Does the famous animal fable, as narrated by the Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ in Epistle 22 of their Rasāʾil, possess an inner meaning? The issue is not new, but it may be useful to address it again today, considering the recent, significant re-evaluation of the Epistles of the Brethren of Purity in the overall history of medieval thinking. It is also important to return to this issue since it was largely left aside by the editors of Epistle 22 who are part of (...) the ongoing project by Oxford University and the Ismaili Institute to critically edit the entire collection of the Rasāʾil Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ. In the present article, I argue that the Ikhwān’s animal fable does indeed contain an esoteric level of reading and that it must be understood in line with the Brethren’s Ismaʿili or Ismaʿili-like aspirations but also, and more importantly, with their wish to take an approach as universal and syncretic as possible. The following motifs are discussed in detail: a) God’s Intimates; b) Seventy / Seventy-Two; c) Seven; d) Yaʿsūb, Commander of the Bees; e) the Return of the Conjunction; f) Equator. (shrink)
L'A. confronta due commenti su quello che nel mondo arabo viene considerato il primo libro della Metaphysica di Aristotele: alpha Elatton. Dopo averne delineato i contenuti e la penetrazione nel mondo arabo grazie alle traduzioni di Ustat e Ishaq ibn Hunayn, l'A. esamina due importanti commenti a quest'opera: Yahyá Ibn 'Adi, un commentatore cristiano della scuola di Baghdad e Averroè . I due autori leggono il testo in modo molto diverso: questo suggerisce una grande differenza tra Averroè e la (...) scuola di Baghdad, sebbene il filosofo andaluso abbia ammirato e seguito il lavoro di al-Farabi. In particolare è naturale il rifiuto da parte di Averroè di introdurre un'inchiesta puramente teologica nella trattazione, punto accettato invece da Ibn 'Adi, secondo il proposito di Averroè di rimarcare il fondamento fisico della metafisica, come è possibile comprendere soprattutto grazie alla lettura del Trattato. (shrink)
This article investigates the role of magic in the confessional identity of the Ikhwān al-Ṣafā as it is articulated in the 52nd epistle on magic, and informed by the rest of their Rasāʾil. To achieve this, the author revisits the long scholarly tradition of speculation about their denominational commitment that has seen them affiliated one way or the other to Ismailism, seeing its esoteric foundations as the platform onto which their magic and astrology were cultivated. Rather this article argues that (...) the Ikhwān al-Ṣafāʾ aimed with their Rasāʾil to establish an anti-sectarian religio-political reform that they refer to as the Third Way. Its strategy comprises: reconciling revelation and philosophy; valuing the message of religions other than Islam ; and addressing some Shiʿa specific practices and doctrines which it scrutinizes. The Ikhwān mitigate the doctrinal boundaries between Shiʿism and other denominations by adopting a more equable position which is consonant with Zaydi and Ibadi attitudes toward the contentious issues of imamate, caliphate, and wilāya / walāya. So, the Ikhwān see magic as the conceptual and practical pivot of the Third Way, since it is the culmination of philosophy and revelation, becoming a suitable concept to signify the self-enlightenment of the accountable imam achieved through knowledge of the Divine and Nature and the abandonment of physical attachment, and constituting the only conditions of legitimacy. It is also an appropriate tool for regulating state guardianship and sublimating the temporal state itself into a sacred city instead of investing sacral power into a single person. (shrink)
Hadith scholars are individuals who play an important role in the spread of the Prophetic traditions. in the midst of his people, as an authoritative source after the Qur'an for the complete Islamic legal construct, which was previously discovered and compiled by the Imam of Hadith in their canonical books, like Imam Muḥammad ibn Ismā’īl al-Bukhārī in “Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī” and Muslim Imam ibn al-Ḥajjāj al-Naysābūrī in “Muslim Ṣaḥīḥ”, through long tracing from one country to another in order to obtain directly (...) one history from the source. The position of the Hadith scholars in this regard, who are at the spearhead of the spread of the Hadiths after their collection by the Imam of the Hadith, as well as their existence and consistency in guarding the Hadith from various forms of deviation of understanding of the people, become an integral part of an integral circle named Hadith, as a saying of the Prophet, the Rabbis and the Imams. (shrink)
The past two decades has witnessed the mushrooming of Islamic schools in Europe, the United States and South Africa. Initially these schools were concerned essentially with providing an Islamic ethos for learners. More recently, however, they have begun to focus on the process of Islamization. The Islamization project was initiated in the United States by Muslim academics including Isma’il al‐Faruqi, Syed Husain Nasr and Fazlur Rahman as a response to the secularisation of Muslim society, including its educational insitutions. In (...) essence Islamization means including Islamic disciplines in the curriculum, providing an Islamic perspective on issues in the syllabi and locating, where possible, secularized disciplines within the Islamic weltanschauung. Six international conferences have been held to date at different locations in the Muslim World. The first five generated conceptual papers on the Islamic approach to knowledge and education and inspired academics to write research papers on their disciplines from an Islamic perspective. Most of these have been published in the American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. The three universities which were established to drive the process have had varying degrees of success. The sixth conference which was held in South Africa took the form of workshops where South African teachers and international academics were brought together to generate Islamised syllabi for the major school disciplines. This article attempts to explain the rationale for Islamic schools and their attempts at Islamization of disciplines. In my view, this is an important development in the context of demands for the revival of indigenous knowledge systems. (shrink)
El manuscrito anónimo n.° XVIII de la colección Gayangos es una compilación que consiste en partes de dos obras: Futuh al-Sam de (ps.) al-Waqidi y una obra sin título de Abu `Umar al-Talamanki. Un análisis del texto revela que la "compilación" de Talamanki no es una obra original suya, sino una transmisión del controvertido texto de Abu Isma`il al-Azdi, también titulado Futuh al-Sam. La obra de al-Azdi fue considerada por muchos estudiosos como un fraude de la época de las (...) Cruzadas. La transmisión de al-Talamanki, que murió décadas antes de la Primera Cruzada, demuestra que la obra de al-Azdi es más temprana, dando de ese modo fin a la controversia. Otras citas de al-Azdi recién descubiertas también apoyan esta conclusión. También se investigan los isnads del manuscrito anónimo cuyos eslabones más antiguos coinciden con los de la obra de al-Azdi, algunos de los cuales, hasta ahora desconocidos, identificamos. El texto manuscrito es cotejado con las versiones publicadas de Futuh al-Sam de al-Azdi y las innumerables variantes prueban que esta obra se transmitió en varias versiones (riwaya). El análisis del manuscrito y el cotejo desvelan algunos de los procesos que intervienen el la construcción de los textos . (shrink)
While it seems clear that the shari’ah had a formative influence on property rights, public space and land use, the primary aim of this book is to study what implications the practice of the Maliki school of Islamic law have for the inhabitants of the Islamic city.
This paper discusses the interpretation of verses of al-Qushayrī’s parent and child communication perspective. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the variety of communication with the value of the akhlāqī sufistic message between parents and children who are the object of discussion. The objects of this research are the Prophet Ibrāhīm and Ismā’il, Luqmān al-Ḥakīm and his son, Ya’qūb, Yūsuf and his brothers, Nūḥ and Kan’an. The importance of revealing the side of Sufism, many Sufis interpret the Qur’an (...) far beyond the reading of verses in an ancient way. Laṭāif al-Ishārāt one of them, this interpretation includes moderate sufistic inter-pretation which is not only based on the inner meaning of the verse, but also holds to the meaning of its birth. The influence of Sufism has impli-cations in interpreting the Qur’an. Thus the Sufistic values that can be taken from the parent and child communication verses can be mapped as follows: The value of tawḥid, ṣabar, maḥabbah, murāqabah, raja’, riḍa, and tawakal. (shrink)
This paper discusses the interpretation of verses of al-Qushayrī’s parent and child communication perspective. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the variety of communication with the value of the akhlāqī sufistic message between parents and children who are the object of discussion. The objects of this research are the Prophet Ibrāhīm and Ismā’il, Luqmān al-Ḥakīm and his son, Ya’qūb, Yūsuf and his brothers, Nūḥ and Kan’an. The importance of revealing the side of Sufism, many Sufis interpret the Qur’an (...) far beyond the reading of verses in an ancient way. Laṭāif al-Ishārāt one of them, this interpretation includes moderate sufistic interpretation which is not only based on the inner meaning of the verse, but also holds to the meaning of its birth. The influence of Sufism has impli-cations in interpreting the Qur’an. Thus the Sufistic values that can be taken from the parent and child communication verses can be mapped as follows: The value of tawḥid, ṣabar, maḥabbah, murāqabah, raja’, riḍa, and tawakal. (shrink)
The aim of my paper is to highlight that for Peirce the reality of God makes sense of the whole scientific enterprise. The belief in God is a natural product of abduction, of the "rational instinct" or educated guess of the scientist or the layman, and also the abduction of God may be understood as a "proof" of pragmatism. Moreover, I want to suggest that for Peirce scientific activity is a genuine religious enterprise, perhaps even the religious activity par excellence, (...) and that to divorce religion from science is antithetical to both the scientific spirit and the real Peirce. Understanding the real Peirce requires to deal with his religious concerns, which are increasingly recognized as being perhaps as philosophically important as his scientific concerns. Since a key notion in this project is the idea of "il lume naturale" that Peirce borrowed from Galileo, I want also to pay attention to that expression which during years I have been following through Peirce's papers and books. -/- In order to try to explain some of this, my paper is arranged into four brief sections after this already long introduction: 1) God and scientific inquiry; 2) The belief in God as a product of abduction; 3) Galileo and Peirce: Il lume naturale; and by way of conclusion 4) Some remarks on the religious framework of Peirce's approach. (shrink)
I scrutinize the ideas and works of the Turkish religious leader and author Adnan Oktar/Harun Yahya. I argue for a new definition of Yahya as the representative of what I call theoscientography, proposing to study his work according to such a model rather than in the light of his “Islamic creationism”.
This essay argues for a reading of Levinas’ work which prioritizes the significance of the il y a over the personal Other. I buttress this reading by using the well-documented intersections between Levinas’ work and that of Maurice Blanchot. Said otherwise, I argue that Levinas’ relationship with Blanchot (a relationship that is very much across the notion of the il y a) calls scholars of the Levinasian corpus to place the conception of impersonal existence to the forefront. To do so (...) is to take seriously the complex relationship between Levinas’ explicitly ethical account of the face, and his phenomenological account of impersonal existence. To approach Levinas in this way (by way of his relationship with Blanchot) is to not only recognize that the ethical import of the face lies in its being without determination or nomenclature, but it is to also fully acknowledge the underlying horror of a Levinasian rendition of the ethical encounter. (shrink)
L'analisi dell'aristotelismo «platonizzante» nell'ambito della filosofia araba prima della sistemazione della Shifa di Avicenna, secondo cui Dio non avrebbe conoscenza dei particolari, consente all'A. di dimostrare come ci siano stati anche approcci platonici ad Aristotele , che non sono passati attraverso il filtro dei neoplatonici greci. L'altra cosa significativa è il fatto che all'interno della scuola di Baghdad vi sono modi diversi di intendere lo stato ontologico degli universali. L'A. tenta anche di ridimensionare la figura di al-Farabi all'interno della scuola (...) di Baghdad. I filosofi considerati sono al-Farabi, Yahya b. Adi e Ibn al-Tayyib. (shrink)
To ascertain the context of Il’enkov’s philosophy, the author delves into the history of philosophy since the Sophists and Plato. For Il’enkov, philosophy is not an abstract science “about everything, ” but a study of ideas – forms which are identical for thinking and being. These objective and universal forms of thought are explained as products and schemes of human activity creating the world of culture and reified in its “smart” things.
E. V. Il’enkov proceeded from the classical philosophical notion of Beauty considered in organic unity with Truth and Good. Following Marx, he regarded the sense of Beauty, the supreme mental feeling, as a product of history. Il’enkov insisted on the universal character of this feeling, for its basis is an activity of imagination which also lies at the root of any creative work. His criticism of modern art rested on analysis of the process of disintegration of personality, its capabilities within (...) industrial civilisation to break the natural tie between Truth, Good and Beauty. (shrink)
La ricerca empirica nelle scienze cognitive può essere di supporto all’indagine filosofica sullo statuto ontologico e epistemologico dei concetti mentali, ed in particolare del concetto di credenza. Da oltre trent’anni gli psicologi utilizzano il test della falsa credenza per valutare la capacità dei bambini di attribuire stati mentali a se stessi e a agli altri. Tuttavia non è stato ancora pienamente compreso né quali requisiti cognitivi siano necessari per passare il test né quale sia il loro sviluppo. In questo articolo (...) analizzo l’impatto della funzione esecutiva e delle abilità linguistiche per la capacità di passare il test della falsa credenza. Suggerisco che tale abilità dipende dall’acquisizione di un nuovo formato rappresentazionale per codificare la falsità degli stati mentali altrui. I dati in nostro possesso non permettono tuttavia di precisare la natura di tale formato. (shrink)