Guanxi in China is a very ancient concept embedded in the Confucian concept of life and one that is a ‚hot' topic in that it is currently attracting increasing attention from both Western and Chinese scholars. One aspect of Guanxi which has been the subject of most of the research of late is the influence of Guanxi on firm performance. However, relatively few studies have examined how Guanxi at the individual level is transferred into a firm to influence its financial (...) performance. This study first reclassifies Guanxi into obligatory, reciprocal, and utilitarian types at the individual level as a means to clarifying the confusion brought above from previous studies. It then provides a conceptual framework in which to systematically characterize the link between Guanxi at the individual level and organizational dynamics: that is, how is Guanxi at the individual level shifted to a firm and how does it affect organizational dynamics of that firm at the organizational level. Finally, it provides a deeper understanding of the financial implications of Guanxi to business firms in China. (shrink)
This study investigated the status quo of article retractions by Chinese researchers. The bibliometric information of 834 retractions from the Web of Science SCI-expanded database were downloaded and analysed. The results showed that the number of retractions increased in the past two decades, and misconduct such as plagiarism, fraud, and faked peer review explained approximately three quarters of the retractions. Meanwhile, a large proportion of the retractions seemed typical of deliberate fraud, which might be evidenced by retractions authored by repeat (...) offenders of data fraud and those due to faked peer review. In addition, a majority of Chinese fraudulent authors seemed to aim their articles which contained a possible misconduct at low-impact journals, regardless of the types of misconduct. The system of scientific evaluation, the “publish or perish” pressure Chinese researchers are facing, and the relatively low costs of scientific integrity may be responsible for the scientific integrity. We suggested more integrity education and severe sanctions for the policy-makers, as well as change in the peer review system and transparent retraction notices for journal administrators. (shrink)
We show that it is consistent with ZFC + ¬CH that there is a maxima a most disjoint permutation family A ⊆ Symsuch that A is a proper subset of an eventually different family E ⊆ ℕℕ and |A| < |E|. We also ask severa questions in this area.
If F ⊆ NN is an analytic family of pairwise eventually different functions then the following strong maximality condition fails: For any countable H ⊆ NN. no member of which is covered by finitely many functions from F, there is f ∈ F such that for all h ∈ H there are infinitely many integers k such that f(k) = h(k). However if V = L then there exists a coanalytic family of pairwise eventually different functions satisfying this strong maximality (...) condition. (shrink)
We consider the possible cardinalities of the following three cardinal invariants which are related to the permutation group on the set of natural numbers: the least cardinal number of maximal cofinitary permutation groups; the least cardinal number of maximal almost disjoint permutation families; the cofinality of the permutation group on the set of natural numbers.We show that it is consistent with that ; in fact we show that in the Miller model.
We show that it is consistent with ZFC + ¬CH that there is a maximal cofinitary group (or, maximal almost disjoint group) G ≤ Sym(ω) such that G is a proper subset of an almost disjoint family A $\subseteq$ Sym(ω) and |G| < |A|. We also ask several questions in this area.
The effect of authentic leadership and leader competency on employee job performance has received growing attention in the past decades; however, few studies have simultaneously integrated these two leadership perspectives. We have thus developed a mediated moderation model to test the interactive effect of authentic leadership and competency on followers’ job performance through work engagement. Based on a sample of 248 subordinate–supervisor pairs, hierarchical regression analyses reveal that authentic leadership positively relates to followers’ task performance and organizational citizenship behavior ; (...) leader competency moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and OCB; and followers’ work engagement mediates the main effect of authentic leadership and the interactive effect of authentic leadership and competency on followers’ task performance and OCB. All the three results are consistent with our hypotheses. (shrink)