Social enterprises, as typical hybrid organisations, are embedded in a plural institutional environment in which some stakeholders regard achieving social goals as fundamental, while others see economic profit as the priority. A great challenge for social enterprises is dealing with the conflicts resulting from the diverse expectations of stakeholders. Based on the existing works on organisational legitimacy and the social business model, we propose a legitimacy-based social enterprise model composed of three main phases, namely, legitimacy proposition, legitimacy strategy planning, and (...) legitimacy strategy implementation. Our model is meant to serve as an effective legitimacy-building tool for social enterprises of various kinds. (shrink)
Previous research has shown implicit semantic processing of faces or pictures, but whether symbolic carriers such as words can be processed this way remains controversial. Here we examine this issue by adopting the continuous flash suppression paradigm to ensure that the processing undergone is indeed unconscious without the involvement of partial awareness. Negative or neutral words projected into one eye were made invisible due to strong suppression induced by dynamic-noise patterns shown in the other eye through binocular rivalry. Inverted and (...) scrambled words were used as controls to provide baselines at orthographic and feature levels, respectively. Compared to neutral words, emotion-described and emotion-induced negative words required longer time to release from suppression, but only for upright words. These results suggest that words can be processed unconsciously up to semantic level since under interocular suppression completely invisible words can lead to different processing speed due to the emotion information they carry. (shrink)
This article draws the attention of research managers and policy makers to the issue that to become a science power curtailing misconduct is the daunting challenge that emerging countries simply cannot ignore. Systematic and orchestrated efforts are needed to foster and institutionalize research integrity education among all stakeholders.
In China, many private entrepreneurs have obtained political offices in the government. In this study, we argue that Chinese private entrepreneurs who are formally connected with government institutions, compared to other Chinese private entrepreneurs, tend to contribute more to philanthropic causes not only for instrumental concerns but also out of altruistic values. We submit this argument to an empirical test through a secondary data analysis of a representative sample of Chinese entrepreneurs collected by a coalition of government and industry groups. (...) The results of this analysis show that politically connected entrepreneurs are more likely to make major philanthropic donations and, at the same time, hold a stronger sense of the responsibility for doing so. The most important contribution of this research is that it reveals the ethical basis of the philanthropic activities of Chinese private entrepreneurs, especially those with political connections, that has been unappreciated by extant literature. (shrink)
Raewyn Connell’s theoretical concept of hegemonic masculinity has been profoundly influential in feminist sociology. Despite the rich literature inspired by her theory, conceptual ambiguities have compromised its full potential. In this article, I critique a pessimistic tendency in the interpretation and application of hegemonic masculinity, which focuses on its regressive role in reproducing/legitimating heteronormative patriarchy while overlooking its progressive potential. I propose that revisiting Antonio Gramsci’s theorization of hegemony can help us understand hegemonic masculinity by its mechanism of domination—force accompanied (...) by consent—rather than via certain pregiven masculine qualities. This reformulation of hegemonic masculinity not only pushes us to maintain a relational understanding of masculinities in empirical research, but also brings attention to Connell’s vision for social change. (shrink)
The last two decades have witnessed the rising prevalence of both co-publishing and retraction. Focusing on research collaboration, this paper utilizes a unique dataset to investigate factors contributing to retraction probability and elapsed time between publication and retraction. Data analysis reveals that the majority of retracted papers are multi-authored and that repeat offenders are collaboration prone. Yet, all things being equal, collaboration, in and of itself, does not increase the likelihood of producing flawed or fraudulent research, at least in the (...) form of retraction. That holds for all retractions and also retractions due to falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism. The research also finds that publications with authors from elite universities are less likely to be retracted, which is particularly true for retractions due to FFP. China stands out with the fastest retracting speed compared to other countries. Possible explanations, limitations, and policy implications are also discussed. (shrink)
This paper establishes a model on the upstream and downstream relationship among private enterprises, provincial and local officials, and the central government in the real estate market using the population ecology theory of mutual relations among individual species from the perspective of business ecosystem. A dynamic model is introduced and the complex dynamical behaviors of such a predator-prey model are investigated by means of numerical simulation. The local stability conditions and complex dynamics are investigated, and the existence of chaos is (...) discussed in the sense of Marotto theorem; bifurcation diagrams, Lyapunov exponents, sensitivity analysis for initial values, and time history figure of the system are mapped out and discussed. This shows that there are two routes to complicated dynamics, one of which is the cascade of flip bifurcations resulting in periodic cycles, and the other one is Neimark-Sacker bifurcation which produces attractive invariant closed curves. We arrive at conclusions that the phenomenon of chaos is harmful to private enterprises, and unstable behavior is often unfavorable. Thus, linear feedback control is applied to drive the model to a stable state when the system exhibits chaotic behaviors, achieving the goal of eliminating the negative effects to a large extent. (shrink)
Music impacting on speech processing is vividly evidenced in most reports involving professional musicians, while the question of whether the facilitative effects of music are limited to experts or may extend to amateurs remains to be resolved. Previous research has suggested that analogous to language experience, musicianship also modulates lexical tone perception but the influence of amateur musical experience in adulthood is poorly understood. Furthermore, little is known about how acoustic information and phonological information of lexical tones are processed by (...) amateur musicians. This study aimed to provide neural evidence of cortical plasticity by examining categorical perception of lexical tones in Chinese adults with amateur musical experience relative to the non-musician counterparts. Fifteen adult Chinese amateur musicians and an equal number of non-musicians participated in an event-related potential experiment. Their mismatch negativities to lexical tones from Mandarin Tone 2–Tone 4 continuum and non-speech tone analogs were measured. It was hypothesized that amateur musicians would exhibit different MMNs to their non-musician counterparts in processing two aspects of information in lexical tones. Results showed that the MMN mean amplitude evoked by within-category deviants was significantly larger for amateur musicians than non-musicians regardless of speech or non-speech condition. This implies the strengthened processing of acoustic information by adult amateur musicians without the need of focused attention, as the detection of subtle acoustic nuances of pitch was measurably improved. In addition, the MMN peak latency elicited by across-category deviants was significantly shorter than that by within-category deviants for both groups, indicative of the earlier processing of phonological information than acoustic information of lexical tones at the pre-attentive stage. The results mentioned above suggest that cortical plasticity can still be induced in adulthood, hence non-musicians should be defined more strictly than before. Besides, the current study enlarges the population demonstrating the beneficial effects of musical experience on perceptual and cognitive functions, namely, the effects of enhanced speech processing from music are not confined to a small group of experts but extend to a large population of amateurs. (shrink)
In this paper, the notions of Fα-categorical and Gα-categorical structures are introduced by choosing the isomorphism such that the function itself or its graph sits on the α-th level of the Ershov hierarchy, respectively. Separations obtained by natural graphs which are the disjoint unions of countably many finite graphs. Furthermore, for size-bounded graphs, an easy criterion is given to say when it is computable-categorical and when it is only G2-categorical; in the latter case it is not Fα-categorical for any recursive (...) ordinal α. (shrink)
We give a survey of the study of nonstandard models in recursion theory and reverse mathematics. We discuss the key notions and techniques in effective computability in nonstandard models, and their applications to problems concerning combinatorial principles in subsystems of second order arithmetic. Particular attention is given to principles related to Ramsey’s Theorem for Pairs.
A growing body of research has started to examine how individuals from different countries may differ in their use of ethically questionable tactics during business negotiations. Whereas prior research focused on the main effect of the national culture or nationality of the negotiator, we add a new factor, which is the nationality of the counterpart. Looking at both these variables allows us to examine whether and how people may change their likelihood of using ethically questionable tactics in inter-cultural negotiations as (...) opposed to intra-cultural ones. Results of an experiment show that overall, American participants were less likely than Chinese participants to use ethically questionable tactics in negotiations. However, American participants were more likely to use ethically questionable tactics, particularly those related to false promises and inappropriate information gathering, in inter-cultural negotiations with Chinese counterparts, than in intra-cultural negotiations with American counterparts. By contrast, Chinese participants were less likely to use ethically questionable tactics, particularly those related to false promises and attacking opponent’s network, in inter-cultural negotiations with American counterparts, than in intra-cultural negotiations with Chinese counterparts. Implications and future directions are discussed. (shrink)
Let [NB]₁ denote the ideal generated by nonbounding c.e. degrees and NCup the ideal of noncuppable c.e. degrees. We show that both [NB]₁ ∪ NCup and the ideal generated by nonbounding and noncuppable degrees are new, in the sense that they are different from M, [NB]₁ and NCup—the only three known definable ideals so far.
Related Works: Part II: C. T. Chong, Yue Yang. $\Sigma_2$ Induction and Infinite Injury Priority Argument, Part II: Tame $\Sigma_2$ Coding and the Jump Operator. Ann. Pure Appl. Logic, vol. 87, no. 2, 103--116. Mathematical Reviews : MR1490049 Part III: C. T. Chong, Lei Qian, Theodore A. Slaman, Yue Yang. $\Sigma_2$ Induction and Infinite Injury Priority Argument, Part III: Prompt Sets, Minimal Paries and Shoenfield's Conjecture. Mathematical Reviews : MR1818378.
Lachlan observed that any nonzero d.c.e. degree bounds a nonzero c.e. degree. In this paper, we study the c.e. predecessors of d.c.e. degrees, and prove that given a nonzero d.c.e. degree , there is a c.e. degree below and a high d.c.e. degree such that bounds all the c.e. degrees below . This result gives a unified approach to some seemingly unrelated results. In particular, it has the following two known theorems as corollaries: there is a low c.e. degree isolating (...) a high d.c.e. degree [S. Ishmukhametov, G. Wu, Isolation and the high/low hierarchy, Arch. Math. Logic 41 259–266]; there is a high d.c.e. degree bounding no minimal pairs [C.T. Chong, A. Li, Y. Yang, The existence of high nonbounding degrees in the difference hierarchy, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 138 31–51]. (shrink)
Partner selection is an important aspect of the customer collaborative product innovation process and aims to select innovative customer partners from huge numbers of customers, fast and accurately. The purpose of this article is to present a quantitative partner selection method based on the complex network theory. In this method, the complex network model of the Online Community Customer Network is constructed, and network centrality is used as the initial index of customer partner selection. Then, network efficiency and delta centrality (...) are used to evaluate the effect of the index. An example is presented to reflect the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method. Results validate the small-world and scale-free properties of the OCCN and show that betweenness centrality is the most appropriate index for partner selection in the OCCN. (shrink)
We show that for every intermediate \ s-degree there exists an incomparable \ s-degree. As a consequence, for every intermediate \ Q-degree there exists an incomparable \ Q-degree. We also show how these results can be applied to provide proofs or new proofs of upper density results in local structures of s-degrees and Q-degrees.
We give a survey of the study of nonstandard models in recursion theory and reverse mathematics. We discuss the key notions and techniques in effective computability in nonstandard models. and their applications to problems concerning combinatorial principles in subsystems of second order arithmetic. Particular attention is given to principles related to Ramsey's Theorem for Pairs.
In [Countable thin [Formula: see text] classes, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 59 79–139], Cenzer, Downey, Jockusch and Shore proved the density of degrees containing members of countable thin [Formula: see text] classes. In the same paper, Cenzer et al. also proved the existence of degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes. We will prove in this paper that the c.e. degrees containing no members of thin [Formula: see text] classes are dense in the c.e. degrees. We will (...) also prove that the c.e. degrees containing members of thin [Formula: see text] classes are dense in the c.e. degrees, improving the result of Cenzer et al. mentioned above. Thus, we obtain a new natural subclass of c.e. degrees which are both dense and co-dense in the c.e. degrees, while the other such class is the class of branching c.e. degrees 113–130] for nonbranching degrees and [T. A. Slaman, The density of infima in the recursively enumerable degrees, Ann. Pure Appl. Logic 52 155–179] for branching degrees). (shrink)
The issue of trust has increasingly attracted attention in the business ethics literature. Our aim is to contribute further to this literature by examining how the use of the carbon copy function in email communication influences felt trust. We develop the argument that the use of cc enhances transparency—representing an important characteristic of workplace ethics—and hence promotes trust. We further argue that a downside of the cc option may be that it can also be experienced as a control mechanism, which (...) may therefore negatively affect trust. The results of our first study showed that the use of cc indeed enhances perceived transparency, but at the same time also leads to the experience of increased control. Building upon this insight, the findings of five subsequent studies consistently revealed that the use of cc negatively influences felt trust. More precisely, employees felt trusted the least when the supervisor was always included in cc. This effect on felt trust also negatively influenced how trustworthy the organizational climate was perceived. We further replicated these results in two field surveys, which showed that the negative effect of cc on felt trust lowered perceptions of psychological safety and contributed to a culture of fear. Taken together, our findings suggest that when transparency in email communications is experienced as a control mechanism, its use is perceived as unethical, rather than as ethical. Implications and recommendations for future business ethics research are discussed. (shrink)
Knowledge of the patterns of location of retail stores in urban areas supports the development of effective urban planning and the reasonable allocation of commercial facilities. Using point of interest data and consumer survey data in three main commercial districts in Changchun, China, this study investigates the spatial structures of commercial districts and the patterns of distribution of retail stores to assess the determinants of the development of retail stores in commercial districts. Kernel density estimation, nearest neighbor index, and Pearson’s (...) correlation analysis were used for this study. The following conclusions are drawn. The spatial distribution of retail stores in Changchun commercial districts generates the coexistence of a concentration in the core area and diffusion in the peripheral area. The emergence of shopping malls has challenged the traditional single-center structure, resulting in the transformation of commercial districts from single-center to multicenter layouts, while also producing a hierarchical trend in development. The Chongqing Road and Hongqi Street commercial districts have a relatively high spatial concentration of retail stores. Retail stores in Guilin Road exhibit distinct characteristics, namely, stores selling textiles, clothing, and daily necessities show the highest concentration, and food, beverage, and tobacco outlets as well as integrated stores show the lowest concentration. The selected locations of the differing categories of stores on Chongqing Road strongly correlate, and textile, clothing, and daily necessity stores show a high correlation with other retail categories. Four main factors affect the development and spatial layout of retail in the commercial districts. First, the interaction between consumer behavior and location choice in retail stores promotes the evolution of retail formats and trends in the development of comprehensive, specialized, and hierarchical retail commercial spaces. Second, the retail format determines the spatial layouts and the historical inheritance of the format. Third, governmental planning and policies lead to the agglomeration and diffusion of commercial activities in different areas. Fourth, such spatial clustering effects are an external driving factor for integration and aggregation among retail formats. (shrink)
Electrical resistivity is one of the fundamental physical properties of rocks, and its relationship with fluid saturation is widely used in reservoir evaluation. The interpretation of electrical logs usually relies on the results of rock resistivity tests of cores in the laboratory. In the laboratory, core samples are commonly cut into cylinders, and the resistivity is measured along the axial direction. To determine the rock resistivity along different directions, samples are cut into cubes and tested along three perpendicular directions to (...) obtain resistivity data. The expensive and complicated preparation process of cubic samples and the custom holder requirements limit the use of these tests. We have analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of rock resistivity measurements of cylindrical and cubic samples. To overcome the abovementioned difficulties, we develop a core holder for radial resistivity measurements and a radial resistivity measurement method for cylindrical samples. Based on the conformal transformation of the complex variable function theory, we establish a mathematical model of radial resistivity. We develop a measurement method of radial resistivity according to the mathematical model and verify this approach with isotropic cores. The theoretical calculation results agree with the experimental results. With the radial resistivity measurement method, we effectively test the resistivity anisotropy of shale. This method has more advantages than existing methods in terms of the sample preparation and realization of various displacement levels and angles. Hence, the proposed method can be widely used. (shrink)
Multicast can improve network performance by eliminating unnecessary duplicated flows in the data center networks. Thus it can significantly save network bandwidth. However, the network multicast blocking may cause the retransmission of a large number of data packets and seriously influence the traffic efficiency in data center networks, especially in the fat-tree DCNs with multirooted tree structure. In this paper, we build a multicast blocking model and apply it to solve the problem of network blocking in the fat-tree DCNs. Furthermore, (...) we propose a novel multicast scheduling strategy. In the scheduling strategy, we select the uplink connecting to available core switch whose remaining bandwidth is close to and greater than the three times of bandwidth multicast requests so as to reduce the operation time of the proposed algorithm. Then the blocking probability of downlink in the next time-slot is calculated in multicast subnetwork by using Markov chains theory. With the obtained probability, we select the optimal downlink based on the available core switch. In addition, theoretical analysis shows that the multicast scheduling algorithm has close to zero network blocking probability as well as lower time complexity. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of our proposed multicast scheduling algorithm. (shrink)
Due to the currently insufficient consideration of task fitness and task coordination for task allocation in collaborative customized product development, this research was conducted based on the analysis of collaborative customized product development process and task allocation strategy. The definitions and calculation formulas of task fitness and task coordination efficiency were derived, and a multiobjective optimization model of product customization task allocation was constructed. A solution based on adaptive genetic algorithm was proposed, and the feasibility and effectiveness of the task (...) allocation algorithm were tested and verified using a 5-MW wind turbine product development project as example. (shrink)
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