Resumen El objetivo principal de este artículo es recrear la práctica de la hospitalidad en el contexto de la realidad migratoria actual, con la intención de aportar luz a la manera de gestionar la diversidad, de repensar la formación de identidad, de acercarnos a ciertas dinámicas políticas y últimamente de incentivar procesos de integración y cohesión social, especialmente en la vida de nuestros barrios. Para ello, el autor se adentra en las raíces bíblicas de la hospitalidad, aportando algunas claves para (...) entender esta virtud hoy. En nuestro mundo actual donde parecería ganar terreno la hostilidad sobre la hospitalidad, la práctica de la hospitalidad constituye un auténtico acto de resistencia.The main aim of this article is to recreate the practice of hospitality in the context of the current migratory reality, with the intention of bringing light to the way of managing diversity, of rethinking identity formation, of approaching certain political dynamics and lately to encourage processes of integration and social cohesion, especially in our vulnerable neighborhoods. For this purpose, the author delves into the biblical roots of hospitality, providing some clues to understand this virtue today. In our current world where hostility over hospitality seems to gain ground, the practice of hospitality constitutes a genuine act of resistance. (shrink)
Much of the fascination that Petronius' Satyricon holds for its readers originates in the work's gleeful violation of traditional categories of classical genres. Critical terminology makes explicit the issue of unconventionality, as it is reduced to the neutral word ‘work’ in describing the Satyricon, which, as far as we can tell, belongs to no single category , but appropriates elements from many sources in both poetry and prose. Perhaps if we had more evidence with which to compare the work, such (...) as a greater selection of Menippean satire or proto-novels from antiquity, we might be able to identify it more accurately. But the suspicion remains that the intense variety of its evocations, allusions, and parodic passages differentiates it clearly from its component genres without allowing it to settle firmly in any one established genre. A certain amount of ‘Kreuzung der Gattungen’ is, of course, typical of both Alexandrian and consequently Roman texts. But the Satyricon seems to revel in its generic instability; it plays with the notion of ‘literariness’ by revealing impulses from non-literary forms such as mime and subliterary prose fiction, raising this material to an unfamiliar level of literary sophistication even as it debases other traditional genres through parodic techniques. One of the results of this open experimentation with style and decorum is an extremely dense fabric of literary allusion which some would label ‘literary opportunism’. The reader quickly learns to expect intertextual pyrotechnics, swift changes from the sublime to the ridiculous, and humorous incongruities in plot and form, as the stylistic disorder of the text reflects the topsyturvy Petronian world. The modern reader's response to this profusion of referents is to explore the recognizable categories and sources embedded in the work, to tease out the familiar elements in the hope of gaining a better understanding of the whole. Since a great deal of the allusion in the Satyricon functions parodically, there is yet another step necessary in the interpretation, namely taking into account the effect of the decontextualization of language and events from the source material and their recombination and transformation into the new text. (shrink)
The concerns of this article are twofold: first, it examines the nature of debt as a social and economic force that fosters conditions of alienation in persons and institutions. Debt is also considered ontologically to be pertinent to the institution of the family as well as general conditions of kinship, of what determines what is ancestral and what is foreign. Second, it examines the conditions of financial and cultural crisis in Greece in recent years, where debt emerges as a prominent (...) force that works not only at a geopolitical level but on the micro level of society as well. This inquiry is conducted primarily through an elaboration of key instances in recent Greek cinema. (shrink)
Ludwik Fleck, Edmund Husserl : on the historicity of scientific knowledge -- Gaston Bachelard : the concept of "phenomenotechnique" -- Georges Canguilhem : epistemological history -- Pisum : Carl Correns's experiments on Xenia, 1896-99 -- Eudorina : Max Hartmann's experiments on biological regulation in protozoa, 1914-21 -- Ephestia : Alfred Kähn's experimental design for a developmental physiological -- Genetics, 1924-45 -- Tobacco mosaic virus : virus research at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institutes for Biochemistry and Biology, 1937-45 -- The concept (...) of the gene : molecular biological perspectives -- The liquid scintillation counter : traces of radioactivity -- The concept of information : the writings of François Jacob -- Intersections -- Preparations -- The economy of the scribble. (shrink)
1. Introduzione; 2. Definizioni: chi sono gli immigrati di seconda generazione?; 3. Precauzioni: declinare il concetto di seconda generazione al plurale?; 4. Specificità: in che cosa sono diverse dalle prime generazioni?; 4.1. Il differenziale linguistico; 4.2. L’acculturazione tra comunità di origine e di accoglienza; 4.3. La disposizione verso la partecipazione alla vita pubblica; 4.4. Prospettive di autorealizzazione e conflitto intergenerazionale; 4.5. La socializzazione illusoria e il rischio di downward assimilation; Riferimenti bibliografici.
When considering the question of possible transformation and disappearance of scientific objects, it is useful to distinguish between epistemic and technical objects. This paper presents preliminary observations and offers a typology of obsolescence. It is based on several case studies drawn from the history of life sciences. The paper proceeds as follows: first, the dynamics of epistemic objects is considered through the examples of Carl Correns’ study of “xenia”, Alfred Kühn’s work on physiological developmental genetics, and Paul Zamecnik’s research (...) on the protein biosynthesis. Second, the phasing out of technical objects is then separately discussed and illustrated by the example of radioactive tracing in biology – until recently, an established technique of visualization. (shrink)
Intertwined with the celebration of Athenian democratic institutions, we find in the "Oresteia" another chain of interactions, in which the elite families of Argos, Phokis, Athens, and even Mount Olympos employ the traditional aristocratic relationships of xenia and hetaireia to renegotiate their own status within-and at the pinnacle of-the civic order, and thereby guarantee the renewed prosperity of their respective communities. The capture of Troy is the result of a joint venture by the Atreidai and the Olympian "family" . (...) Although Agamemnon falls victim to his own mishandling of aristocratic privilege, his son is raised by doryxenoi in Phokis , a relationship which is mirrored by that with the Olympian "allies," Hermes and Apollo. Orestes' recovery of his father's position is thus shown to depend upon a network of "guest-friends" and "sworn-comrades," reinforced by the traditional language of oaths and reciprocal loyalty. In the Eumenides, the alliance between the Olympian and Argive royal families is re-invoked as the basis both for Athena's protection of Orestes, and finally for Zeus' concern for his daughter's Athenian dependents. In contrast to this successful "networking," and the resultant benefits that trickle down to the citizens of Argos and Athens, stand the seditious oaths and perverted "comradeship" of Aigisthos and Klytaimestra; likewise, the Erinyes are unable to draw on equivalent claims of pedigree or xenia to those enjoyed by Orestes and Apollo. Like all Greek tragedies, the "Oresteia" presents the action through constantly shifting viewpoints, those of aristocrats and commoners, leaders and led, while the propriety of this hierarchy itself is never questioned. And although the action moves from monarchical Argos to an incipiently democratic Athens, paradoxically we hear less and less about "ordinary," lower-class citizens as the trilogy progresses. Thus, at the same time that the trilogy reinforces the sense of collective survival and civic values , it also suggests that these can be maintained only through the proper interventions of their traditional leaders. Aeschylus' plays were composed during a time when the Athenian democracy was still developing, and elite leadership and patronage were still taken for granted. Attic tragedy and the City Dionysia may be seen as a site of negotiation between rival ideologies within the polis, wherein a kind of "solidarity without consensus" is achieved. Written and staged by the elite under license from the demos, the dramas play out dangerous stories of royal risk-taking, crime, glory, and suffering, in such a way as to reassure the citizen audience simultaneously of their own collective invulnerability, and of the unique value of their leading families. (shrink)
This essay discusses transformations in the ritual use of blood offerings from late medieval to contemporary Tantric and Tantra-influenced traditions. Specifically, it examines animal sacrifice and the use of animal blood or body parts in defensive and/or destructive Tantric uccāṭana rituals in historical text sources and in Tantra-influenced ojhāī practices in contemporary religion. The essay argues that while uccāṭana—mainly because of its partly destructive character and demand for blood—was apparently never integrated into non-Tantric traditions in an unaltered form, it does (...) serve as one of several roots for contemporary ojhāī rituals. Thus, a form of ‘uccāṭana light’ has found its way into popular Hinduism. (shrink)
The circumstances under which classical genetics became established at the turn of the nineteenth century have become an integral part of the standard narrative on the history of genetics. Yet, despite considerable scholarly efforts, it has remained a matter of debate how exactly the so-called 'rediscovery' of Mendel's laws came about around 1900. In this situation, unpublished research records can be invaluable tools to arrive at a more substantial and more satisfying picture of the order of historical events. This paper (...) makes extended use of the research protocols covering Carl Correns' hybridisation experiments with Pisum sativum between 1896 and 1899. The resulting reconstruction sketches the portrait of a scientist following a particular research question — xenia — struggling with his experimental material, and slowly building up an epistemic regime in which questions and observations could acquire a relevance which did not strike Correns when he first took note of them. The microhistorical gaze through the magnifying glass of research notes reveals the kind of delays that appear to be constitutive for empirically-driven thinking in general. The research notes of Correns help not only to make this point, they also display some of the intricacies and material peculiarities which characterise the experimental process of hybridisation and the particular type of inferences it allows one to make. (shrink)
Positive intergroup contact and cross-group friendships are known to have numerous benefits for intergroup relations in diverse schools. However, children do not always spontaneously engage in cross-group friendships, choosing rather to spend time with their ingroup peers. Several factors have previously been identified that influence children’s confidence in contact and subsequent development of cross-group friendships, including perceived intergroup similarity and reconciliation of intergroup differences. However, inducing perceived similarity may pose a threat to the person’s social identity and increase the need (...) for distinctiveness. Therefore, it remains unclear how one should manipulate perceived similarity and group boundaries when designing interventions that prepare school children for successful contact. Moreover, eliminating perceived group boundaries need not lead to the generalization of improved attitudes towards the outgroup. An optimal balance of inclusion and differentiation between the groups should be determined so as to make way for beneficial cross-group friendships. Based on a literature review, we provide recommendations for designing prejudice reduction interventions in schools from the perspective of intergroup similarity. (shrink)
This article examines strategies used by human rights advocates to lobby for policy at intergovernmental organizations. We suggest that the literatures’ central questions are about how best to organize, connect, and communicate, which are usually seen through theory on transnational advocacy networks and framing. We add that these questions should be seen as gendered, given the continued male dominance within diplomatic corps. With unusual access to their strategy, we conduct a case study of one advocate’s successful campaign to get the (...) United Nations to adopt a country-specific resolution. Like others, we found this campaigning relies upon the use of networks to overcome formal obstacles to access, human rights language to frame the problem, analysis of tally sheets of member states’ voting, and in-person lobbying. We also point out strategies key to their success that are not usually noticed by scholars, such as the gendered dynamics that get advocates in the door. (shrink)
In his speech against Meidias Demosthenes describes the arrogant and proud behaviour of his opponent in which Meidias persists in spite of the popular vote condemning him. Whenever there is voting, Demosthenes says, Meidias is put forward as a candidate; he is the proxenos of Plutarch, he knows everything, the city is too small for his aspirations. This illustration of the enormous popularity of an Athenian politician shows his predominant influence in the two spheres of domestic and foreign policy. The (...) main line of this foreign policy —the passage is obviously intended as an accusation—is expressed by the relationship of proxenia and xenia between Meidias and Plutarch, the leading politician of Eretria who, pro-Athenian at first, changed his attitude and almost brought disaster on the Athenian army intervening in Euboea. (shrink)
ZusammenfassungIn massenmedialen Darstellungen wird das Hormon Oxytocin gegenwärtig als biochemische Basis von Sozialität und wirkmächtiger neuropharmakologischer Lösungsansatz für die Herstellung der gesellschaftlichen Kohäsion verhandelt. Mit Blick auf die ursprüngliche Bedeutung des Hormons als „Körperhormon“ zu Beginn des 20. Jahrhunderts soll im vorliegenden Artikel die außergewöhnliche Karriere von Oxytocin vom Regulator des Geburtsvorgangs hin zum Regulator der Gesellschaft nachgezeichnet werden. Woraus bezieht eine solch voraussetzungsvolle Behauptung ihre Intelligibilität und Akzeptabilität? Unsere Analyse des wissenschaftlichen Diskurses um Oxytocin, des massenmedialen Diskurses seit den (...) 1990er Jahren sowie dessen Rückwirkungen auf den wissenschaftlichen Diskurs im gleichen Zeitraum verweist auf eine Serie von Re-Konfigurationen von wissenschaftlichen Theorien und Praktiken, sowie der Konzeption der Substanz an sich. Nachdem es sich in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts etabliert, wird Oxytocin bereits in den 1950er Jahren zum Neurohormon, findet in den folgenden Jahrzehnten jedoch kaum wissenschaftliche Aufmerksamkeit. Erst im Zuge des massenmedialen Interesses für die postulierten Wirkungen des Hormons in Zusammenhang mit Liebe und Bindung gerät die Substanz zunehmend in den Fokus empirischer Forschung. Die Rezeption von Oxytocin als neurohormonelle Basis der individuellen Soziabilität speist sich zum einen aus dem massenmedialen Diskurs, zum anderen aus bereits in der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts gemachten biopolitischen Verknüpfungen, die auf die Regulierung des Lebendigen abzielen, sowie aus einem technowissenschaftlichen Modus der Oxytocinforschung: an ihrem Schnittpunkt avanciert Oxytocin zum Sozialhormon, so unsere These. (shrink)
This article examines specific celebration rituals of two groups of Russian émigrés during the period of the mid-1950s to early 1960s. The groups, comprised of former officers of the Russian imperial army and of graduates of schools for noble girls, often situated their festivities within a Russian Orthodox Church building located at Madison Avenue and 121st Street in Manhattan. The celebrations, spatially enclosed and separated from the outside world within this structure,suggest their privileged and exclusive nature. The staging and performance (...) of the celebration, while acknowledging displacement and exile, re-inscribed the spatial enclosure with the Russian past through the reenactment of Russian cultural traditions and social hierarchies, thereby validating the lives and identities of the celebrants. (shrink)
The study deals with ekphraseis on works of art and poses the question as to how far these texts can be a reliable source for the study or even the reconstruction of the artefacts they describe. Based on reception theory and readerresponse criticism, in the paper is proposed that as every text, byzantine ekphraseis on artworks presuppose an audience or readership, i. e. the one the author had in mind and on the basis of which he encoded his message. In (...) order to decode this message and by extension to extract any information about the described works of art we must aim to discover their “intended reader”, and identify his or her “horizon of expectations. This proposal is tested in the study of a well known piece of this kind, Manasses’s description of a mosaic floor with a depiction of Earth. The author’s dialogue with the earlier tradition of ekphraseis, his readership’s “horizon of expectations” combined with historical facts, allow us to suppose that Manasses is describing a composition with Xenia scenes and an asarotos motif created in the early byzantine period and preserved in the Great Palace of Constantinople up to the twelfth century. (shrink)
This work offers an evaluation of Plato’s portrayal of “Socrates” in relation to models of the ancient Greek “agon”, oral poetic performance, and the practices of “xenia”. The author reinterprets the values of the oral tradition and xenia as non-agonistic, and shows how these values can illuminate the dramatic and philosophical import of Plato’s Socrates in ways potentially relevant to current thinking about “demokratia”.