This book taps the best American thinkers to answer the essential American question: How do we sustain our experiment in government of, by, and for the people? Authored by an extraordinary and politically diverse roster of public officials, scholars, and educators, these chapters describe our nation's civic education problem, assess its causes, offer an agenda for reform, and explain the high stakes at risk if we fail.
David O’Connor has criticized my arguments for the conclusion that God’s existence is compatible with genuinely gratuitous natural evil. In this reply, I show that his own arguments fail to achieve their objective; in addition, I point out several respects in which he has misstated my position.
Theories of autobiographical memory emphasise effortful, generative search processes in memory retrieval. However recent research suggests that memories are often retrieved directly, without effortful search. We investigated whether direct and generative retrieval differed in the characteristics of memories recalled, or only in terms of retrieval latency. Participants recalled autobiographical memories in response to cue words. For each memory, they reported whether it was retrieved directly or generatively, rated its visuo-spatial perspective, and judged its accompanying recollective experience. Our results indicated that (...) direct retrieval was commonly reported and was faster than generative retrieval, replicating recent findings. The characteristics of directly retrieved memories differed from generatively retrieved memories: directly retrieved memories had higher field perspective ratings and lower observer perspective ratings. However, retrieval mode did not influence recollective experience. We discuss our findings in terms of cue generation and content construction, and the implication for reconstructive models of autobiographical memory. (shrink)
Three experiments investigated the relationship between subjective experience and attentional lapses during sustained attention. These experiments employed two measures of subjective experience to examine how differences in awareness correspond to variations in both task performance and psycho-physiological measures . This series of experiments examine these phenomena during the Sustained Attention to Response Task . The results suggest we can dissociate between two components of subjective experience during sustained attention: task unrelated thought which corresponds to an absent minded disengagement from the (...) task and a pre-occupation with one's task performance that seems to be best conceptualised as a strategic attempt to deploy attentional resources in response to a perception of environmental demands which exceed ones ability to perform the task. The implications of these findings for our understanding of how awareness is maintained on task relevant material during periods of sustained attention are discussed. (shrink)
This paper concludes a special feature of Sustainability Science that explores a broad range of social value theoretical traditions, such as religious studies, social psychology, indigenous knowledge, economics, sociology, and philosophy. We introduce a novel transdisciplinary conceptual framework that revolves around concepts of ‘lenses’ and ‘tensions’ to help navigate value diversity. First, we consider the notion of lenses: perspectives on value and valuation along diverse dimensions that describe what values focus on, how their sociality is envisioned, and what epistemic and (...) procedural assumptions are made. We characterise fourteen of such dimensions. This provides a foundation for exploration of seven areas of tension, between: the values of individuals vs collectives; values as discrete and held vs embedded and constructed; value as static or changeable; valuation as descriptive vs normative and transformative; social vs relational values; different rationalities and their relation to value integration; degrees of acknowledgment of the role of power in navigating value conflicts. In doing so, we embrace the ‘mess’ of diversity, yet also provide a framework to organise this mess and support and encourage active transdisciplinary collaboration. We identify key research areas where such collaborations can be harnessed for sustainability transformation. Here it is crucial to understand how certain social value lenses are privileged over others and build capacity in decision-making for understanding and drawing on multiple value, epistemic and procedural lenses. (shrink)
"Understanding Phenomenology" provides a guide to one of the most important schools of thought in modern philosophy. The book traces phenomenology's historical development, beginning with its founder, Edmund Husserl and his "pure" or "transcendental" phenomenology, and continuing with the later, "existential" phenomenology of Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty. The book also assesses later, critical responses to phenomenology - from Derrida to Dennett - as well as the continued significance of phenomenology for philosophy today. Written for anyone coming to (...) phenomenology for the first time, the book guides the reader through the often bewildering array of technical concepts and jargon associated with phenomenology and provides clear explanations and helpful examples to encourage and enhance engagement with the primary texts. (shrink)
A working petroleum system was established on the shelf in offshore Labrador with the Bjarni H-81 discovery in 1973 in the Hopedale Basin. The same reservoirs as those targeted on the shelf are present in the deep water, which is currently receiving attention as the result of newly acquired seismic data. To date, only a very small number of wells have been drilled in the deep water, i.e., Blue H-28, Orphan Basin, and none off mainland Labrador. The wells that were (...) drilled in the deep water had encountered significant overpressure, e.g., kicks that indicated overpressures of 26,850 kPa in the Mid-Cretaceous. Therefore, it was reasonable to assume that pore pressures be similarly high for any new deepwater prospects identified. To help reduce the risk in unexplored environments, we developed an approach that can be adopted to model pore pressure in deepwater settings, with Labrador as the main case study area featured, but also we discussed other global examples such as the Vøring Basin, Mid-Norway. Our results indicated, as a first approximation, that seismic velocity-based pore pressures in shale-rich intervals were similar to the geologic model down to the Lower Tertiary. Deep lithologies were, by regional analogue, likely affected by cementation that will act to preserve overpressure generated by disequilibrium compaction by reducing permeability but will not generate additional pore pressure. The cements will, however, result in faster shales and will underpredict pore pressure by mimicking low porosity. A theoretical or “geologic modeling” approach can be used to sense-check any pore pressure interpretation from seismic velocity. The geologic approach also can be used to assess the risk for mechanical seal failure by allowing for estimates of the pore pressure, and related fracture pressure, to be made without the effects of cementation that affect the logs and seismic velocity data. (shrink)
In the first part of Theism and Ultimate Explanation Timothy O’Connor provides a compact survey of the metaphysics and epistemology of modality, defending modal realism and a priorism. In the book’s second half he defends a Leibnizian-style cosmological argument for an absolutely necessary being. He seeks to answer four questions: Is the idea of a necessary being coherent? In what way is the postulation of such a being explanatory? Does the assumption of necessary being commit us to denying the very (...) contingency of mundane things which it is meant to explain? What are the implications of necessary being for theology? In this review I highlight a few of the obscurities and apparent weaknesses of this otherwise commendable book. (shrink)