Results for 'Y. Halpern Joseph'

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  1. First-Order Conditional Logic for Default Reasoning Revisited.Nir Friedman, Joseph Halpern, Koller Y. & Daphne - 2000 - Acm Trans. Comput. Logic 1 (2):175--207.
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  2.  26
    Reasoning About Uncertainty.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2003 - MIT Press.
  3. Graded Causation and Defaults.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2015 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 66 (2):413-457.
    Recent work in psychology and experimental philosophy has shown that judgments of actual causation are often influenced by consideration of defaults, typicality, and normality. A number of philosophers and computer scientists have also suggested that an appeal to such factors can help deal with problems facing existing accounts of actual causation. This article develops a flexible formal framework for incorporating defaults, typicality, and normality into an account of actual causation. The resulting account takes actual causation to be both graded and (...)
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  4.  41
    Compact Representations of Extended Causal Models.Joseph Y. Halpern & Christopher Hitchcock - 2013 - Cognitive Science 37 (6):986-1010.
    Judea Pearl (2000) was the first to propose a definition of actual causation using causal models. A number of authors have suggested that an adequate account of actual causation must appeal not only to causal structure but also to considerations of normality. In Halpern and Hitchcock (2011), we offer a definition of actual causation using extended causal models, which include information about both causal structure and normality. Extended causal models are potentially very complex. In this study, we show how (...)
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  5. Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part I: Causes.Joseph Y. Halpern & Judea Pearl - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):843-887.
    Department of Computer Science, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA judea{at}cs.ucla.edu' + u + '@' + d + ''//--> We propose a new definition of actual causes, using structural equations to model counterfactuals. We show that the definition yields a plausible and elegant account of causation that handles well examples which have caused problems for other definitions and resolves major difficulties in the traditional account. Introduction Causal models: a review 2.1 Causal models 2.2 Syntax and semantics (...)
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  6.  1
    Sufficient Conditions for Causality to Be Transitive.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2016 - Philosophy of Science 83 (2):213-226.
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  7.  55
    General Cognitive Principles for Learning Structure in Time and Space.Michael H. Goldstein, Heidi R. Waterfall, Arnon Lotem, Joseph Y. Halpern, Jennifer A. Schwade, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2010 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (6):249-258.
  8.  26
    Intransitivity and Vagueness.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Review of Symbolic Logic 1 (4):530-547.
    There are many examples in the literature that suggest that indistinguishability is intransitive, despite the fact that the indistinguishability relation is typically taken to be an equivalence relation (and thus transitive). It is shown that if the uncertainty perception and the question of when an agent reports that two things are indistinguishable are both carefully modeled, the problems disappear, and indistinguishability can indeed be taken to be an equivalence relation. Moreover, this model also suggests a logic of vagueness that seems (...)
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  9.  45
    Belief Revision: A Critique. [REVIEW]Nir Friedman & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1999 - Journal of Logic, Language and Information 8 (4):401-420.
    We examine carefully the rationale underlying the approaches to belief change taken in the literature, and highlight what we view as methodological problems. We argue that to study belief change carefully, we must be quite explicit about the ontology or scenario underlying the belief change process. This is something that has been missing in previous work, with its focus on postulates. Our analysis shows that we must pay particular attention to two issues that have often been taken for granted: the (...)
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  10.  7
    A Note on the Existence of Ratifiable Acts.Joseph Y. Halpern - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-6.
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  11.  2
    Appropriate Causal Models and the Stability of Causation.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2016 - Review of Symbolic Logic 9 (1):76-102.
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  12.  87
    Defining Knowledge in Terms of Belief: The Modal Logic Perspective.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):469-487.
    The question of whether knowledge is definable in terms of belief, which has played an important role in epistemology for the last 50 years, is studied here in the framework of epistemic and doxastic logics. Three notions of definability are considered: explicit definability, implicit definability, and reducibility, where explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. It is shown that if knowledge satisfies any set of axioms contained in S5, then it cannot be explicitly defined in (...)
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  13.  19
    Weighted Sets of Probabilities and Minimax Weighted Expected Regret: A New Approach for Representing Uncertainty and Making Decisions.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2015 - Theory and Decision 79 (3):415-450.
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  14.  24
    From Causal Models to Counterfactual Structures.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2013 - Review of Symbolic Logic 6 (2):305-322.
    Galles & Pearl (l998) claimed that s [possible-worlds] framework.s framework. Recursive models are shown to correspond precisely to a subclass of (possible-world) counterfactual structures. On the other hand, a slight generalization of recursive models, models where all equations have unique solutions, is shown to be incomparable in expressive power to counterfactual structures, despite the fact that the Galles and Pearl arguments should apply to them as well. The problem with the Galles and Pearl argument is identified: an axiom that they (...)
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  15.  42
    Great Expectations. Part I: On the Customizability of Generalized Expected Utility. [REVIEW]Francis C. Chu & Joseph Y. Halpern - 2008 - Theory and Decision 64 (1):1-36.
    We propose a generalization of expected utility that we call generalized EU (GEU), where a decision maker’s beliefs are represented by plausibility measures and the decision maker’s tastes are represented by general (i.e., not necessarily real-valued) utility functions. We show that every agent, “rational” or not, can be modeled as a GEU maximizer. We then show that we can customize GEU by selectively imposing just the constraints we want. In particular, we show how each of Savage’s postulates corresponds to constraints (...)
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  16.  52
    Should Knowledge Entail Belief?Joseph Y. Halpern - 1996 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 25 (5):483 - 494.
    The appropriateness of S5 as a logic of knowledge has been attacked at some length in the philosophical literature. Here one particular attack based on the interplay between knowledge and belief is considered: Suppose that knowledge satisfies S5, belief satisfies KD45, and both the entailment property (knowledge implies belief) and positive certainty (if the agent believes something, she believes she knows it) hold. Then it can be shown that belief reduces to knowledge: it is impossible to have false beliefs. While (...)
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  17. What is an Inference Rule?Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1992 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 57 (3):1018-1045.
    What is an inference rule? This question does not have a unique answer. One usually finds two distinct standard answers in the literature; validity inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{v} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the validity of $\tau \lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the validity of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$, and truth inference $(\sigma \vdash_\mathrm{t} \varphi$ if for every substitution $\tau$, the truth of $\tau\lbrack\sigma\rbrack$ entails the truth of $\tau\lbrack\varphi\rbrack)$. In this paper we introduce a general semantic framework that allows us to investigate the notion of inference (...)
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  18. Asymptotic Conditional Probabilities: The Non-Unary Case.Adam J. Grove, Joseph Y. Halpern & Daphne Koller - 1996 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 61 (1):250-276.
    Motivated by problems that arise in computing degrees of belief, we consider the problem of computing asymptotic conditional probabilities for first-order sentences. Given first-order sentences φ and θ, we consider the structures with domain {1,..., N} that satisfy θ, and compute the fraction of them in which φ is true. We then consider what happens to this fraction as N gets large. This extends the work on 0-1 laws that considers the limiting probability of first-order sentences, by considering asymptotic conditional (...)
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  19.  19
    Appropriate Causal Models and the Stability of Causation.Joseph Y. Halpern - forthcoming - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-27.
  20.  56
    Updating Probability: Tracking Statistics as Criterion.Bas C. van Fraassen & Joseph Y. Halpern - 2016 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axv027.
    ABSTRACT For changing opinion, represented by an assignment of probabilities to propositions, the criterion proposed is motivated by the requirement that the assignment should have, and maintain, the possibility of matching in some appropriate sense statistical proportions in a population. This ‘tracking’ criterion implies limitations on policies for updating in response to a wide range of types of new input. Satisfying the criterion is shown equivalent to the principle that the prior must be a convex combination of the possible posteriors. (...)
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  21.  11
    On the Unusual Effectiveness of Logic in Computer Science.Joseph Y. Halpern, Robert Harper, Neil Immerman, Phokion G. Kolaitis, Moshe Y. Vardi & Victor Vianu - 2001 - Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 7 (2):213-236.
  22.  62
    Minimizing Regret in Dynamic Decision Problems.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2016 - Theory and Decision 81 (1):123-151.
    The menu-dependent nature of regret-minimization creates subtleties when it is applied to dynamic decision problems. It is not clear whether forgone opportunities should be included in the menu. We explain commonly observed behavioral patterns as minimizing regret when forgone opportunities are present. If forgone opportunities are included, we can characterize when a form of dynamic consistency is guaranteed.
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    Common Knowledge Revisited.Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1999 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 96 (1-3):89-105.
  24.  43
    The Role of the Protocol in Anthropic Reasoning.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:195-206.
    I show how thinking in terms of the protocol used can help clarify problems related to anthropic reasoning and self-location, such as the Doomsday Argument and the Sleeping Beauty Problem.
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  25.  31
    On Definability in Multimodal Logic.Joseph Y. Halpern, Dov Samet & Ella Segev - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):451-468.
    Three notions of definability in multimodal logic are considered. Two are analogous to the notions of explicit definability and implicit definability introduced by Beth in the context of first-order logic. However, while by Beth’s theorem the two types of definability are equivalent for first-order logic, such an equivalence does not hold for multimodal logics. A third notion of definability, reducibility, is introduced; it is shown that in multimodal logics, explicit definability is equivalent to the combination of implicit definability and reducibility. (...)
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  26.  34
    Taken by Surprise: The Paradox of the Surprise Test Revisited. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern & Yoram Moses - 1986 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 15 (3):281 - 304.
    A teacher announced to his pupils that on exactly one of the days of the following school week (Monday through Friday) he would give them a test. But it would be a surprise test; on the evening before the test they would not know that the test would take place the next day. One of the brighter students in the class then argued that the teacher could never give them the test. "It can't be Friday," she said, "since in that (...)
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  27.  47
    Decision Theory with Resource‐Bounded Agents.Joseph Y. Halpern, Rafael Pass & Lior Seeman - 2014 - Topics in Cognitive Science 6 (2):245-257.
    There have been two major lines of research aimed at capturing resource-bounded players in game theory. The first, initiated by Rubinstein (), charges an agent for doing costly computation; the second, initiated by Neyman (), does not charge for computation, but limits the computation that agents can do, typically by modeling agents as finite automata. We review recent work on applying both approaches in the context of decision theory. For the first approach, we take the objects of choice in a (...)
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  28.  49
    I'm OK If You're OK: On the Notion of Trusting Communication. [REVIEW]Ronald Fagin & Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 17 (4):329 - 354.
    We consider the issue of what an agent or a processor needs to know in order to know that its messages are true. This may be viewed as a first step to a general theory of cooperative communication in distributed systems. An honest message is one that is known to be true when it is sent (or said). If every message that is sent is honest, then of course every message that is sent is true. Various weaker considerations than honesty (...)
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  29.  4
    Causes and Explanations: A Structural-Model Approach. Part II: Explanations.Y. Halpern Joseph & Pearl Judea - 2005 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (4):889-911.
  30.  18
    Maxmin Weighted Expected Utility: A Simpler Characterization.Joseph Y. Halpern & Samantha Leung - 2016 - Theory and Decision 80 (4):581-610.
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  31.  1
    Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
  32. Probability and Conditionals: Belief Revision and Rational Decision.Joseph Y. Halpern, Ellery Eells & Brian Skyrms - 2000 - Philosophical Review 109 (2):277.
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  33.  13
    Presburger Arithmetic with Unary Predicates is Π11 Complete.Joseph Y. Halpern - 1991 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 56 (2):637 - 642.
    We give a simple proof characterizing the complexity of Presburger arithmetic augmented with additional predicates. We show that Presburger arithmetic with additional predicates is Π 1 1 complete. Adding one unary predicate is enough to get Π 1 1 hardness, while adding more predicates (of any arity) does not make the complexity any worse.
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  34.  23
    Reasoning About Knowledge: A Response by the Authors. [REVIEW]Ronald Fagin, Joseph Y. Halpern, Yoram Moses & Moshe Y. Vardi - 1997 - Minds and Machines 7 (1):113-113.
  35.  17
    Intransitivity and Vagueness - Corrigendum.Joseph Y. Halpern - 2009 - Review of Symbolic Logic 2 (3):591-591.
    doi: 10.1017/S1755020308090084, Published by Cambridge University Press 31 March 2009 in Volume 1, Number 4 of The Review of Symbolic Logic . On page 541, in the 4 th paragraph, in line 7, an error occurred. The sentence should correctly read: “For all worlds w , if there is more than one grain of sand in the pile in w , then there is still more than one grain of sand after removing one grain of sand.”.
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  36.  8
    Zero-One Laws for Modal Logic.Joseph Y. Halpern & Bruce Kapron - 1994 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 69 (2-3):157-193.
    We show that a 0–1 law holds for propositional modal logic, both for structure validity and frame validity. In the case of structure validity, the result follows easily from the well-known 0–1 law for first-order logic. However, our proof gives considerably more information. It leads to an elegant axiomatization for almost-sure structure validity and to sharper complexity bounds. Since frame validity can be reduced to a Π11 formula, the 0–1 law for frame validity helps delineate when 0–1 laws exist for (...)
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  37.  2
    The Bottleneck May Be the Solution, Not the Problem.Arnon Lotem, Oren Kolodny, Joseph Y. Halpern, Luca Onnis & Shimon Edelman - 2016 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 39.
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  38.  2
    Review: B. C. Moszkowski, Executing Temporal Logic Programs. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309-309.
  39.  2
    Erratum to “Zero-One Laws for Modal Logic” [Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 69 157–193].Joseph Y. Halpern & Bruce M. Kapron - 2003 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 121 (2-3):281-283.
  40.  1
    Moszkowski B. C.. Executing Temporal Logic Programs. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Etc. 1986, Xiii + 125 Pp. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309.
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  41. Characterizing and Reasoning About Probabilistic and Non-Probabilistic Expectation.Joseph Y. Halpern & Riccardo Pucella - 2007 - J. Acm 54 (3):15.
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  42. Executing Temporal Logic Programs.Joseph Y. Halpern & B. C. Moszkowski - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (1):309.
  43. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, March 19-22, 1986, Monterey, California. [REVIEW]Joseph Y. Halpern, International Business Machines Corporation, American Association of Artificial Intelligence, United States & Association for Computing Machinery - 1986
     
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  44. Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty Reviewed By.Paul Weirich - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24 (5):333-336.
    This book review describes and evaluates Joseph Halpern's ideas about reasoning, in particular, reasoning involving conditions.
     
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  45. Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty. [REVIEW]Paul Weirich - 2004 - Philosophy in Review 24:333-336.
    Reviews Joseph Halpern's book with special attention to his points about conditionals.
     
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  46.  14
    Asher Nicholas M. And Kamp Johan A. W.. The Knower's Paradox and Representational Theories of Attitudes. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 131–147. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):666.
  47.  43
    Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Uncertainty.Igor Kozine - 2007 - Studia Logica 85 (3):411-412.
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  48.  5
    Review: Joseph Y. Halpern, Reasoning About Knowledge: An Overview. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):660-661.
  49.  8
    Vardi Moshe Y.. On Epistemic Logic and Logical Omniscience. Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 293–305. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):668.
  50.  6
    Ladner Richard E. And Reif John H.. The Logic of Distributed Protocols . Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning About Knowledge, Proceedings of the 1986 Conference, Edited by Halpern Joseph Y., Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Los Altos 1986, Pp. 207–222. [REVIEW]William J. Rapaport - 1988 - Journal of Symbolic Logic 53 (2):667.
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