In this paper, the Boolean representation of R0-algebras are investigated. In particular, we show that directly indecomposable R0-algebras are equivalent to local R0-algebras and any nontrivial R0-algebra is representable as a weak Boolean product of local R0-algebras.
The representatives of modern Neo-Confucianism all greatly value Yi Zhuan and regard it as one of their spiritual resources, and give their own creative interpretations and transformations. Xiong Shili's ontological-cosmological theory takes "qian yuan" as its center; Ma Yifu has a theory of ontology-cultivation centered on "nature-principle"; Fang Dongmei has a metaphysics of production and reproduction; Mou Zongsan takes the view of "completely knowing the fathomless and understanding transformation" as a moral metaphysics; and in Tang Junyi there is a theory (...) of the harmony of doctrines on Heaven and man in which "the knowledge of divine understanding" is its key concept. They employ modern philosophical concepts and thinking to illustrate the cosmology, ontology, theory of life, theory of human nature, theory of spiritual worlds, axiology and their connections in Zhou Yi. They affirm that the characteristics of Chinese philosophy that are different from Western philosophy consist in a naturalist view of vital life, a harmonious view of totality, an axiological view that values exist in natural universe and the world of fact, the pursuit of Good and Beauty, and intuitive experience of inner world. (shrink)
This article argues that current data for the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplants as a treatment for any indication, including recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection, is low-quality. It develops a governance proposal that encourages production of high-quality evidence by incentivizing well-designed RCTs of stool and stoolderived microbial products. The proposal would require that FDA change its current enforcement approach, but it would not require any change in statutes or regulations.
Much of seismic interpretation is based on pattern recognition, such that experienced interpreters are able to extract subtle geologic features that a new interpreter may easily overlook. Seismic pattern recognition is based on the identification of changes in amplitude, phase, frequency, dip, continuity, and reflector configuration. Seismic attributes, which providing quantitative measures that can be subsequently used in risk analysis and data mining, partially automate the pattern recognition problem by extracting key statistical, geometric, or kinematic components of the 3D seismic (...) volume. Early attribute analysis began with recognition of bright spots and quickly moved into the mapping of folds, faults, and channels. Although a novice interpreter may quickly recognize faults and channels on attribute time slices, karst terrains provide more complex patterns. We sought to instruct the attribute expression of a karst terrain in the western part of the Fort Worth Basin, Texas, United States of America. Karst provides a specific expression on almost every attribute. Specifically, karst in the Fort Worth Basin Ellenburger Group exhibits strong dip, negative curvature, low coherence, and a shift to lower frequencies. Geomorphologically, the inferred karst geometries seen in our study areas indicate strong structural control, whereby large-scale karst collapse is associated with faults and where karst lineaments are aligned perpendicularly to faults associated with reflector rotation anomalies. (shrink)
Responding to recent concerns about the reliability of the published literature in psychology and other disciplines, we formed the X-Phi Replicability Project to estimate the reproducibility of experimental philosophy. Drawing on a representative sample of 40 x-phi studies published between 2003 and 2015, we enlisted 20 research teams across 8 countries to conduct a high-quality replication of each study in order to compare the results to the original published findings. We found that x-phi studies – as represented in our sample (...) – successfully replicated about 70% of the time. We discuss possible reasons for this relatively high replication rate in the field of experimental philosophy and offer suggestions for best research practices going forward. (shrink)
This research examines how and why reactions to other consumers’ unethical behavior differ among consumers and vary in different situations. Drawing on construal level theory, the authors propose that the relationship between other consumers’ unethical behavior and focal consumers’ unethical behavior is moderated by focal consumers’ construal level, and self-expressiveness mediates this moderating effect. Specifically, consumers at higher construal levels tend to view their behavior as more self-expressive and are thus less likely to imitate other consumers’ unethical behavior. Study 1 (...) indicates that focal consumers who have a chronic tendency to construe information at high levels are less likely to replicate other consumers’ unethical behavior than those who have a chronic tendency to construe information at low levels. Studies 2, 3a and 3b show that when primed with higher-level construals, consumers are less likely to follow other consumers’ unethical behavior than when primed with lower-level construals. The mediating effect of self-expressiveness was tested and supported in Study 1 and Study 3b. These findings help to better understand consumers’ reactions to other consumers’ unethical behavior. (shrink)
Does being green facilitate product innovation? This study examines whether green management in firms operating in China fosters radical product innovation to a greater extent than it does incremental product innovation and investigates the underlying institutional mechanisms involved in the relationship between green management and product innovation. The findings show that green management is more likely to lead to radical product innovation than to incremental product innovation. Moreover, government support as a formal institutional benefit more strongly mediates the effect of (...) green management on radical product innovation than its effect on incremental product innovation; whereas social legitimacy as an informal institutional benefit more strongly mediates the effect of green management on incremental product innovation than its effect on radical product innovation. These findings provide important implications for explaining how firms employ green management to facilitate product innovation. (shrink)
In this paper, we focus on a class of singular fractional differential equation, which arises from many complex processes such as the phenomenon and diffusion interaction of the ecological-economic-social complex system. By means of the iterative technique, the uniqueness and nonexistence results of positive solutions are established under the condition concerning the spectral radius of the relevant linear operator. In addition, the iterative scheme that converges to the unique solution is constructed without request of any monotonicity, and the convergence analysis (...) and error estimate of unique solution are obtained. The numerical example and simulation are also given to demonstrate the application of the main results and the effectiveness of iterative process. (shrink)
We study an application of gaggle theory to unary negative modal operators. First we treat negation as impossibility and get a minimal logic system Ki that has a perp semantics. Dunn 's kite of different negations can be dealt with in the extensions of this basic logic Ki. Next we treat negation as “unnecessity” and use a characteristic semantics for different negations in a kite which is dual to Dunn 's original one. Ku is the minimal logic that has a (...) characteristic semantics. We also show that Shramko's falsification logic FL can be incorporated into some extension of this basic logic Ku. Finally, we unite the two basic logics Ki and Ku together to get a negative modal logic K-, which is dual to the positive modal logic K+ in . Shramko has suggested an extension of Dunn 's kite and also a dual version in . He also suggested combining them into a “united” kite. We give a united semantics for this united kite of negations. (shrink)
Zhou Dunyi Zhou Dunyi has long been highly esteemed by Chinese thinkers. He is considered one of the first “Neo-Confucians,” a group of thinkers who draw heavily on Buddhist and Daoist metaphysics to articulate a comprehensive, Confucian religious … Continue reading Dunyi, Zhou →.
Recent theoretical advances describing consciousness from information and integration have highlighted the unique role of the thalamocortical system in leading to integrated information and thus, consciousness. Here, we examined the differential distributions of specific and nonspecific thalamocortical functional connections using resting-state fMRI in a group of healthy subjects and vegetative-state patients. We found that both thalamic systems were widely distributed, but they exhibited different patterns. Nonspecific connections were preferentially associated with brain regions involved in higher-order cognitive processing, self-awareness and introspective (...) mentalizing . In contrast, specific connections were prevalent in the ventral and posterior part of the prefrontal and precuneus, known involved in representing externally-directed attentions. Significant reductions of functional connectivity in both systems, especially the nonspecific system, were observed in VS. These data suggest that brain networks sustaining information and integration may be differentiated by the nature of their thalamic functional connectivity. (shrink)
ABSTRACTIn this paper, we utilize a rhetorically grounded textual analysis to study the Open Letter, the first publicized text sent out from the Central government to all the Party and Communist Youth League members on 25 September 1980. By reading through the text, we identify three individual figures – the ‘people’ as ‘the origin of problems,’ the people as ‘reasonable and considerate,’ and those charged with advocating compliance as ‘active propagandists and responsible educators’ – that have been crafted in the (...) text. We argue that by constructing three subject positions that served to identify the people via both language and social practices, the Central government in China after Mao Zedong’s death constructed the discourses of urgency and necessity of adhering to the one-child policy to both convince and compel people to exercise responsibility in having only one child. (shrink)
Drawing on institutional and signaling theories, this study examines how environmental corporate social responsibility affects firm performance in a dysfunctional institutional environment. We extend the ECSR literature by suggesting that ECSR indirectly influences firm performance through the mediating effects of business and political legitimacy. Based on a dataset of 238 firms in China, we find that ECSR affects business and political legitimacy followed by firm performance. Moreover, legal incompleteness weakens and legal inefficiency strengthens the effects of ECSR on business and (...) political legitimacy. (shrink)
Machery et al. presented data suggesting the existence of cross-cultural variation in judgments about the reference of proper names. In this paper, we examine a previously overlooked confound in the subsequent studies that attempt to replicate the results of Machery et al. using East Asian languages. Machery et al. and Sytsma et al. claim that they have successfully replicated the original finding with probes written in Chinese and Japanese, respectively. These studies, however, crucially rely on uses of articleless, ‘bare noun (...) phrases’ in Chinese and Japanese, which according to the linguistic literature are known to be multiply ambiguous. We argue that it becomes questionable whether the extant studies using East Asian languages revealed genuine cross-cultural variation when the probes are reevaluated based on a proper linguistic understanding of Chinese and Japanese bare noun phrases and English definite descriptions. We also present two experiments on native Japanese speakers that controlled the use of ambiguous bare noun phrases, the results of which suggest that the judgments of Japanese speakers concerning the reference of proper names may not diverge from those of English speakers. (shrink)
There is a growing consensus that the mental lexicon contains both abstract and word-specific acoustic information. To investigate their relative importance for word recognition, we tested to what extent perceptual learning is word specific or generalizable to other words. In an exposure phase, participants were divided into two groups; each group was semantically biased to interpret an ambiguous Mandarin tone contour as either tone1 or tone2. In a subsequent test phase, the perception of ambiguous contours was dependent on the exposure (...) phase: Participants who heard ambiguous contours as tone1 during exposure were more likely to perceive ambiguous contours as tone1 than participants who heard ambiguous contours as tone2 during exposure. This learning effect was only slightly larger for previously encountered than for not previously encountered words. The results speak for an architecture with prelexical analysis of phonological categories to achieve both lexical access and episodic storage of exemplars. (shrink)
Named entity recognition is a subtask in natural language processing, and its accuracy greatly affects the effectiveness of downstream tasks. Aiming at the problem of insufficient expression of potential Chinese features in named entity recognition tasks, this paper proposes a multifeature adaptive fusion Chinese named entity recognition model. The model uses bidirectional long short-term memory neural network to extract stroke and radical features and adopts a weighted concatenation method to fuse two sets of features adaptively. This method can better integrate (...) the two sets of features, thereby improving the model entity recognition ability. In order to fully test the entity recognition performance of this model, we compared the basic model and other mainstream models on Microsoft Research Asia and “China People’s Daily” dataset from January to June 1998. Experimental results show that this model is better than other models, with F1 values of 97.01% and 96.78%, respectively. (shrink)
Cyberloafing is prevalent in the workplace and research has increasingly focused on its antecedents. This study aims to extend the cyberloafing literature from the perspective of perceived overqualification among civil servants. Drawing on equity theory, we examined the effect of POQ on cyberloafing, along with the mediating role of harmonious passion on the POQ–cyberloafing relationship and the moderating role of the need for achievement on strengthening the link between POQ and harmonious passion. Using time-lagged data from a sample of 318 (...) civil servants in China, we found that POQ was positively related to cyberloafing; harmonious passion mediated this relationship; the need for achievement moderated the effect of POQ on harmonious passion as well as the indirect effect of POQ on cyberloafing via harmonious passion. Based on the findings, we discussed theoretical and managerial implications and provided future research avenues. (shrink)
If you are interested in accountability and transparency in public decision-making, this book is for you. If you are interested in ways and means of avoiding capture by vested interests when making public policy, this book is for you. If you are interested in a sustainable and efficient agri-food system which meets the needs of consumers, producers and society, this book is for you.Agriculture remains an important industry in many economies. It is also a key sector with an important role (...) to play in determining nations’, societies’ and households’ nutritional and environmental performance and outcomes. Unfortunately, the agri-food sector in many countries suffers from excessive and poorly focused levels and types of intervention, constrained growth, and unsustainable practices.In his book, Developing Successful Agriculture, Professor Zhang-Yue Zhou provides us with a comprehensive and compelling account of how Australia’s agri-food sector has become so successful even though it receive .. (shrink)
RGBD camera-based VSLAM algorithm is usually applied to assist robots with real-time mapping. However, due to the limited measuring principle, accuracy, and distance of the equipped camera, this algorithm has typical disadvantages in the large and dynamic scenes with complex lightings, such as poor mapping accuracy, easy loss of robot position, and much cost on computing resources. Regarding these issues, this paper proposes a new method of 3D interior construction, which combines laser radar and an RGBD camera. Meanwhile, it is (...) developed based on the Cartographer laser SLAM algorithm. The proposed method mainly takes two steps. The first step is to do the 3D reconstruction using the Cartographer algorithm and RGBD camera. It firstly applies the Cartographer algorithm to calculate the pose of the RGBD camera and to generate a submap. Then, a real-time 3D point cloud generated by using the RGBD camera is inserted into the submap, and the real-time interior construction is finished. The second step is to improve Cartographer loop-closure quality by the visual loop-closure for the sake of correcting the generated map. Compared with traditional methods in large-scale indoor scenes, the proposed algorithm in this paper shows higher precision, faster speed, and stronger robustness in such contexts, especially with complex light and dynamic objects, respectively. (shrink)
In marketing channels, distributor whistleblowing can deter unethical behaviors, though little academic research investigates this tactic. Drawing on whistleblowing literature in business ethics and organizational theory, as well as field interviews with channel managers, this article identifies and elucidates the notion of distributor whistleblowing in marketing channels. Specifically, this study investigates how a manufacturer’s control modes encourage or discourage distributor whistleblowing. This study also considers the impact of distributor whistleblowing on relationship quality and the moderating effects of exchange hazards. The (...) empirical results from a sample of 211 Chinese distributors indicate that manufacturers’ monitoring inhibits, whereas incentives boost distributor whistleblowing. Further, a positive link arises between distributor whistleblowing and relationship quality, which is weakened by distributor transaction-specific investments and strengthened by market uncertainty. (shrink)
Motivated by a large literature on how firm-specific resources drive firm performance, we propose and find that heterogeneity in investor optimism regarding firm-specific attributes plays a very important role in influencing the managerial propensity to manipulate financial statements. When firm-level investor optimism is moderate, the incidence of accounting misconduct increases, but it decreases when investors are highly optimistic. Further, market reaction to the announcement of financial restatements is more negative when investors held more optimistic firm-specific beliefs at the time of (...) initial misstatement. These findings are robust to alternative firm-specific optimism measures linked to analysts, general investors and unsophisticated individual investors, controls for market-wide consumer sentiment unexplained by macroeconomic factors, economy-wide and industry-level optimism, potential selection bias and reverse causality. Our analysis highlights the importance of firm-level investor optimism in predicting, preventing and detecting accounting misconduct. (shrink)
Young children often treat robots as social agents after they have witnessed interactions that can be interpreted as social. We studied in three experiments whether four-year-olds from three cultures and adults from two cultures will attribute ownership of objects to a robot that engages in social gaze with a human. Participants watched videos of robot-human interactions, in which objects were possessed or new objects were created. Children and adults applied the same ownership rules to humans and robots – irrespective of (...) whether the robot engaged in social gaze or not. However, there was cultural variation in the types of ownership rules used. In Experiment 3, we removed further social cues, finding that just showing a pair of self-propelled robot-arms elicited ownership attributions. The role of social gaze in social attributions to robots and cross-cultural differences in ownership understanding are discussed. (shrink)