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William M. Goodman
University Of Ontario Institute Of Technology
  1. A Proposed Hybrid Effect Size Plus P -Value Criterion: Empirical Evidence Supporting its Use.William M. Goodman - 2019 - The American Statistician 73 (Sup(1)):168-185.
    DOI: 10.1080/00031305.2018.1564697 When the editors of Basic and Applied Social Psychology effectively banned the use of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) from articles published in their journal, it set off a fire-storm of discussions both supporting the decision and defending the utility of NHST in scientific research. At the heart of NHST is the p-value which is the probability of obtaining an effect equal to or more extreme than the one observed in the sample data, given the null hypothesis and (...)
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  2. Being There and Getting There: A View on the Nature and Application of Models.William M. Goodman -
    This paper updates (2017) a previously-presented* model of models, which can be used to clarify discussion and analysis in a variety of disputes and debates, since many such discussions hinge on displaying or implying models about how things are related. Knowing about models does not itself supply any new information about our world, but it might help us to recognize when and how information is being conveyed on these matters, or where possibly it is being obscured. If a claim P (...)
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  3. The Facts. Just the Facts.William M. Goodman - manuscript
    Although at first glance, “facts” are the paradigms of straightforwardness, something about facts seems to invite perpetual controversy and dichotomizing. Innumerable bifurcations on the topic have included "Facts vs. Theories”, “Facts vs. Appearance”, "Facts vs. Values", ... and, popular nowadays, "(Real)Facts vs. Fake Facts". This paper most aligns with the facts vs. theories model, so far as whatever facts are, theories seem to be constructed stories that are necessary for connecting and interpreting the facts. Yet the boundary between the two (...)
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  4. Critical Thinking for Adults: Can It Be Taught?William M. Goodman - 1992 - Inquiry: Critical Thinking Across the Disciplines 10 (2):9-11.
    Much research into why and how critical thinking can be taught is directed towards traditional educational contexts and students. But how can those who are already in the workforce--or who would like to be--obtain needed preparation, as adults, for gaining crucial skills in critical thinking, innovation, and problem solving? Mastery in such skills cannot be learned just by mechanical training techniques, delivered online or otherwise, and many adult-oriented materials for enhancing creativity and problem-solving seem best suited for already-prepared minds. The (...)
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  5. The Undetectable Difference: An Experimental Look at the ‘Problem’ of P-Values.William M. Goodman - 2010 - Statistical Literacy Website/Papers: Www.Statlit.Org/Pdf/2010GoodmanASA.Pdf.
    In the face of continuing assumptions by many scientists and journal editors that p-values provide a gold standard for inference, counter warnings are published periodically. But the core problem is not with p-values, per se. A finding that “p-value is less than α” could merely signal that a critical value has been exceeded. The question is why, when estimating a parameter, we provide a range (a confidence interval), but when testing a hypothesis about a parameter (e.g. µ = x) we (...)
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  6. The 'Horseshoe' of Western Science.William M. Goodman - 1984 - Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 1 (2):41-60.
    A model is proposed for interpreting the course of Western Science’s conception of mathematics from the time of the ancient Greeks to the present day. According to this model, philosophy of science, in general, has traced a horseshoe-shaped curve through time. The ‘horseshoe’ emerges with Pythagoras and other Greek scientists and has curved ‘back’—but not quite back—towards modern trends in philosophy of science, as for example espoused by Bas van Fraassen. Two features of a horseshoe are pertinent to this metaphor: (...)
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  7.  87
    What If Plato Took Surveys? Thoughts About Philosophy Experiments.William M. Goodman - 2012 - In P. Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, Volume 6. Athens Institute for Education and Research.
    The movement called Experimental Philosophy (‘x-Phi’) has now passed its tenth anniversary. Its central insight is compelling: When an argument hinges on accepting certain ‘facts’ about human perception, knowledge, or judging, the evoking of relevant intuitions by thought experiments is intended to make those facts seem obvious. But these intuitions may not be shared universally. Experimentalists propose testing claims that traditionally were intuition-based using real experiments, with real samples. Demanding that empirical claims be empirically supported is certainly reasonable; though experiments (...)
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  8.  69
    Theaetetus Part II: A Dialogical Review.William M. Goodman - 2009 - In J. Tartaglia (ed.), Richard Rorty: Critical Assessments of Leading Philosophers. Routledge.
    After some years (or millennia) most works would no longer be considered eligible for "review." But an exception is called for, if the thrust of an older work is closely paralleled in a much more modern piece, as is the case between Plato's Theaetetus and Richard Rorty's acclaimed, and more recent volume, Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. To fully understand and appreciate Rorty 's contribution to the subjects he raises, one must study his book in conjunction with Plato's Theaetetus-where (...)
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  9. Structures and Procedures: Carnap’s Construction in the Aufbau.William M. Goodman - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:551-578.
    This paper takes up the challenge which Carnap poses in his Aufbau: to make of it a basis for continued epistemological research. I try to close some gaps in Carnap’s original presentation and to make at least the first few steps of his constructional outline more accessible to the modern reader. Particularly emphasized is Carnap’s implicit recognition that, to be effective, “structural” models of epistemology (using logical symbols) must be complemented with “procedural” models (his “fictitious operations”). The paper shows how (...)
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  10.  83
    Beyond Competence: Preparing for Technological Change.William M. Goodman - 1990 - Peter Francis Publishers.
    In response to rapid technological changes in our society, there are calls by governments and industry for increased training of the workforce. But training alone is not sufficient to ensure success, even if talent, discipline and good fortune are all amply provided. When “training” goals require creativity, or decision making, or moral judgment, then adequate preparation must also include “education” in John Dewey’s sense—that is, imparting abilities to solve new problems and grasp novel meanings. Concluding this small monograph is a (...)
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  11. Preparing for Success: What Makes People Succeed.William M. Goodman - 1990 - Peter Francis Publishers.
    This mini-monograph supplements the author’s “Beyond Competence,” which is also posted on this site. The latter asks how training is accomplished. But training success is ultimately judged by one’s success at the trained-for tasks. This leads to asking: “What makes people succeed at their tasks?” If this could be known, then preparation could be more effective. Such influences as training, talent, chance, and discipline are considered. Yet, for goals requiring creativity, decision making, or moral judgment, we find that training alone (...)
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  12.  13
    Structures and Procedures: Carnap’s Construction in the Aufbau.William M. Goodman - 1985 - Philosophy Research Archives 11:551-578.
    This paper takes up the challenge which Carnap poses in his Aufbau: to make of it a basis for continued epistemological research. I try to close some gaps in Carnap’s original presentation and to make at least the first few steps of his constructional outline more accessible to the modern reader. Particularly emphasized is Carnap’s implicit recognition that, to be effective, “structural” models of epistemology must be complemented with “procedural” models. The paper shows how a procedural model, a computer program,can (...)
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