This study examines the educational policy related to the inclusion of ethnic minority population in the contemporary China. It has undergone three stages of the educational policy transformation, including the beginning, development and perfection stages. It is characterized by the steadiness, caution, rapidity, quality improvement, standardization and quality. Through implementing the educational policy of the inclusion of ethnic minority population, it has made retrogress and achievements, which has played a positive role in national integration, maintaining national unity and regional stability, (...) improving the academic level and cross-cultural ability of minority students, and sharing educational resources. However, in current China’s education context, the implementation of education policy is faced with some prominent problems, such as the marginalized educational identity, non-communicative education, relative separation of systems and serious cultural barriers, relative emphasis on explicit education. Therefore, it suggested to construct a new integrative and open ethnic education system, strengthen the consciousness of the united integrated education, and enhancing the bi-directionality of ethnic integration. (shrink)
Objectives The objectives of the study are to understand the current practice of informed consent in medical research in public hospitals in Shanghai, and to share our views with other countries, especially developing countries. Methods In the study, 145 consent forms (CFs) of the selected research projects in eight public hospitals with ethics committees in Shanghai were audited, and the principle investigators (PIs) of these research projects and 40 student subjects who had participated in clinical drug tests were surveyed by (...) questionnaires. Results The CFs of medical researches in public hospitals with ethics committees in Shanghai were generally acceptable. However, there were some defects in the CFs. Although most of the surveyed PIs had correct recognition of informed consent, some processes of informed consent were not in accordance with generally accepted requirements. A large number of the PIs considered the greatest difficulty with informal consent was lack of correct recognition of subjects or legally authorised representatives on medical research. Discussion Informed consent in medical research should consider the research ethics, the background of potential subjects, the local resources and culture of medical research. In addition, special protection is needed for student subjects in informed consent as well as efforts for building and restoring the public's trust in biomedical research. Conclusion The informed consent in Shanghai's public hospitals with ethics committees was generally acceptable and the achievement of adequate informed consent is influenced by many factors. (shrink)
Similar to mineral composition and organic geochemical features, laminae development significantly influences pore structure. Taking the lower third member of the Shahejie shale, Zhanhua Sag, eastern China as the research object, we employed various methods to analyze the influence of laminae development on pore structure, including thin section observations, field emission scanning electron microscopy, gas adsorption, high-pressure mercury injection, Nano-CT, quantitative evaluation of minerals by scanning electron microscopy, and spontaneous imbibition. We draw the conclusions that various minerals present a mixed (...) distribution in non-laminated shale, whereas laminated shale is characterized by alternating bright and dark laminae. Dark laminae comprise clay and quartz, whereas bright laminae consist of calcite. Micro-fractures are abundant at the edges of the bright and dark laminae. Non-laminated shale possesses a pore volume of 0.00413 mL/g and a specific surface area of 1.56 m2/g. In contrast, laminated shale has a PV of 0.01252 mL/g and an SSA of 3.12 m2/g with good reservoir property. Pores, especially macropores and micropores, are much more developed in laminated shale than in non-laminated shale. Interconnected pores in the sheet-like form are extremely developed in laminated shale, whereas most of the interconnected pores in non-laminated shale are distributed in the isolated spherical and tubular-like forms. Because of the abundant interconnected pores and throats, laminated shale presents good connectivity. The slopes of the spontaneous imbibition curves in the first and second stages for laminated shale are both greater than those for non-laminated shale. Laminae development could provide micro-fractures as dominant pathways for fluid migration as well as promote the interconnection of pores, greatly increasing the connectivity of shale reservoirs. (shrink)
Just recently I read carefully the article by Comrades Lin Mingjun et al., "The law of sufficient reason is not a fundamental law of formal logic," and the article of Comrade Li Xiankun, "The place and function of the law of sufficient reason in formal logic." The present article contains some of our disagreements with the above two articles.