that give agents a fair opportunity to avoid wrongdoing: to recognize their acts as immoral and/or illegal, and to act or refrain from acting based upon this recognition. When a person’s mental illness is serious enough to cause severe disruption of executive functions, she is very likely to (...)
     
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  24.  96
    Loved Ones Near and Far: Feinberg's Personal Significance Theory.William Hirstein - 2010 - Neuropsychoanalysis 12 (2):163-166.
    This paper examines Todd Feinberg's theory of the misidentification syndromes.
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  25.  88
    Aesthetics and the Experience of Beauty.William Hirstein & Melinda Campbell - 2009 - In William Banks (ed.), The Elsevier Encyclopedia of Consciousness. Elsevier. pp. 1-7.
  26.  17
    Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2013 - In Encyclopedia of the Mind. pp. 183-186.
  27.  12
    Three Laws of Qualia.V. S. Ramachandran & William Hirstein - 1999 - In Jonathan Shear & Shaun Gallagher (eds.), Models of the Self. Imprint Academic. pp. 83.
    Neurological syndromes in which consciousness seems to malfunction, such as temporal lobe epilepsy, visual scotomas, Charles Bonnet syndrome, and synesthesia offer valuable clues about the normal functions of consciousness and ‘qualia’. An investigation into these syndromes reveals, we argue, that qualia are different from other brain states in that they possess three functional characteristics, which we state in the form of ‘three laws of qualia ’ based on a loose analogy with Newton’s three laws of classical mechanics. First, they are (...)
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  28.  92
    The Contribution of Prefrontal Executive Processes to Creating a Sense of Self.William Hirstein - 2011 - Mens Sana Monographs 9 (1):150-158.
    According to several current theories, executive processes help achieve various mental actions such as remembering, planning and decision-making, by executing cognitive operations on representations held in consciousness. I plan to argue that these executive processes are partly responsible for our sense of self, because of the way they produce the impression of an active, controlling presence in consciousness. If we examine what philosophers have said about the "ego" (Descartes), "the Self" (Locke and Hume), the "self of all selves" (William James), (...)
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  29.  74
    Neuroscience: More Than Just the Latest Paradigm.William Hirstein - 2014 - The Neuropsychotherapist 1:108-109.
  30. On Searle.William Hirstein - 2001 - Wadsworth.
  31.  40
    Perceiving Others and Their Minds: Response to McGeer.William Hirstein - 2009 - Modern Schoolman 86 (3-4):319-326.
  32. Phantom Limbs, Body Image, and Neural Plasticity.William Hirstein, V. S. Ramachandran & Diane Rogers-Ramachandran - 1998 - International Brain Research Organization News 26 (1):10-21.
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  33.  5
    He is Not My Father, and That is Not My Arm: Accounting for Misidentifications of People and Limbs.William Hirstein & V. S. Ramachandran - 2009 - In Confabulation: Views From Neuroscience, Psychiatry, Psychology and Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 109.
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  34. Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2013 - In Encyclopedia of the Mind. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE publications. pp. 183-186.
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  35. Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2013 - In Harold Pashler (ed.), Encyclopedia of the mind. pp. 183-186.
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  36. Mindmelding: Consciousness, Neuroscience, and the Mind's Privacy.William Hirstein - 2012 - Oxford University Press.
  37. On the Churchlands.William Hirstein - 2004 - Wadsworth.
  38. Responsible Brains: Neuroscience, Law, and Human Culpability.William Hirstein, Katrina L. Sifferd & Tyler Fagan - 2018 - New York, NY, USA: MIT Press.
    [This download includes the table of contents and chapter 1.] -/- When we praise, blame, punish, or reward people for their actions, we are holding them responsible for what they have done. Common sense tells us that what makes human beings responsible has to do with their minds and, in particular, the relationship between their minds and their actions. Yet the empirical connection is not necessarily obvious. The “guilty mind” is a core concept of criminal law, but if a defendant (...)
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  39. The Name and Nature of Confabulation.William Hirstein - 2009 - In Paco Calvo & John Symons (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophy of Psychology. Abingdon, UK: Routledge Press. pp. 647-658.
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