Although the emotional and motivational characteristics of dreaming have figured prominently in folk and psychoanalytic conceptions of dream production, emotions have rarely been systematically studied, and motivation, never. Because emotions during sleep lack the somatic components of waking emotions, and they change as the sleeper awakens, their properties are difficult to assess. Recent evidence of limbic system activation during REM sleep suggests a basis in brain architecture for the interaction of motivational and cognitive properties in dreaming. Motivational and emotional content (...) in REM and NREM laboratory mentation reports from 25 participants were compared. Motivational and emotional content was significantly greater in REM than NREM sleep, even after controlling for the greater word count of REM reports. (shrink)
In a legal expert system based on CBR (Case-Based Reasoning), legal statute rules are interpreted on the basis of precedents. This interpretation, because of its vagueness and uncertainty of the interpretation cannot be handled with the means used for crisp cases. In our legal expert system, on the basis of the facts of precedents, the statute rule is interpreted as a form of case rule, the application of which involves the concepts of membership and vagueness. The case rule is stored (...) in a data base by means of fuzzy frames. The inference based on a case rule is made by fuzzy YES and fuzzy NO, and the degree of similarity of cases. The system proposed here will be used for legal education; its main area of application is contract, especially in relation to the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). (shrink)
This article explores Shinran's depiction of the life of nembutsu through a discussion of his use of the term ‘dwelling’. It seeks thereby to propose a way of reading his writings that might serve as a corrective to the more usual doctrinal views of his teaching. In order to elucidate Shinran's phenomenological endeavour, I consider his writings together with Heidegger's exposition of ‘dwelling’ in his later essays. There are four characteristics of dwelling in particular that both Shinran and Heidegger elaborate (...) in ways that resonate with each other: settledness, freedom, joy, and nearness. The article takes up each of these aspects of the account of dwelling in the two thinkers with the aim of casting new light on Shinran's understanding of human existence in its fullest potential. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the diversity of interaction solutions of a shallow water wave equation, the generalized Hirota–Satsuma–Ito equation. Using the Hirota direct method, we establish a general theory for the diversity of interaction solutions, which can be applied to generate many important solutions, such as lumps and lump-soliton solutions. This is an interesting feature of this research. In addition, we prove this new model is integrable in Painlevé sense. Finally, the diversity of interactive wave solutions of (...) the gHSI is graphically displayed by selecting specific parameters. All the obtained results can be applied to the research of fluid dynamics. (shrink)
We aim to construct exact and explicit solutions to a generalized Bogoyavlensky-Konopelchenko equation through the Maple computer algebra system. The considered nonlinear equation is transformed into a Hirota bilinear form, and symbolic computations are made for solving both the nonlinear equation and the corresponding bilinear equation. A few classes of exact and explicit solutions are generated from different ansätze on solution forms, including traveling wave solutions, two-wave solutions, and polynomial solutions.
SummaryOn 11th March 2011 a magnitude nine earthquake struck the Tohoku region of Japan. The earthquake resulted in a large tsunami and an accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. Previous studies have suggested that demographic indices relating to reproduction and marriage change after such massive disasters. The present study investigated whether the number of births, number of marriages and the secondary sex ratio changed after the East Japan Earthquake. The monthly number of births and marriages in each prefecture in (...) Japan from January 1997 to June 2012 were obtained from the Demographic Survey of Japan. An analysis was performed for three different geographic boundary units: the disaster-stricken area, the non-disaster-stricken area and the whole of Japan. In each unit, the numbers of births and marriages in a given month during the post-disaster period were predicted based on a regression equation estimated by the numbers of births and marriages in that month during the pre-disaster period. The numbers of observed monthly births and marriages during the post-disaster period were compared with the predicted figures. Differences between the observed and predicted numbers were determined by referring to the 95% confidence limits for the predicted mean number. The observed probability of a male birth in a given month during the post-disaster period was compared with a 95% confidence interval of a binominal distribution. In all three boundary units, the number of births was significantly lower than the predicted number by about 3–8% from nine months after the disaster, while the number of marriages in October 2011 was significantly lower than the predicted number by about 25–28%. In October 2011, the SSR in the whole of Japan had decreased from 104.8 to 102.9. The number of births and marriages and the SSR decreased in Japan after the East Japan Earthquake irrespective of locality. (shrink)
In this paper, by means of the Hirota bilinear method, a dimensionally reduced nonlinear evolution equation is investigated. Through its bilinear form, lump solutions are obtained. We construct interaction solutions between lump solutions and one soliton solution by choosing quadratic functions and exponential function. Interaction solutions with the combinations of exponential functions and sine function are also given. Meanwhile, the figures of these solutions are plotted. The dynamical characteristics and properties of obtained solutions are discussed, respectively. The results show (...) that the corresponding physical quantities and properties of nonlinear waves are associated with the values of the parameters. (shrink)