The term "political philosophy" refers to the abstract, fundamental, and guiding principles and basic theorems for observing, handling, and dealing with political problems and political struggles. Its meaning is analogous to, say, "military philosophy." Naturally, these theorems are connected to and integrated with specific political viewpoints, just as "military philosophy" is connected to and integrated with specific military strategies and military tactics. This kind of integration does not hinder in any way our study of political philosophies in history, just as (...) it does not hinder our study of any particular "military philosophy.". (shrink)
The emphasis on evidence based medicine (EBM) has placed increased focus on finding timely answers to clinical questions in presence of patients. Using a combination of natural language processing for the generation of clinical excerpts and information theoretic distance based clustering, we evaluated multiple approaches for the efficient presentation of context-sensitive EBM excerpts.
L’instauration d’élections dans les campagnes chinoises a favorisé l’émergence et l’essor d’un champ de recherche sur la gestion autonome villageoise. Cet article analyse les travaux d’une école de pensée, « l’École rurale », dont la plupart des chercheurs enseignent dans le Centre de la Chine. Décrivant les changements de perspective de cette École, l’auteur montre que son principal apport théorique est de relier l’autonomie villageoise à la question de la gouvernance dans les campagnes. Cependant, il critique l’École pour ses faiblesses (...) méthodologiques, notamment son rejet des théories occidentales.Elections in the Chinese countryside have promoted the emergence and development of a research field focused on villagers’ autonomy system. This article analyses the work of a group of researchers, collectively known as « The School of Chinese rural studies », who mainly teach in the Centre of China. While describing the change of study direction of this « School », the author points out that its main theoretical feature is connecting villagers’ autonomy with governance of villages. However, the author criticizes the School for its methodological flaws, and more specifically for its dismissal of Western theories. (shrink)
In [This Zeitschrift 25 , 45-52, 119-134, 447-464], Pavelka systematically discussed propositional calculi with values in enriched residuated lattices and developed a general framework for approximate reasoning. In the first part of this paper we introduce the concept of generalized quantifiers into Pavelka's logic and establish the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic with generalized quantifiers. In the second part of this paper we show that the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic is preserved (...) under some direct product of lattices of truth values. (shrink)
Marriage is a very complicated social phenomenon. It is not only one of people being united, but also one of people becoming separated, and being united again. These are what we call the issues of divorce and remarriage. In marriage there are corresponding moral or ethical requirements. Certainly, there needs to be moral and ethical constraints or parameters for divorce and for remarriage, otherwise marital relationships may become abnormal and even pathological.
ABSTRACT In this paper, we propose a formalization of fuzzy logic and obtain some results concerning the composition, exchange and compatibility with propositional connectives of fuzzy quantifiers, modifiers and qualifiers in this setting.
Included with this letter, please find a list of corrections to the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy." The Jilin People's Publishing House did not show us the page proofs of the book Lao Zi Tong prior to publication, and as a consequence it contains a large number of typos. In the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy" alone there are 63 errors and deletions, some of which are serious and may make an accurate English translation difficult. For instance, "si hu" has (...) been typeset as "xiong [vicious beast] hu" throughout. "Si" means rhinoceros, and "si hu" thus means rhinoceros and tiger. Compare the passage "the rhinoceros finds no place to cast its horn; the tiger finds no place to put its claws." We hope that the translation can be checked against the list of corrections. (shrink)
The connection between similarity logic and the theory of closure operators is examined. Indeed one proves that the consequence relation defined in  can be obtained by composing two closure operators and that the resulting operator is still a closure operator. Also, we extend any similarity into a similarity which is compatible with the logical equivalence, and we prove that this gives the same consequence relation.
We show that compactness is preserved by arbitrary direct products of lattices of truth values and that the Löwenheim-Skolem property is preserved by finite direct products of lattices of truth values.