The term "political philosophy" refers to the abstract, fundamental, and guiding principles and basic theorems for observing, handling, and dealing with political problems and political struggles. Its meaning is analogous to, say, "military philosophy." Naturally, these theorems are connected to and integrated with specific political viewpoints, just as "military philosophy" is connected to and integrated with specific military strategies and military tactics. This kind of integration does not hinder in any way our study of political philosophies in history, just as (...) it does not hinder our study of any particular "military philosophy.". (shrink)
Kuhn's theory of paradigm reveals a pattern of scientific progress, in which normal science alternates with scientific revolution. But Kuhn underrated too much the function of scientific test in his pattern, because he focuses all his attention on the hypothetico-deductive schema instead of Bayesian schema. This paper employs Bayesian schema to re-examine Kuhn's theory of paradigm, to uncover its logical and rational components, and to illustrate the tensional structure of logic and belief, rationality and irrationality, in the process of scientific (...) revolution. (shrink)
The emphasis on evidence based medicine (EBM) has placed increased focus on finding timely answers to clinical questions in presence of patients. Using a combination of natural language processing for the generation of clinical excerpts and information theoretic distance based clustering, we evaluated multiple approaches for the efficient presentation of context-sensitive EBM excerpts.
L’instauration d’élections dans les campagnes chinoises a favorisé l’émergence et l’essor d’un champ de recherche sur la gestion autonome villageoise. Cet article analyse les travaux d’une école de pensée, « l’École rurale », dont la plupart des chercheurs enseignent dans le Centre de la Chine. Décrivant les changements de perspective de cette École, l’auteur montre que son principal apport théorique est de relier l’autonomie villageoise à la question de la gouvernance dans les campagnes. Cependant, il critique l’École pour ses faiblesses (...) méthodologiques, notamment son rejet des théories occidentales.Elections in the Chinese countryside have promoted the emergence and development of a research field focused on villagers’ autonomy system. This article analyses the work of a group of researchers, collectively known as « The School of Chinese rural studies », who mainly teach in the Centre of China. While describing the change of study direction of this « School », the author points out that its main theoretical feature is connecting villagers’ autonomy with governance of villages. However, the author criticizes the School for its methodological flaws, and more specifically for its dismissal of Western theories. (shrink)
Marriage is a very complicated social phenomenon. It is not only one of people being united, but also one of people becoming separated, and being united again. These are what we call the issues of divorce and remarriage. In marriage there are corresponding moral or ethical requirements. Certainly, there needs to be moral and ethical constraints or parameters for divorce and for remarriage, otherwise marital relationships may become abnormal and even pathological.
The theorem of convergence of opinions is an important theorem in the subjective theory of probability.It demonstrates that the subjectivity of a prior probability will be substituted with the objectivity of a posterior probability as evidences increase.The theorem of convergence of opinions is regarded as the dynamic principle of rationality concerning the subjective probability,and therefore is used to resolve Hume's problem,i.e.,the problem of inductive rationality.However,Hacking convincingly argues that the theorem of convergence of opinions is not about the convergence of a (...) posterior probability Pre(h),but about the convergence of a conditional probability Pr(h/e).The subjective theory of probability implies a tacit acceptance of an equation that is Pre(h)=Pr(h/e),usually called "the rule of conditionalisation".Thus,the problem of rationality of induction is converted into one concerning the rule of conditionalisation.In this paper a new principle of rationality(the principle of minimum number of initial probabilities)is put forward,which,in combination with the concept of "local rationality",offers a justification for the rule of conditionalisation. (shrink)
ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a formalization of fuzzy logic and obtain some results concerning the composition, exchange and compatibility with propositional connectives of fuzzy quantifiers, modifiers and qualifiers in this setting.
Included with this letter, please find a list of corrections to the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy." The Jilin People's Publishing House did not show us the page proofs of the book Lao Zi Tong prior to publication, and as a consequence it contains a large number of typos. In the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy" alone there are 63 errors and deletions, some of which are serious and may make an accurate English translation difficult. For instance, "si hu" has (...) been typeset as "xiong [vicious beast] hu" throughout. "Si" means rhinoceros, and "si hu" thus means rhinoceros and tiger. Compare the passage "the rhinoceros finds no place to cast its horn; the tiger finds no place to put its claws." We hope that the translation can be checked against the list of corrections. (shrink)
The connection between similarity logic and the theory of closure operators is examined. Indeed one proves that the consequence relation defined in  can be obtained by composing two closure operators and that the resulting operator is still a closure operator. Also, we extend any similarity into a similarity which is compatible with the logical equivalence, and we prove that this gives the same consequence relation.
We show that compactness is preserved by arbitrary direct products of lattices of truth values and that the Löwenheim-Skolem property is preserved by finite direct products of lattices of truth values.
In [This Zeitschrift 25 , 45-52, 119-134, 447-464], Pavelka systematically discussed propositional calculi with values in enriched residuated lattices and developed a general framework for approximate reasoning. In the first part of this paper we introduce the concept of generalized quantifiers into Pavelka's logic and establish the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic with generalized quantifiers. In the second part of this paper we show that the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic is preserved (...) under some direct product of lattices of truth values. (shrink)
This book explores Dostoevsky as a political thinker from his religious and philosophical foundation to nineteenth-century European politics and how themes that he had examined are still relevant for us today.
Wai-ying Wong's Confucian Ethics in Western Discourse is an unusual book. The majority of its content is republished material, with Wong citing in the Acknowledgments twenty previously published articles duplicated in its pages. The book is organized in four parts: The Characteristics of Confucian Ethics, Confucian Ethics in Western Discourse, The Heritage and Development of Neo-Confucianism: The Thought of [the] Cheng Brothers, and Confucian Ethics and Contemporary Cultural Phenomena. These sections are mostly composed of clusters of republished articles, with (...) the fourth section, markedly shorter, consisting of two republished articles. Occasional interstitial additions enrich Wong's discussions... (shrink)
Chung-ying Cheng has been systematically expounding, expanding, and extending the insights and parameters of Western hermeneutics, producing a new understanding of Chinese philosophy by way of an onto-generative hermeneutics that unravels not only the epistemological workings of the ineluctable human process of interpreting and understanding, but also encapsulates the ontological conditions of which the process is an integral expression. His work functions as the bedrock of a philosophy of culture; the practical expression of Cheng's onto-generative hermeneutics, construed as a (...) valid and consistent theory of culture, dismisses the ideality of meaning by subjecting all cultural realities to constant reinterpretation, based on a non-foundationalist conception of culture, while squarely rooted in the ontological source of creativity. (shrink)