From the viewpoint of an evolutionary biologist, carcinogenesis should be looked upon as a protective mechanism against destruction of DNA. Because genes expressed in embryonic cells are covered and protected by heterochromatinization, they are the most appropriate ‘alternate genes’ compared to genes that are expressed already in somatic cells. When DNA-damage occurs, the embryonic genes can be activated. Some somatic cells exhibit some features of embryonic cells.
To cope with the water deficit resulting from saline environment, plant cells accumulate three kinds of osmotica: salts, small organic solutes and hydrophillic, glycine-rich proteins. Salts such as NaCl are cheap and available but has ion toxicity in high concentrations. Small organic solutes are assistant osmotica, their main function is to protect cytoplasmic enzymes from ionic toxicity and maintain the integrity of cellular membranes. Hydrophillic, glycine-rich proteins are the most effective osmotica, they have some characteristics to avoid crystallization even in (...) high concentration, but because they are expensive they are not as commonly used as salts or organic solutes. In addition there is the question of whether the genetic information for growth in saline environment is present in all kinds of plants, both halophytes and nonhalophytes. (shrink)
Playing an important role in electromechanical systems, hydraulic servo system is crucial to mechanical systems like engineering machinery, metallurgical machinery, ships, and other equipment. Fault diagnosis based on monitoring and sensory signals plays an important role in avoiding catastrophic accidents and enormous economic losses. This study presents a fault diagnosis scheme for hydraulic servo system using compressed random subspace based ReliefF method. From the point of view of feature selection, the scheme utilizes CRSR method to determine the most stable feature (...) combination that contains the most adequate information simultaneously. Based on the feature selection structure of ReliefF, CRSR employs feature integration rules in the compressed domain. Meanwhile, CRSR substitutes information entropy and fuzzy membership for traditional distance measurement index. The proposed CRSR method is able to enhance the robustness of the feature information against interference while selecting the feature combination with balanced information expressing ability. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CRSR method, a hydraulic servo system joint simulation model is constructed by HyPneu and Simulink, and three fault modes are injected to generate the validation data. (shrink)
The detection of moving targets is to detect the change area in a sequence of images and extract the moving targets from the background image. It is the basis. Whether the moving targets can be correctly detected and segmented has a huge impact on the subsequent work. Aiming at the problem of high failure rate in the detection of sports targets under complex backgrounds, this paper proposes a research on the design of an intelligent background differential model for training target (...) monitoring. This paper proposes a background difference method based on RGB colour separation. The colour image is separated into independent RGB three-channel images, and the corresponding channels are subjected to the background difference operation to obtain the foreground image of each channel. In order to retain the difference of each channel, the information of the foreground images of the three channels is fused to obtain a complete foreground image. The feature of the edge detection is not affected by light; the foreground image is corrected. From the experimental results, the ordinary background difference method uses grey value processing, and some parts of the target with different colours but similar grey levels to the background cannot be extracted. However, the method in this paper can better solve the defect of misdetection. At the same time, compared with traditional methods, it also has a higher detection efficiency. (shrink)
Memory exhibits episodic superposition, an analog of the quantum superposition of physical states: Before a cue for a presented or unpresented item is administered on a memory test, the item has the simultaneous potential to occupy all members of a mutually exclusive set of episodic states, though it occupies only one of those states after the cue is administered. This phenomenon can be modeled with a nonadditive probability model called overdistribution (OD), which implements fuzzy-trace theory's distinction between verbatim and gist (...) representations. We show that it can also be modeled based on quantum probability theory. A quantum episodic memory (QEM) model is developed, which is derived from quantum probability theory but also implements the process conceptions of global matching memory models. OD and QEM have different strengths, and the current challenge is to identify contrasting empirical predictions that can be used to pit them against each other. (shrink)
The Mancos Shale of the San Juan Basin has been an important resource for the exploration and development of oil and gas. However, as with most unconventional plays, the shales have low porosity and extremely low permeability with predominantly nanometer-sized pores. Thus, it is critical to understand the nanopetrophysical properties of the reservoir so a proper assessment of the reservoir quality can be made. Working with three as-received core samples from three different wells of the Tacito Marine Bar and Offshore (...) Mancos play types, we have developed an initial understanding of the nanopetrophysical properties of the pore structure as well as fluid-rock interactions in these tight reservoirs. We have performed a suite of integrated tests, such as mercury intrusion porosimetry, low-pressure nitrogen physisorption, core plug porosity and permeability, scanning electron microscopy imaging, water immersion porosimetry after vacuum pulling, contact angle, and fluid imbibition. In addition, we obtained supplementary data for total organic carbon, X-ray diffraction, and pyrolysis to further evaluate reservoir quality. The Mancos Shale samples exhibit petrophysical characteristics that are controlled by a predominant presence of nanometer-sized pore space, with 56%–96% pore volumes present as 3.4–50 nm in pore-throat sizes, as shown by the MIP approach. Contact angle and fluid imbibition tests demonstrate that samples are oil wet to mixed wet, with a tendency of pore networks to imbibe oil over water. The findings from integrated pore structure and wettability studies provide a database and some insights, from the perspectives of nanopetrophysical characterization, into the reservoir quality of the Mancos Shale. (shrink)
High peak-to-average power ratio, a main problem of 5G Filtered-Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing system, seriously affects the system’s transmission efficiency. Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional selective mapping algorithm, the grid scroll chaotic extended sequence algorithm is proposed to solve the high PAPR problem. The proposed grid multiscroll chaotic maps are used as random phase sequence vectors instead of the traditional pseudo random sequence, which provide a large number of random sequences with good correlation characteristics, random characteristics, and high (...) security. The proposed random phase sequence vectors can meet the needs of 5G mass connections. The original input signals are divided into real part and imaginary part, which are, respectively, dot produced with the proposed grid multiscroll chaotic maps. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed GSCES algorithm effectively increases the number of candidate sequences, reduces the PAPR values, and improves the transmission efficiency and security. Moreover, the hardware experimental results produce at 2 × 2 × 2-grid multiscroll chaotic attractor, which further proves the physical realization of the proposed system. The proposed schemes have a broad application prospect in 5G multicarrier modulation technology. (shrink)
Much research has focused on intergenerational learning. However, its patterns and processes have rarely been explored. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a coding scheme for intergenerational learning, and to explore the patterns of collaborative communication emerging in the context of intergenerational learning. A total of 16 individuals participated in the study. Participants were invited to design digital games with their intergenerational team members. Of all the interactions, two sets of collaborative interactions were coded and analyzed. The findings revealed that (...) the coding scheme for intergenerational learning was developed with high inter-rater reliability for three sub-systems: power process, communication skills, and responses to bids. Additionally, although the patterns of collaborative communication showed a balance of power during the task involving the collection of game elements, younger learners dominated during the task of completing the game prototype. (shrink)
The phase space formulation of quantum mechanics is based on the use of quasidistribution functions. This technique was pioneered by Wigner, whose distribution function is perhaps the most commonly used of the large variety that we find discussed in the literature. Here we address the question of how one can obtain distribution functions and hence do quantum mechanics without the use of wave functions.
Bu çalışma, İlkokul 4. Sınıflarda okutulmak üzere Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı, Talim Terbiye Kurulu Başkanlığı tarafından 28.05.2018 tarih ve 78 kurul kararıyla 2018-2019 yılından itibaren 5 yıl süreyle ders kitabı olarak kabul edilen Barış Pınarbaşı’nın yazdığı, Ankara-2019 baskılı Tutku yayıncılıkça yayınlanan kitabı ele almaktadır. Çalışmamız sözü edilen ders kitabını görsel tasarım, içerik, dil ve anlatım ile eğitsel tasarımı oluşturan kazanımlar, öğretme-öğrenme süreci açısından değerlendirmektedir. Bir inancın öğrenilmesi, benimsenmesi ve birey tarafından yaşama geçirilmesinde öncelik, inanmanın iknaya dayalı olmasına bağlıdır. Bu ise ancak (...) düzenli, sistematik ve bireyin gelişimine uygun bir eğitim yürütmekle mümkün olabilir. Bu durum, bireyin gelişim evrelerini bilmeyi, öğretim materyalini ona uygun bir biçimde düzenlemeyi zorunlu kılmaktadır. Eğitim ve öğretimden beklenen hedef ve kazanımların gerçekleşmesi de buna bağlıdır. Elde edilen bulgulara göre 4. Sınıf DKAB ders kitabının tasarımında; tu-tarlılık, sayfa düzeni, görsel materyaller, yazı türü, yazı boyutu, yazı stili ve vurgulama araçlarının kullanımı gibi faktörlerin yeterince dikkate alınmadığı görülmüştür. Ders Kitabının dil ve anlatım yönünden öğrencinin bireysel öğrenmesine katkı sağlayacak yeterliliği konusunda sorunlu olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Ders kitabında sınıf düzeyine uygun olmayan bazı zorlayıcı metinler de yer almıştır. 4. sınıfta yoğun olarak bilgi verici metinlerin verilmesi, öğrencilerin okuduklarını anlama performansı, öğrencinin akademik başarısında kritik bir role sahiptir. Bu nedenle incelediğimiz ders kitabı hedef yaş için okuduğunu anlama, bir metnin ana fikrini belirleme, bilgiler arasında ilişki kurabilme yeterliğine sahip olabilme seviyesiyle kısmen uyumludur. (shrink)