A late Pleistocene delta exceeding [Formula: see text] offshore Hainan Island, northwestern South China Sea, is investigated using high-resolution seismic and core data to understand the relationship between subaqueous delta development and climate drivers during the Last Glacial Period. The seismic data indicate general progradational configurations toward the southwest or southeast, indicating that the sediments from the eastern slope offshore southwestern Hainan Island were transported southwestward and southeastward. The average thickness of the delta sediment is approximately 35 m, and it (...) has an arcuate shape surrounding the eastern slope. Therefore, the sediment provenances of the HNPD were mainly from the Red River drainage and Hainan Island. Comparison between the core dating results and the global sea-level curve indicates that the delta formed mainly during marine isotope stage 4. The topography of the basin, the sea-level change from low stand to high stand, and the southward oceanic currents driven by the glacial-period strong winter monsoon all contributed to the formation of the delta. Because the development of the delta required large riverine sediment input, we speculate that the main reason that the delta’s development ceased was the migration of the river channel along the eastern slope. Based on a comparison between the palaeobathymetric scenarios derived from published sea-level curves and the delta stratigraphy identified from the seismic profiles and cores, we have determined a possible range of relative sea level between 65 and 56 ka for the southwestern coast of Hainan Island, which might also be applicable for a broader region, i.e., the northern SCS. (shrink)
Feng Youlan's (1895-1990) "History of Chinese Philosophy" is at present still the most well-known introduction to Chinese philosophy in any Western language. During the 1980s Feng Youlan published a seven-volume new version of his "History" in which he further developed his view on history so that the work itself can be considered part of the history of Chinese philosophy in this century. This paper presents a preliminary analysis and comparison of the different versions of the "History.".
Pedestrian re-recognition is an important research because it affects applications such as intelligent monitoring, content-based video retrieval, and human-computer interaction. It can help relay tracking and criminal suspect detection in large-scale video surveillance systems. Although the existing traditional pedestrian re-recognition methods have been widely applied to address practical problems, they have deficiencies such as low recognition accuracy, inefficient computation, and difficulty to adapt to specific applications. In recent years, the pedestrian re-recognition algorithms based on deep learning have been widely used (...) in the pedestrian re-recognition field because of their strong adaptive ability and high recognition accuracy. The deep learning models provide a technical approach for pedestrian re-recognition tasks with their powerful learning ability. However, the pedestrian re-recognition method based on deep learning also has the following problems: First, the existing deep learning pedestrian re-recognition methods lack memory and prediction mechanisms, and the deep learning methods offer only limited improvement to pedestrian re-recognition accuracy. Second, they exhibit overfitting problems. Finally, initializing the existing LSTM parameters is problematic. In view of this, this paper introduces a revertive connection into the pedestrian re-recognition detector, making it more similar to the human cognitive process by converting a single image into an image sequence; then, the memory image sequence pattern reidentifies the pedestrian image. This approach endows deep learning-based pedestrian re-recognition algorithms with the ability to memorize image sequence patterns and allows them to reidentify pedestrians in images. At the same time, this paper proposes a selective dropout method for shallow learning. Selective dropout uses the classifier obtained through shallow learning to modify the probability that a node weight in the hidden layer is set to 0, thereby eliminating the overfitting phenomenon of the deep learning model. Therefore, this paper also proposes a greedy layer-by-layer pretraining algorithm for initializing LSTM and obtains better generalization performance. Based on the above explanation, this paper proposes a pedestrian re-recognition algorithm based on an optimized LSTM deep learning-sequence memory learning model. Experiments show that the pedestrian re-recognition method proposed in this paper not only has strong self-adaptive ability but also identifies the average accuracy. The proposed method also demonstrates a significant improvement compared with other mainstream methods because it can better memorize and learn the continuous motion of pedestrians and effectively avoid overfitting and parameter initialization in the deep learning model. This proposal provides a technical method and approach for adaptive pedestrian re-recognition algorithms. (shrink)
Di 1 juan. San song tang zi xu -- di 2-3 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi -- di 4-5 juan. Zhen yuan liu shu -- di 6 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue jian shi [translation of Short history of Chinese philosophy] -- di 7-9 juan. Zhongguo zhe xue shi xin bian -- di 10 juan. Zhe xue lun wen ji.
The concept of self-efficacy is concerned with people''s beliefs in their ability to produce given attainment. It has been widely applied to study human conduct in various settings. This study, based on Albert Bandura''s social cognitive theory, proposes the employment of self-efficacy for investigating people''s ethical conduct related to computer use. Specifically, an ethical computer self-efficacy (ECSE) construct concerning software piracy is developed and validated. The measurement model of the construct was rigorously tested and validated through confirmatory factor analysis. The (...) results suggest that ECSE can be operationalized as a second-order factor model. The first order constructs are termed use&keep (do not use), distribution (do not distribute), and persuasion (persuade others not to commit piracy). These factors are governed by a second-order construct of ECSE. This construct could be useful to research a wide range of information ethics in the future. (shrink)
Within the research framework of pragma-dialectics, this study analysed and assessed strategic manoeuvring by dissociation in corporate crisis communication, exemplified by the 2017 United Airlines’ Passenger Dragging-off Incident. As shown from the analysis of the public statements issued on its official website and Twitter, United Airlines adopted dissociation using the lexical item “volunteer” in the different stages of argumentation: bringing forward a standpoint, maintaining a standpoint and mitigating a standpoint. In so doing, the corporation strategically manoeuvred the topical potential and (...) the presentational devices to meet the demands of its primary audience, i.e. the international general public. Whereas employing dissociation of the notion “volunteer” seemed to be reasonable and served the corporation’s interests best, its argumentative effectiveness was called into question based upon the general rules for critical discussion and the institutional context. (shrink)
Medical image segmentation is a key technology for image guidance. Therefore, the advantages and disadvantages of image segmentation play an important role in image-guided surgery. Traditional machine learning methods have achieved certain beneficial effects in medical image segmentation, but they have problems such as low classification accuracy and poor robustness. Deep learning theory has good generalizability and feature extraction ability, which provides a new idea for solving medical image segmentation problems. However, deep learning has problems in terms of its application (...) to medical image segmentation: one is that the deep learning network structure cannot be constructed according to medical image characteristics; the other is that the generalizability y of the deep learning model is weak. To address these issues, this paper first adapts a neural network to medical image features by adding cross-layer connections to a traditional convolutional neural network. In addition, an optimized convolutional neural network model is established. The optimized convolutional neural network model can segment medical images using the features of two scales simultaneously. At the same time, to solve the generalizability problem of the deep learning model, an adaptive distribution function is designed according to the position of the hidden layer, and then the activation probability of each layer of neurons is set. This enhances the generalizability of the dropout model, and an adaptive dropout model is proposed. This model better addresses the problem of the weak generalizability of deep learning models. Based on the above ideas, this paper proposes a medical image segmentation algorithm based on an optimized convolutional neural network with adaptive dropout depth calculation. An ultrasonic tomographic image and lumbar CT medical image were separately segmented by the method of this paper. The experimental results show that not only are the segmentation effects of the proposed method improved compared with those of the traditional machine learning and other deep learning methods but also the method has a high adaptive segmentation ability for various medical images. The research work in this paper provides a new perspective for research on medical image segmentation. (shrink)
Concerns with improper collection and usage of personal information by businesses or governments have been seen as critical to the success of the emerging electronic commerce. In this regard, computer professionals have the oversight responsibility for information privacy because they have the most extensive knowledge of their organization's systems and programs, as well as an intimate understanding of the data. Thus, the competence of these professionals in ensuring sound practice of information privacy is of great importance to both researchers and (...) practitioners. This research addresses the question of whether male computer professionals differ from their female counterparts in their self-regulatory efficacy to protect personal information privacy. A total of 103 male and 65 female subjects surveyed in Taiwan responded to a 10-item questionnaire that includes three measures: protection (protecting privacy information), non-distribution (not distributing privacy information to others), and non-acquisition (not acquiring privacy information). The findings show (1) significant gender differences exist in the subjects' overall self-regulatory efficacy for information privacy, and, in particular, (2) that female subjects in this study exhibited a higher level of self-regulatory efficacy than males for the protection and non-acquisition of personal privacy information. The identification of the factorial structure of the self-regulatory efficacy concerning information privacy may contribute to future research directed to examining the links between privacy efficacy and psychological variables, such as ethical attitude, ethical intention, and self-esteem. Studies can also be extended to investigate how different cultural practices of morality and computer use in men and women may shape the different development patterns of privacy self-efficacy. Understanding the different cultural practices may then shed light on the social sources of privacy competence and the appropriate remedies that can be provided to improve the situation. (shrink)
Since its original publication in Chinese in the 1930s, this work has been accepted by Chinese scholars as the most important contribution to the study of their country's philosophy. In 1952 the book was published by Princeton University Press in an English translation by the distinguished scholar of Chinese history, Derk Bodde, "the dedicated translator of Fung Yu-lan's huge history of Chinese philosophy" ( New York Times Book Review ). Available for the first time in paperback, it remains the most (...) complete work on the subject in any language. Volume I covers the period of the philosophers, from the beginnings to around 100 B.C., a philosophical period as remarkable as that of ancient Greece. Volume II discusses a period lesser known in the West--the period of classical learning, from the second century B.C. to the twentieth century. (shrink)
Inspired by Shalev’s model of loss aversion, we investigate the effect of loss aversion on a bimatrix game where the payoffs in the bimatrix game are characterized by triangular fuzzy variables. First, we define three solution concepts of credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria, and their existence theorems are presented. Then, three sufficient and necessary conditions are given to find the credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria. Moreover, the relationship among the three credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria is discussed in detail. Finally, (...) for2×2bimatix game with triangular fuzzy payoffs, we investigate the effect of loss aversion coefficients and confidence levels on the three credibilistic loss aversion Nash equilibria. It is found that an increase of loss aversion levels of a player leads to a decrease of his/her own payoff. We also find that the equilibrium utilities of players are decreasing as their own confidence levels when players employ the optimistic value criterion. (shrink)
Concerns with improper collection and usage of personal information by businesses or governments have been seen as critical to the success of the emerging electronic commerce. In this regard, computer professionals have the oversight responsibility for information privacy because they have the most extensive knowledge of their organization's systems and programs, as well as an intimate understanding of the data. Thus, the competence of these professionals in ensuring sound practice of information privacy is of great importance to both researchers and (...) practitioners. This research addresses the question of whether male computer professionals differ from their female counterparts in their self-regulatory efficacy to protect personal information privacy. A total of 103 male and 65 female subjects surveyed in Taiwan responded to a 10-item questionnaire that includes three measures: protection, non-distribution, and non-acquisition. The findings show significant gender differences exist in the subjects' overall self-regulatory efficacy for information privacy, and, in particular, that female subjects in this study exhibited a higher level of self-regulatory efficacy than males for the protection and non-acquisition of personal privacy information. The identification of the factorial structure of the self-regulatory efficacy concerning information privacy may contribute to future research directed to examining the links between privacy efficacy and psychological variables, such as ethical attitude, ethical intention, and self-esteem. Studies can also be extended to investigate how different cultural practices of morality and computer use in men and women may shape the different development patterns of privacy self-efficacy. Understanding the different cultural practices may then shed light on the social sources of privacy competence and the appropriate remedies that can be provided to improve the situation. (shrink)
Unethical conduct has reached crisis proportions in business :A1–A10, 2011) and on today’s college campuses :58–65, 2007). Despite the evidence that suggests that more than half of business students admit to dishonest practices, only about 5 % of business school deans surveyed believe that dishonesty is a problem at their schools :299–308, 2010). In addition, the AACSB which establishes standards for accredited business schools has resisted the urging of deans and business experts to require business schools to teach an ethics (...) class, and fewer than one-third of businesses schools now teach a business ethics course at the graduate or undergraduate levels. In this paper we briefly introduce the status of business ethics education and report the results of a survey of business students, deans of the top business schools, and business ethics subject matter experts about ten ethical outcomes. We then offer five specific recommendations to encourage business ethics faculty and decision makers to improve the teaching of business ethics. (shrink)
The concept of ‘harmony’ was taught by the Chinese sages as the practice of acceptance, tolerance, mutual respect, equality and patience, and is now given great importance by the Chinese government in its attempts to promote the stability and sustainability of the country. The concept could have significant implications for moral education. This article uses a Chinese Masters course on sustainability education as an example to analyse the positive and negative implications of the principle of harmony both for the practice (...) of sustainability education and for educational practice in general. The course encouraged students to plan and implement feasible and practical sustainability activities mainly in the context of Chinese schools. Influenced by the value of harmony, the course chose to promote sustainability in a pragmatic but limited way. Although the course resulted in some practical sustainability related activities, a holistic and critical view on sustainability was not evident amongst the students. However, the principle of harmony could be applied critically both as a criterion for evaluating social development and as a value underlying democratic decision-making. (shrink)
Feng Shui has been known in the West for the last 150 years but has mostly been regarded as a primitive superstition. During the modern period successive regimes in China have suppressed its practice. However, in the last few decades Feng Shui has become a global spiritual movement with professional associations, thousands of titles published on the subject, countless websites devoted to it and millions of users. In this book Ole Bruun explains Feng Shui's Chinese origins and (...) meanings as well as its more recent Western interpretations and global appeal. Unlike the abundance of popular manuals, his Introduction treats Chinese Feng Shui as an academic subject, bridging religion, history and sociology. Individual chapters explain the Chinese religious-philosophical background, Chinese uses in rural and urban areas, the history of Feng Shui's reinterpretation in the West, and environmental perspectives and other issues. (shrink)
Feng Youlan's "History of Chinese Philosophy" is at present still the most well-known introduction to Chinese philosophy in any Western language. During the 1980s Feng Youlan published a seven-volume new version of his "History" in which he further developed his view on history so that the work itself can be considered part of the history of Chinese philosophy in this century. This paper presents a preliminary analysis and comparison of the different versions of the "History.".
This study explored the relationship between the integrity of the supervisor and the manager and the creativity of employees who are below the supervisor. Drawing on social learning theory, we proposed a moderated mediation model for the trickle-down effects of perceived supervisor integrity. Using a sample of 716 employees and their supervisors, we found positive associations between both managers’ and supervisors’ integrity and employee creativity. Supervisors’ integrity partially mediates the relationship between managers’ integrity and employee creativity. In addition, supervisors’ perceptions (...) of professional ethical standards moderate the indirect effects of the managers’ integrity on employee creativity. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. (shrink)
This paper explores how to explain the applicability of classical mathematics to the physical world in a radically naturalistic and nominalistic philosophy of mathematics. The applicability claim is first formulated as an ordinary scientific assertion about natural regularity in a class of natural phenomena and then turned into a logical problem by some scientific simplification and abstraction. I argue that there are some genuine logical puzzles regarding applicability and no current philosophy of mathematics has resolved these puzzles. Then I introduce (...) a plan for resolving the logical puzzles of applicability. (shrink)
This paper investigates both the time-varying formation and multiple time-varying formation tracking problems of networked heterogeneous robotic systems with parameter uncertainties and external disturbances in the task space. Each robot inside can be either redundant or nonredundant. Several novel estimator-based hierarchical cooperative algorithms are designed to achieve both the tracking task and the possible preset subtasks for redundant robots. Besides, the designed estimator algorithms guarantee that each robot can obtain the accurate information of their corresponding leaders. By employing Lyapunov stability (...) and input-to-state stability, sufficient conditions on the asymptotic stability of the error closed-loop system are derived. Finally, two simulation examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms. (shrink)
The objective of this study is to propose a new operation method based on the universal grey number to overcome the shortcomings of typical interval operation in solving system fault trees. First, the failure probability ranges of the bottom events are described according to the conversion rules between the interval number and universal grey number. A more accurate system reliability calculation is then obtained based on the logical relationship between the AND gates and OR gates of a fault tree and (...) universal grey number arithmetic. Then, considering an aircraft landing gear retraction system as an example, the failure probability range of the top event is obtained through universal grey operation. Next, the reliability of the aircraft landing gear retraction system is evaluated despite insufficient statistical information describing failures. The example demonstrates that the proposed method provides many advantages in resolving the system reliability problem despite poor information, yielding benefits for the function of the interval operation, and overcoming the drawback of solution interval enlargement under different orders of interval operation. (shrink)
Named entity recognition is a subtask in natural language processing, and its accuracy greatly affects the effectiveness of downstream tasks. Aiming at the problem of insufficient expression of potential Chinese features in named entity recognition tasks, this paper proposes a multifeature adaptive fusion Chinese named entity recognition model. The model uses bidirectional long short-term memory neural network to extract stroke and radical features and adopts a weighted concatenation method to fuse two sets of features adaptively. This method can better integrate (...) the two sets of features, thereby improving the model entity recognition ability. In order to fully test the entity recognition performance of this model, we compared the basic model and other mainstream models on Microsoft Research Asia and “China People’s Daily” dataset from January to June 1998. Experimental results show that this model is better than other models, with F1 values of 97.01% and 96.78%, respectively. (shrink)
Based on ideology-infused psychological contract theory and cognitive evaluation theory, this study investigated the curvilinear relationship between ethical leadership and employee creativity. A curvilinear mediation model was proposed to explain the impact of ethical leadership on creativity, using employee intrinsic motivation as the mediator. Applying a two wave sampling design that consist 258 employees and their leaders, we found that employee creativity improved as ethical leadership increased from low to moderate levels. However, the employee creativity improvement was attenuated when ethical (...) leadership increased from moderate to high levels. Furthermore, the study also revealed that employee intrinsic motivation partially mediated this curvilinear relationship. The theoretical and managerial implications are discussed. (shrink)
Host‐pathogen arms race is a universal, central aspect of the evolution of life. Most organisms evolved several distinct yet interacting strategies of anti‐pathogen defense including resistance to parasite invasion, innate and adaptive immunity, and programmed cell death (PCD). The PCD is the means of last resort, a suicidal response to infection that is activated when resistance and immunity fail. An infected cell faces a decision between active defense and altruistic suicide or dormancy induction, depending on whether immunity is “deemed” capable (...) of preventing parasite reproduction and consequent infection of other cells. In bacteria and archaea, immunity genes typically colocalize with PCD modules, such as toxins‐antitoxins, suggestive of immunity‐PCD coupling, likely mediated by shared proteins that sense damage and “predict” the outcome of infections. In type VI CRISPR‐Cas systems, the same enzyme that inactivates the target RNA might execute cell suicide, in a case of ultimate integration of immunity and PCD. (shrink)
Management literature has repeatedly shown that an absence of voice can have serious negative influences on team and organization performance. However, employees often withhold suggestions or advices when they have ideas, concerns, or opinions. The present study proposes leader behavioral integrity as a key antecedent of employee voice, and investigates how and when leader behavioral integrity influences employee voice. Specifically, we argue that leader behavioral integrity affects employee voice via team independence climate. In addition, we propose a moderating effect of (...) corporate ethical values. The results from a study of 134 managers and 408 employees provide support for this moderated mediation model. Leader behavioral integrity positively affects employee voice via team independence climate, but only when ethical values are emphasized in organizations. These results suggest that leader behavioral integrity, along with team independence climate and corporate ethical values, is very important for fostering employee voice. (shrink)
The dissertation studies the mathematical strength of strict constructivism, a finitistic fragment of Bishop's constructivism, and explores its implications in the philosophy of mathematics. ;It consists of two chapters and four appendixes. Chapter 1 presents strict constructivism, shows that it is within the spirit of finitism, and explains how to represent sets, functions and elementary calculus in strict constructivism. Appendix A proves that the essentials of Bishop and Bridges' book Constructive Analysis can be developed within strict constructivism. Appendix B further (...) develops, within strict constructivism, the essentials of the functional analysis applied in quantum mechanics, including the spectral theorem, Stone's theorem, and the self-adjointness of some common quantum mechanical operators. Some comparisons with other related work, in particular, a comparison with S. Simpson's partial realization of Hilbert's program, and a discussion of the relevance of M. B. Pour-El and J. I. Richards' negative results in recursive analysis are given in Appendix C. ;Chapter 2 explores the possible philosophical implications of these technical results. It first suggests a fictionalistic account for the ontology of pure mathematics. This leaves a puzzle about how truths about fictional mathematical entities are applicable to science. The chapter then explains that for those applications of mathematics that can be reduced to applications of strict constructivism, fictional entities can be eliminated in the applications and the puzzle of applicability can be resolved. Therefore, if strict constructivism were essentially sufficient for all scientific applications, the applicability of mathematics of mathematics in science would be accountable. The chapter then argues that the reduction of mathematics to strict constructivism also reduces the epistemological question about mathematics to that about elementary arithmetic. The dissertation ends with a suggestion that a proper epistemological basis for arithmetic is perhaps a mixture of Mill's empiricism and the Kantian views. (shrink)