Biomedical research involving human participants is highly regulated and subject to stringent ethical requirements. Clinical research ethics, regulation and policy have tended to focus almost exclusively on the protection of participants' interests against harms that might result from taking part in research. Less consideration, however, has been given to the interests that patients may themselves have in research participation, even in trials that may be beyond the bounds of current clinical research practice. In this paper, we consider the case of (...) a suggested extension to clinical trial protocols to explore the ethics of participation in ‘risky’ research. We argue that patients may have a strong interest in taking part in research, and that even when greater-than-usual risks may be present, such research can be both ethically and scientifically justified. Finally, we suggest that there might be scope in some cases to assert a right to participate in research, and that the possibility of such a right merits further consideration. (shrink)
Since it was first published, Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell has quickly established itself as the most accessible and comprehensive introduction to this profound and deeply fascinating area of theoretical physics. Now in this fully revised and expanded edition, A. Zee covers the latest advances while providing a solid conceptual foundation for students to build on, making this the most up-to-date and modern textbook on quantum field theory available. -/- This expanded edition features several additional chapters, as well as (...) an entirely new section describing recent developments in quantum field theory such as gravitational waves, the helicity spinor formalism, on-shell gluon scattering, recursion relations for amplitudes with complex momenta, and the hidden connection between Yang-Mills theory and Einstein gravity. Zee also provides added exercises, explanations, and examples, as well as detailed appendices, solutions to selected exercises, and suggestions for further reading. (shrink)
Fearful Symmetry brings the incredible discoveries of contemporary physics within everyone's grasp. A. Zee, a distinguished physicist and skillful expositor, tells the exciting story of how today's theoretical physicists are following Einstein in their search for the beauty and simplicity of Nature. Animated by a sense of reverence and whimsy, the book describes the majestic sweep and accomplishments of twentieth-century physics. In the end, we stand in awe before the grand vision of modern physics--one of the greatest chapters in the (...) intellectual history of humankind. (shrink)
The emphasis on evidence based medicine (EBM) has placed increased focus on finding timely answers to clinical questions in presence of patients. Using a combination of natural language processing for the generation of clinical excerpts and information theoretic distance based clustering, we evaluated multiple approaches for the efficient presentation of context-sensitive EBM excerpts.
The term "political philosophy" refers to the abstract, fundamental, and guiding principles and basic theorems for observing, handling, and dealing with political problems and political struggles. Its meaning is analogous to, say, "military philosophy." Naturally, these theorems are connected to and integrated with specific political viewpoints, just as "military philosophy" is connected to and integrated with specific military strategies and military tactics. This kind of integration does not hinder in any way our study of political philosophies in history, just as (...) it does not hinder our study of any particular "military philosophy.". (shrink)
Challenging the popular perception that Confucianism provides mostly a moral defense of political hierarchy, this article demonstrates that Confucianism is more than compatible with democracy and fundamentally contradicts political hierarchy, be it autocracy or meritocracy. Drawing on Zhu Xi, the spokesperson for the state orthodoxy in late imperial China and one of the towering figures in the Confucian tradition, I argue that to realize the Confucian self-cultivation program for all requires popular participation in politics beyond casting ballots. My argument builds (...) on Zhu Xi’s moral egalitarianism that all human beings can pursue sagehood by self-cultivation and should be given the equal opportunity to do so. Since Zhu Xi’s self-cultivation program requires acquiring and perfecting political knowledge in political practice, to realize his moral egalitarianism requires political equality for all. As such, my participatory theory of Confucian democracy exhorts all people to engage in self-... (shrink)
L’instauration d’élections dans les campagnes chinoises a favorisé l’émergence et l’essor d’un champ de recherche sur la gestion autonome villageoise. Cet article analyse les travaux d’une école de pensée, « l’École rurale », dont la plupart des chercheurs enseignent dans le Centre de la Chine. Décrivant les changements de perspective de cette École, l’auteur montre que son principal apport théorique est de relier l’autonomie villageoise à la question de la gouvernance dans les campagnes. Cependant, il critique l’École pour ses faiblesses (...) méthodologiques, notamment son rejet des théories occidentales.Elections in the Chinese countryside have promoted the emergence and development of a research field focused on villagers’ autonomy system. This article analyses the work of a group of researchers, collectively known as « The School of Chinese rural studies », who mainly teach in the Centre of China. While describing the change of study direction of this « School », the author points out that its main theoretical feature is connecting villagers’ autonomy with governance of villages. However, the author criticizes the School for its methodological flaws, and more specifically for its dismissal of Western theories. (shrink)
Marriage is a very complicated social phenomenon. It is not only one of people being united, but also one of people becoming separated, and being united again. These are what we call the issues of divorce and remarriage. In marriage there are corresponding moral or ethical requirements. Certainly, there needs to be moral and ethical constraints or parameters for divorce and for remarriage, otherwise marital relationships may become abnormal and even pathological.
The connection between similarity logic and the theory of closure operators is examined. Indeed one proves that the consequence relation defined in  can be obtained by composing two closure operators and that the resulting operator is still a closure operator. Also, we extend any similarity into a similarity which is compatible with the logical equivalence, and we prove that this gives the same consequence relation.
Included with this letter, please find a list of corrections to the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy." The Jilin People's Publishing House did not show us the page proofs of the book Lao Zi Tong prior to publication, and as a consequence it contains a large number of typos. In the chapter "Lao Zi's Political Philosophy" alone there are 63 errors and deletions, some of which are serious and may make an accurate English translation difficult. For instance, "si hu" has (...) been typeset as "xiong [vicious beast] hu" throughout. "Si" means rhinoceros, and "si hu" thus means rhinoceros and tiger. Compare the passage "the rhinoceros finds no place to cast its horn; the tiger finds no place to put its claws." We hope that the translation can be checked against the list of corrections. (shrink)
We show that compactness is preserved by arbitrary direct products of lattices of truth values and that the Löwenheim-Skolem property is preserved by finite direct products of lattices of truth values.
This book explores Dostoevsky as a political thinker from his religious and philosophical foundation to nineteenth-century European politics and how themes that he had examined are still relevant for us today.
In [This Zeitschrift 25 , 45-52, 119-134, 447-464], Pavelka systematically discussed propositional calculi with values in enriched residuated lattices and developed a general framework for approximate reasoning. In the first part of this paper we introduce the concept of generalized quantifiers into Pavelka's logic and establish the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic with generalized quantifiers. In the second part of this paper we show that the fundamental theorem of ultraproduct in first order Pavelka's logic is preserved (...) under some direct product of lattices of truth values. (shrink)
The hermeneutical dimensions of Chinese philosophy from the Changes of Zhou through its Confucian, Daoist, and contemporary developments have been a creative inspirational source and guiding intellectual thread in the thought of Chung-ying Cheng. Cheng's extensive engagement with the Classic of Changes, its role in the formation of the Chinese philosophical tradition and its comparative interconnections with occidental philosophies, has disclosed its deep hermeneutical orientation. The Yijing encompasses processes of empirical observation, empathetic feeling, and self-reflection in the generation of “images,” (...) or prototypical models that are “form-objects” or “process-events,” which performatively enact a comprehensive ontological and situationally appropriate understanding of nature, society, and one self. I examine three issues in outline arising from Cheng's works in this situation: to what extent Chinese philosophy is hermeneutical with respect to modern European understandings of hermeneutics, and the possibility of the distinctive “onto-generative hermeneutics” that has been articulated for over forty years in the context of Chinese and Western thought in Cheng's prolific works concerning the Yijing. (shrink)
Chung-ying Cheng has been systematically expounding, expanding, and extending the insights and parameters of Western hermeneutics, producing a new understanding of Chinese philosophy by way of an onto-generative hermeneutics that unravels not only the epistemological workings of the ineluctable human process of interpreting and understanding, but also encapsulates the ontological conditions of which the process is an integral expression. His work functions as the bedrock of a philosophy of culture; the practical expression of Cheng's onto-generative hermeneutics, construed as a valid (...) and consistent theory of culture, dismisses the ideality of meaning by subjecting all cultural realities to constant reinterpretation, based on a non-foundationalist conception of culture, while squarely rooted in the ontological source of creativity. (shrink)
This book, the fruition of twenty years of research and writing about phenomenology, carefully and insightfully traces the complex historical relations between phenomenology and non-Western thought over the last century. It also offers a critical diagnosis of the contemporary impediments to, and possibilities for, intercultural philosophy...