This study examines perceptions of ethical climate and ethical practices of 118 successful Chinese managers among business students and managen in the Zhejiang province of China. The impact of different ethical climate types on perceived ethical practices of successful managers was also investigated. The "rules'* was the most reported, and '' independence'' was the least reported, among the various climate types. A majority of the respondents perceive successful managers as ethical. In addition, those who believed that their organization had a (...) "rules" climate perceived a strong positive link between success and ethical behavior. None of the other climate types had an impact on the link between success and ethical behavior. (shrink)
This paper discusses the philosophy of Zhu Xi, "a sub-Shu" concept, and that "a sub-Shu," Zhu Xi's philosophy in the concept of moral ethics, metaphysics, cosmology and so many different face. By "a sub-Shu," Zhu Xi's view, ethics has its objective basis for its endless from the Heaven. And this seems to be constructed for the contemporary world, to provide some contribution to the work ethic.
This paper starts with the study of realistic three-dimensional models, from the two aspects of ink art style simulation model and three-dimensional display technology, explores the three-dimensional display model of three-dimensional model ink style, and conducts experiments through the software development platform and auxiliary software. The feasibility of the model is verified. Aiming at the problem of real-time rendering of large-scale 3D scenes in the model, efficient visibility rejection method and a multiresolution fast rendering method were designed to realize the (...) rapid construction and rendering of ink art 3D virtual reality scenes in a big data environment. A two-dimensional cellular automaton is used to simulate a brushstroke model with ink and wash style, and outlines are drawn along the path of the brushstroke to obtain an effect close to the artistic style of ink and wash painting. Set the surface of the model with ink style brushstroke texture patterns, refer to the depth map, normal map, and curvature map information of the model, and simulate the drawing effect of the method by procedural texture mapping. Example verification shows that the rapid visualization analysis model of ink art big data designed in this paper is in line with the prediction requirements of ink art big data three-dimensional display indicators. The fast visibility removal method is used to deal with large-scale three-dimensional ink art in a big data environment. High efficiency is achieved in virtual reality scenes, and the multiresolution fast rendering method better maintains the appearance of the prediction model without major deformation. (shrink)
Based on the global urban economic competitiveness data in 2017, this study conducts coupling analyses of the competitiveness indicator system. The comprehensive study on the coupling coordination degree among explanatory indexes of urban economic competitiveness concludes that the city with higher economic competitiveness rankings has a higher degree of coupling coordination ; the city ranked lower in the economic competitiveness has a lower DCC. The cities with higher DCC are mainly those global cities or metropolis known for financial and technological (...) innovations, while cities with bare coupling coordination are mainly in underdeveloped countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Based on the findings, the paper employs a model that combines linear regression and quantile regression to identify the specific driving factors that affect the cities’ competitiveness around the world. Therefore, every city should act according to local conditions, focus on the key drivers of urban development, and address the inadequacies to balance the economic development so as to enhance its competitiveness. (shrink)
I aim to show how Confucian philosophy can contribute to the contemporary resurgence of virtue ethics education by arguing that it has the resource to address a lacuna in Aristotelian ethics. Aristotelian ethics, which is arguably the main resource of contemporary virtue ethics, lacks a virtue that corresponds to the notion of loving each person as one’s self or the Golden Rule. To be more precise, Aristotelian ethics has no virtue about loving all people as one’s self, although philia comes (...) close but is precisely limited because it lacks universality. However, I believe that Dai Zhen’s interpretation of the Confucian virtues of shu and zhong does have this universal scope which philia lacks. For Dai, the ground for loving another is not any characteristic that a particular group of people have in common, such as, in the case of philia, being virtuous. Rather, the ground is universal human nature itself. (shrink)
In December and January of 1983–1984, archaeologists excavating the tomb of an ancient Chinese provincial bureaucrat at a Western Han Dynasty site near Zhangjiashan, in Jiangling county, Hubei Province, discovered a number of books on bamboo strips, including inter alia works on legal statutes, military practice, and medicine. Among these was a previously unknown mathematical work on some 200 bamboo strips, the Suan shu shu, or Book of Numbers and Computations. Based upon other works found in the tomb, especially a (...) copy of the Er nian lü ling ), archaeologists have dated the tomb to ca. 186 BCE. The Suan shu shu, as the earliest yet discovered work devoted specifically to mathematics from ancient China, has stirred considerable interest among Chinese historians of science. The translation and commentary offered here draw extensively on the works cited in Sect. 3 below. Several appendixes devoted to specific issues related to translating the Suan shu shu, including its title and the problem of determining English equivalents for various commodities that arise in the text, may be found in Appendix II. (shrink)
An adaptive neural network control problem is addressed for a class of nonlinear hydraulic servo-systems with time-varying state constraints. In view of the low precision problem of the traditional hydraulic servo-system which is caused by the tracking errors surpassing appropriate bound, the previous works have shown that the constraint for the system is a good way to solve the low precision problem. Meanwhile, compared with constant constraints, the time-varying state constraints are more general in the actual systems. Therefore, when the (...) states of the system are forced to obey bounded time-varying constraint conditions, the high precision tracking performance of the system can be easily realized. In order to achieve this goal, the time-varying barrier Lyapunov function is used to prevent the states from violating time-varying constraints. By the backstepping design, the adaptive controller will be obtained. A radial basis function neural network is used to estimate the uncertainties. Based on analyzing the stability of the hydraulic servo-system, we show that the error signals are bounded in the compacts sets; the time-varying state constrains are never violated and all singles of the hydraulic servo-system are bounded. The simulation and experimental results show that the tracking accuracy of system is improved and the controller has fast tracking ability and strong robustness. (shrink)
Malaysia hosts a significant number of refugees, asylum-seekers and migrant workers. Healthcare access for these individuals has always proved a challenge: language barriers, financial constraints and mobility restrictions are some of the frequently cited hurdles. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated these existing inequalities, with migrants and refugees bearing the brunt of chronic systemic injustices. Providing equitable healthcare access for all, regardless of their citizenship and social status remains an ethical challenge for healthcare providers, particularly within the framework of a resource-limited (...) healthcare system. Inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies are necessary to ensure every individual’s equal opportunity to attain good health. The collective experiences of refugees and migrants in the pursuit of healthcare, as highlighted by the two cases described, showcases the importance of equity in healthcare access and the detrimental implications of non-inclusive healthcare and socio-economic policies. (shrink)
Does being green facilitate product innovation? This study examines whether green management in firms operating in China fosters radical product innovation to a greater extent than it does incremental product innovation and investigates the underlying institutional mechanisms involved in the relationship between green management and product innovation. The findings show that green management is more likely to lead to radical product innovation than to incremental product innovation. Moreover, government support as a formal institutional benefit more strongly mediates the effect of (...) green management on radical product innovation than its effect on incremental product innovation; whereas social legitimacy as an informal institutional benefit more strongly mediates the effect of green management on incremental product innovation than its effect on radical product innovation. These findings provide important implications for explaining how firms employ green management to facilitate product innovation. (shrink)
This study aims to explore if local responsiveness pressure and subsidiary resources influence green management adoption of overseas subsidiaries, and to investigate the relationships between the level of green management adoption and performance. The 101 effective samples were collected from 583 Taiwanese firms, which are listed in the top 1000 manufactory firms and have invested in China. Though structural equation model (SEM) analysis' empirical results indicate that local responsiveness pressure and subsidiary resources both have positive effects on the level of (...) green management adoption of the subsidiary. This study also suggests that the level of green management adoption is positively related to the subsidiary's performance. (shrink)
This paper investigates the relationship between methodological individualism and agent-based simulation. We use a thesis defended by Caterina Marchionni and Petri Ylikoski as the starting point of our approach. According to this thesis, since MI is often considered to be a reductionist orientation, it is confusing and meaningless to assume that ABS, which is a non-reductionist and emergentist explanatory model, is committed to MI. We criticise this view and focus on the problem of the proper definition of MI. We explain (...) that MI is compatible with the ABS strategy because reductionism is only the most simplistic variant of MI and argue that ABS explanations must be regarded as explanations in terms of non-reductionist MI. (shrink)
There is a considerable scholarly discussion regarding how Islamic values influence CSR, but prior studies remain fragmented and scattered across several fields. This paper, therefore, aims to offer a more comprehensive understanding of the impacts of Islamic values on CSR by conducting a systematic literature review of 84 relevant publications from 1995 through 2020. The results of a thematic analysis show that there are four underlying themes to consider when explaining the influence of Islamic values on CSR: Islamic narratives promoting (...) CSR, Islam-based CSR, Islamic financial institutions as enablers of CSR, and stakeholders’ perspectives on how Islamic values influence CSR. This study contributes to the CSR literature by providing a systematic understanding of how Islamic values influence CSR and by identifying current challenges and promising directions for future exploration along this line of inquiry. (shrink)
It is argued that shu involves one's identification with another person while one criticizes the latter's perspective based on one's own. A mechanism is proposed for developing this sort of critique, based on some significant Confucian values. Finally, shu is applied to the context of caring actions, and it is shown how it can help to solve some of the problems arising in caring for others.
Fan Zhen’s 范縝 Shenmielun 神滅論 is a famous Chinese treatise discussing the body-soul problem. This discussion had been advocated by Huan Tan 桓譚 and Wang Chong 王充. However, their views did not receive positive attention: at the beginning of the Eastern Han dynasty, their intellectual weight was far from significant enough to spur the court’s interest in the topic. During the time of Fan Zhen, Emperor Wu of Liang, a keen protector of the thought of dharma, raised the question of (...) the soul and the body to a political level, making it the focus of academic debate. The aim of this article is to give a comprehensive account on the development of the idea of the nonidentity and inseparability of the body and the soul as promulgated by Fan Zhen and his predecessors from the perspective of the history of ideas. (shrink)
The hippocampus is known to be comprised of several subfields, but the developmental trajectories of these subfields are under debate. In this study, we analyzed magnetic resonance imaging data from a cross-sectional sample using an automated segmentation tool to delineate the development of the hippocampal subregions from 6 to 26 years of age. We also examined whether gender and hemispheric differences influence the development of these subregions. For the whole hippocampus, the trajectory of development was observed to be an inverse-u. (...) A significant increase in volume with age was found for most of the subregions, except for the L/R-parasubiculum, L/R-fimbria, and L-HATA. Gender-related differences were also found in the development of most subregions, especially for the hippocampal tail, CA1, molecular layer HP, GC-DG, CA3, and CA4, which showed a consistent increase in females and an early increase followed by a decrease in males. A comparison of the average volumes showed that the right whole hippocampus was significantly larger, along with the R-presubiculum, R-hippocampal-fissure, L/R-CA1, and L/R-molecular layer HP in males in comparison to females. Additionally, the average volume of the right hemisphere was shown to be significantly larger for the hippocampal tail, CA1, molecular layer HP, GC-DG, CA3, and CA4. However, for the presubiculum, parasubiculum, and fimbria, the left side was shown to be larger. In conclusion, the hippocampal subregions appear to develop in various ways from childhood to adulthood, with both gender and hemispheric differences affecting their development. (shrink)
This study aims to explore if local responsiveness pressure and subsidiary resources influence green management adoption of overseas subsidiaries, and to investigate the relationships between the level of green management adoption and performance. The 101 effective samples were collected from 583 Taiwanese firms, which are listed in the top 1000 manufactory firms and have invested in China. Though structural equation model analysis' empirical results indicate that local responsiveness pressure and subsidiary resources both have positive effects on the level of green (...) management adoption of the subsidiary. This study also suggests that the level of green management adoption is positively related to the subsidiary's performance. (shrink)
Fundamentals of Spacecraft Charging is the definitive reference on the physics of spacecraft charging and is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate-level students, and professional space researchers.
Literature on ethical behavior has paid little attention to the mechanism between macro-environmental variables and environmental performance. This study aims at constructing a model to examine the relationships which link cultural values, population growth, economic development, and environmental performance by incorporating the mediating role of education. The multiple linear regression model was employed to test the hypotheses on a 3-year-pooled sample of 51 countries. Empirical results conclude that national culture, economic development, and population growth would significantly influence environmental performance directly. (...) In addition, through the mediating effect of education, population growth and national culture would significantly affect environmental performance indirectly. These findings provide theoretical and managerial implications for constructing the mechanism of cultural values and ethical behavior in general and environmental management in particular. (shrink)
Previous research has explored how emotional valence affected face-context associative memory, while little is known about how arousing stimuli that share the same valence but differ in emotionality are bound together and retained in memory. In this study, we manipulated the emotional similarity between the target face and the face associated with the context emotion, and examined the effect of emotional similarity of negative emotion on face-context associative memory. Our results showed that the greater the emotional similarity between the faces, (...) the better the face memory and face-context associative memory were. These findings suggest that the processing of facial expression and its associated context may benefit from taking into account the emotional similarity between the faces. (shrink)
Among all the post-Zhuang Zi schools of Zhuang Zi philosophy, the Shu Zhuang school was the school of most direct descent. Its works included the twelve "chapters": "Qiushui" , "Zhi le" , "Da sheng" , "Shan mu" , "Tian Zifang," "Zhi beiyou," "Geng Sang Chu," "Xu wugui," "Ze yang," "Wai wu" , "Yuyan" , and "Lie Yukou." From the intellectual content and linguistic style of these essays, the works of the Shu Zhuang school appear to belong to a chronologically earlier (...) category of the outer and miscellaneous chapters. The chief characteristic of this category of writings is that they inherited and basically developed the meaning of the ideas of the "inner chapters." They provided a more careful and detailed explanation of Zhuang Zi's theories of original source , true knowledge , and the equality of things , and they also developed other key ideas of Zhuang Zi, including his idea of human life. The Shu Zhuang school did, to a certain extent, reform and develop Zhuang Zi's ideas, but there is no major breakthrough from his ideas, and, basically, the work of this school was to elaborate but not to innovate. The works of the Shu Zhuang school served as the major corpus of reference material for the study of Zhuang Zi's ideas. In Part 2 of this book, where we developed an interpretaion of Zhuang Zi's ideas, we have already touched on some of these essays written by the people of the Shu Zhuang school. Let us now analyze and critique the ideas of this school in a more concentrated fashion. (shrink)
Although substantial evidence suggests receiving social support has positive implications for well-being, less is known about how providing support can confer benefits, particularly for Asian American and Latinx individuals who are more likely to come from interdependent cultures that emphasize family obligation. Asian American and Latinx college students reported on anxiety before taking part in a modified laboratory task that elicited a physiological stress response as measured by total cortisol output. They were randomly assigned to write a supportive note to (...) a family member, a supportive note to a close friend, or about their day in a control condition after the mild lab stressor and reported on psychosocial well-being. Those who provided support to a family member experienced higher self-esteem compared to those in the control condition. However, there was variation in Asian American and Latinx participants’ physiological stress response. The findings suggest that providing support to close others, particularly family members, can be differentially meaningful for individuals from diverse backgrounds. (shrink)