The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has killed thousands across the world. SARS-CoV-2 is the latest but surely not the last such global pandemic we will face. The biomedical response to such pandemics includes treatment, vaccination, and so on. In this paper, though, we argue that it is time to consider an additional strategy: the somatic enhancement of human immunity. We argue for this approach and consider bioethics objections we believe can be overcome.
El presente trabajo analiza los diagnósticos, las soluciones, y el modo de implementación de un orden social igualitario por parte de Friedrich Schiller y Gerald Cohen. Para ello, ambos pensadores consideran la necesidad de erradicar el egoísmo y la desconfianza mediante una transformación cultural de tipo fraternal, fomentada por el “temple de ánimo estético” y el “principio de comunidad”. Asimismo, los autores enfatizan la relevancia de un aspecto común a sus reflexiones: la pugna por la realización de una “revolución (...) del sentimiento”, herramienta reconocida como la más adecuada para educar al hombre en el valor de la fraternidad. (shrink)
Addressing the alleged "great secrets" contained in Scripture, Spinoza wrote in the Theological Political Treatise : "I have also read, and for that matter, known personally, certain Kabbalistic triflers. I've never been able to be sufficiently amazed by their madness". Were these words Spinoza's only reference to the Kabbalah, we would hardly have any reason to believe that his attitude toward the Kabbalistic literature was anything but dismissive. However, in a 1675 letter to Henry Oldenburg, Spinoza stressed that he shared (...) the view that "all things are in God" with certain ancient traditions of the Hebrews, "corrupted as they have been in many ways"... (shrink)
Are mechanisms for social attention influenced by culture? Evidence that social attention is triggered automatically by bottom-up gaze cues and is uninfluenced by top-down verbal instructions may suggest it operates in the same way everywhere. Yet considerations from evolutionary and cultural psychology suggest that specific aspects of one's cultural background may have consequence for the way mechanisms for social attention develop and operate. In more interdependent cultures, the scope of social attention may be broader, focusing on more individuals and relations (...) between those individuals. We administered a multi-gaze cueing task requiring participants to fixate a foreground face flanked by background faces and measured shifts in attention using eye tracking. For European Americans, gaze cueing did not depend on the direction of background gaze cues, suggesting foreground gaze alone drives automatic attention shifting; for East Asians, cueing patterns differed depending on whether the foreground cue matched or mismatched background cues, suggesting foreground and background gaze information were integrated. These results demonstrate that cultural background influences the social attention system by shifting it into a narrow or broad mode of operation and, importantly, provides evidence challenging the assumption that mechanisms underlying automatic social attention are necessarily rigid and impenetrable to culture. (shrink)
When prospective parents use in vitro fertilization, many of them hope to generate more embryos than they intend to implant immediately. The technology often requires multiple attempts to reach a successful pregnancy, and couples can cryopreserve any excess embryos so that they have them on hand for later attempts. As part of obtaining informed consent for IVF or cryopreservation, clinics typically ask patients to specify their preferences for the embryos in the event of divorce or death, offering options such as (...) use of the embryos by a specified partner, donation to research, or discarding the remaining embryos. Still, many courts face a recurring problem: the partners dissolve their relationship, and one party wants to use the frozen embryos over the objections of the other. Courts and legislatures have struggled with how to handle these cases, which seem to pit one partner's right to procreate against the other's right not to procreate. In this essay, we use one of the most recent decisions in this line of cases—the Appellate Court of Illinois's decision in Szafranski v. Dunston—to explain the current state of the law and make recommendations for changes. The issue is ripe for revisiting because in the last year, embryo disputes have become a battlefront for larger conflagrations over the moral status of embryos. (shrink)
The most important Jewish source for Hermann Cohen's rational theology of Judaism is Maimonides' Guide of the Perplexed . Indeed, the Guide is of such importance that Cohen bases his entire idealistic interpretation of the Jewish religion on it. In particular, Cohen derives his discussion of the continued authority of Mosaic law from the Guide . What follows focuses on Cohen's discussion of the “Law” in his Religion of Reason out of the Sources of Judaism , (...) and attempts to fill a gap in recent Cohen research by dealing with questions of halakhah and the interpretation of rabbinical sources. Cohen's original reading of, inter alia, Guide III.31-32 led him to formulate a theory wherein Mosaic law—and by extension Judaism—guarantees the highest end of human morality. In identifying God with this end, Cohen eventually finds the ultimate criterion for the decision of how much of traditional Jewish law must still be observed in the need for the preservation of the purest monotheism—another central point in Maimonides' philosophy. (shrink)
The issue of cyberbullying is a social concern that has arisen due to the prevalent use of computer technology today. In this paper, we present a multi-faceted solution to mitigate the effects of cyberbullying, one that uses computer technology in order to combat the problem. We propose to provide assistance for various groups affected by cyberbullying. Our solution was developed through a series of group projects and includes i) technology to detect the occurrence of cyberbullying ii) technology to enable reporting (...) of cyberbullying iii) proposals to integrate third-party assistance when cyberbullying is detected iv) facilities for those with authority to manage online social networks or to take actions against detected bullies. In all, we demonstrate how this important social problem which arises due to computer technology can also leverage computer technology in order to take steps to better cope with the undesirable effects that have arisen. (shrink)
En el presente trabajo se pone de relieve una tesis del último Kuhn que ha sido, y aún es, desatendida: el carácter no universal del lenguaje. Luego de ubicarla en los textos y contextos teóricos donde aparece, se intenta aclararla a partir de algunos de sus textos posteriores. En este afán, el trabajo presente en primer lugar muestra, cómo, deben ser modificadas algunas de las propuestas filosóficas atribuidas al Kuhn clásico para poder comprender esta tesis y en segundo lugar, intenta (...) dar cuenta muy brevemente de ciertas innovaciones filosóficas del último Kuhn. Además, se comparan algunas de esas nuevas tesis de Kuhn con sus posibles -aunque nunca explicitados- interlocutores, a saber: N. Chomsky y J. Fodor. This paper draws attention to one of the theses of the Later Kuhn, which has been ignored: the non-universal character of language. After locating the thesis in the texts and theoretical contexts in which it appears, it is attempted to be clarified in view of some of his later texts. In regard of this, the paper firstly shows, how some of the philosophical proposals attributed to the Early Kuhn must be modified in order to understand it. Secondly, a very brief account for certain philosophical innovations in the Later Kuhn is attempted to be given. In addition, some of Kuhn's new theses are compared with his most likely, even if never explicit, interlocutors, namely N. Chomsky and J. Fodor. (shrink)
Resumen: En la actualidad uno de los libros más usados para dar lógica elemental es el de Irving Copi y Carl Cohen (Introducción a la lógica, 2001), allí se presentan unas reglas para decidir la validez de los silogismos categóricos de forma estándar. Pero en tal texto ni en ninguno que nosotros conozcamos se ofrece una fundamentación de las mismas. Es decir, una demostración de que ellas son realmente una condición necesaria y suficiente de la validez de un silogismo (...) categórico de forma estándar, lo único que hemos leído es su motivación como condición necesaria. El objetivo de este trabajo es ofrecer una fundamentación de las mismas usando la noción de conjunto (o clase) y la técnica de diagramas de Venn, un concepto y una técnica que están expuestos en los principales textos de lógica elemental, incluyendo el referido anteriormente. -/- Abstract: Currently, one of the most widely used textbooks in elementary logic is the one by Irving Copi and Carl Cohen (Introduction to Logic, 2001). They offer rules for deciding the validity of standard categorical syllogisms. But neither that textbook, nor any other we know of, provides the foundations of these rules; that is to say, the demonstration that they are a necessary and sufficient condition for the validity of a standard categorical syllogism. We have only found motivations for the necessary condition. The main goal of this work is to provide a foundation of these rules using the notion of set as well as Venn diagrams, a concept and a technique exposed in the main textbooks of logic, including the aforementioned. (shrink)
Two books, each of them entitled The State and Revolution, were published forty years apart from one another, with the first one written in 1877 by French Communard Arthur Arnould and the other one in 1917 by Lenin, although unaware of Arnould’s work. Their confrontation is arranged and orchestrated in an anachronical way, in conformity with the method of "plagiarism in advance," in order for us to take the full measure of Arnould's resistance to Lenin's recuperation of the Paris Commune (...) and to grasp the unbreachable discrepancy between these two revolutionaries as well as their respective views of the State’s power and of its destruction. (shrink)
We propose that scientific representation is a special case of a more general notion of representation, and that the relatively well worked-out and plausible theories of the latter are directly applicable to thc scientific special case. Construing scientific representation in this way makes the so-called “problem of scientific representation” look much less interesting than it has seerned to many, and suggests that some of the debates in the literature are concerned with non-issues.
Este texto propone una defensa de la crítica que Cohen realiza al concepto de propiedad de uno mismo. Para ello, presentaremos la crítica de Cohen a dicho concepto en la obra de Nozick. Luego, se expondrá la defensa elaborada por Mack de la propiedad de uno mismo en la obra de Nozick, por medio de la formulación de lo que denomina “cláusula de propiedad de uno mismo”. Por último, se sostendrá que dicha cláusula no permite superar las críticas (...) de Cohen, debido a que su cumplimiento es compatible con un régimen de propiedad colectiva. (shrink)