The purpose of the study is to assess the phenomenon of longevity as a particularly important component in the study of increasing life expectancy and reducing mortality. The article reveals the possibilities of increasing life expectancy and reducing mortality through research in the field of the phenomenon of longevity, self-preservation behavior and social information systems. The scientific novelty lies in substantiating the possibilities of changing demographic behavior through the prism of the study of longevity as a kind of model of (...) natural physiological aging of the population, as well as using the system of social "programming" of the population as a special social management tool. As a result of the study, unique opportunities for changing the demographic behavior of the population have been identified, which should be used in the development of practical measures for the implementation of social and demographic policy. (shrink)
The current research aims to answer the following question: “who will be held responsible for harm involving an artificial intelligence system?” Drawing upon the literature on moral judgments, we assert that when people perceive an AI system’s action as causing harm to others, they will assign blame to different entity groups involved in an AI’s life cycle, including the company, the developer team, and even the AI system itself, especially when such harm is perceived to be intentional. Drawing upon the (...) theory of mind perception, we hypothesized that two dimensions of mind: perceived agency—attributing intention, reasoning, pursuing goals, and communicating to AI, and perceived experience—attributing emotional states, such as feeling pain and pleasure, personality, and consciousness to AI—mediated the relationship between perceived intentional harm and blame judgments toward AI. We also predicted that people are likely to attribute higher mind characteristics to AI when harm is perceived to be directed to humans than when it is perceived to be directed to non-humans. We tested our research model in three experiments. In all experiments, we found that perceived intentional harm led to blame judgments toward AI. In two experiments, we found perceived experience, not agency, mediated the relationship between perceived intentional harm and blame judgments. We also found that companies and developers were held responsible for moral violations involving AI, with developers received the most blame among the entities involved. Our third experiment reconciles the findings by showing that perceived intentional harm directed to a non-human entity did not lead to increased attributions of mind to AI. These findings have implications for theory and practice concerning unethical outcomes and behavior associated with AI use. (shrink)
На підставі вивчення судових справ, селянських щоденників, матеріалів періодики, статистичних даних та інших історичних джерел простежуються зміни в сімейних відносинах селян кінця ХІХ - першої чверті ХХ ст. Аналізуються прояви нетрадиційної шлюбно-сімейної поведінки членів родин: дошлюбні стосунки, незареєстровані шлюби, подружні зради, самовільні розлучення, сімейні протиріччя, позашлюбні діти, подвійні шлюби і т. ін. Простежується активізація протесту всередині селянських родин проти домашнього насилля. Роз'яснюється, що трансформація поглядів на шлюб та сім'ю зумовлювала пошук сільськими жителями Південної України альтернативних шляхів самореалізації.
У статті проаналізовано категорію "виробничо-експортний потенціал", його структурні елементи та динаміку використання продуктивних сил для створення продукції, конкурентної на внутрішньому та зовнішніх ринках. Виділено проблемні сфери реалізації потенціалу вітчизняної промисловості та сформовано рекомендації щодо шляхів підвищення рівня національної безпеки в процесі реалізації виробничо-експортного потенціалу України.
The paper provides a conceptual study of network conflict phenomenon, identifying the essence and specifics of its manifestation in the social system. The process of modifying the system of social interaction, which leads to the formation of many political, economic and social contradictions, contributes to the formation of network conflicts. The paper identifies such essential characteristics of network processes that affect the dynamics of a conflict situation, such as, first, physical distance and the anonymity of network actors. They contribute to (...) the formation of a sense of responsibility lack for the consequences of the conflict, create the illusion of absence rules, which can lead to a wrong perception of the problem and increase conflict. Secondly, sensory reduction, the inability to create a complete image with visual information leads to a deterioration of mutual understanding. Third, the appearance of the illusion of understanding the actor’s actions due to the creation of a distorted representation and incorrect perception of the information provided. Fourth, the absence of sanctions for violating values and norms makes it impossible to control the development of a conflict situation. Fifth, shortening the time interval for transmitting information creates, on the one hand, opportunities to control the speed of communication and forms additional opportunities for thinking about the problem, on the other hand, leads to the creation of the illusion of control over the situation. The article deals with the ontological, phenomenological and axiological modes of interaction of network structures in the situation of conflict confrontation. The paper concludes that the most effective way to reduce the impact of destabilizing factors on the system is systematically changing the network of interactions between its structural elements. Any system tends to adapt to the changed conditions of existence. Lack of regulation can lead to the destruction of network education. At the same time, the transformation of the conflicting form of interaction between actors leads to a change in the network. The study of conflicts, features and specifics of network elements interaction is practically significant, because this analysis will help to detect and activate integrative social mechanisms. (shrink)
A study of the way in which poets, priests, and sages sought for wisdom in ancient Greece by descending into caves or underground chambers. Yulia Ustinova offers a novel approach by juxtaposing ancient testimonies with the results of modern neuropsychological research.
The article is devoted to the Russian Symbolist poet Vyacheslav Ivanov’s perception of Evgeny Boratynsky’s poetry. The specific focus is on Ivanov’s interest concerning the way Boratynsky’s lyrics relate to his philosophy of art. The article examines various types of lyrics in which Ivanov echoes Boratynsky’s poetry. One of these is a revival of the genre of “friendly epistles,” a genre that was popular in Russian poetry of the Golden Age. In poems of this type, Ivanov uses some of the (...) artistic principles typical of “Pushkin era” poems and refers to Boratynsky’s works. The article features Ivanov’s address to Boratynsky in the poem “Before Boratynsky’s portrait,” which serves Ivanov as a means to express his main aesthetic concepts. The article concludes with a suggestion that one of the reasons why these poets belong to the tradition of “the poetry of thought” is the influence of Goethe on both. (shrink)
ArgumentAn unusual compass, on which east and west are reversed, provides insight into the dynamics guiding our understanding of artifacts. By examining how such compasses were used in Tokugawa Japan, the benefits they brought, and how users knew how to read them, this article uncovers the cognitive factors that shape our interaction with technology. Building on the methodological approach of thedistributed cognitiontheory, the article claims that reverse compasses allowed the user to conserve cognitive effort, which was particularly advantageous to Tokugawa-period (...) mariners. Moreover, the article shows that even non-professional Tokugawa Japanese had a relatively easy time reading reverse compasses due to similarity between the compasses’ orientation and Tokugawa timekeeping practices. Building on the bodily and cognitive habits they had developed through the practices of keeping time, users could identify and interpret cultural cues embedded in the structure of reverse compasses. (shrink)
SUMMARYIn 1803, the most prominent Japanese astronomer of his time, Takahashi Yoshitoki, received a newly imported Dutch translation of J. J. Lalande's ‘Astronomie’. He could not read Dutch, yet he dedicated almost a year to a close examination of this massive work, taking notes and contemplating his own astronomical practices. How did he read a book he could not read? Following the clues Yoshitoki left in his notes, we discover that he found meanings not only in words, but also in (...) what are often taken for granted or considered to be auxiliary tools for data manipulation, such as symbols, units, tables, and diagrams. His rendering of these non-verbal textual elements into a familiar format was crucial for Yoshitoki's reading, and constituted the initial step in the process of integrating Lalande's astronomy into Japanese astronomical practices, and the subsequent translation of the text into Japanese. (shrink)
The article raises three key questions: what explains Putin’s (mis)calculations in the field of security and Russia’s hard-power projection onto Ukraine, what prevented both Russian and international experts from taking seriously Putin’s resolve to launch the war prior to February 24, 2022, and what would be the long-term repercussions of the war for liberal international order? To answer these interconnected questions, we refer to the discipline of foreign-policy analysis and political theory.
The right to resist and the right to rebel have again become relevant as legal problems. Their justifications traditionally derive from natural law, human rights, the principle of the lesser evil or of the social contract. Interpretation of the right to resist expresses the tendencies to the law of people, in particular, the right to self-determination, distinguishing national and international understanding, and underscores the special nature of such right. Also, two-level research of the right to resist should be distinguished research (...) of the right to resist – the first is a debate about the nature character and legislative consolidation of this right, partly focused on preventive-limiting its properties, whereas the second one is updated at the time of social upheaval and legal concerns, and it contains not only the evaluation of the events, but sometimes attempts to justify ex post risk of abuse and original post-legitimation of public authorities. An important condition for the existence of the right to resistance is a legitimate aim. This could be called the internal condition, which is provided by those who implement this right. Other condition (which can be called external) and the base of implementation should recognize certain actions, acts or decisions by public authorities – those that violate human rights are illegal and unfair. At the same time, the purpose and result of the right to resistance may be changes in the public authorities, the termination of abuse of authority and violation of human rights by its agents, return to democratic legal regime or change in the constitutional system, aimed at creating a state of law, as well as in some cases, when combined with the right to self-determination, – the achievement of independence. The author of the present paper considers that the right to resist is an individual right, a human right. The author inclines to the idea of the collective nature of the right to resist implementation, but warns against simply counting the number of persons engaged in it. In other words, it does not matter how many people commit acts, but it does matter how many people support them. Considering the modalities of implementing the right to resist, it should be noted that these forms can be active or passive, expressed in actions directly or indirectly. The right of rebellion is an extreme form of the right to resist, which is carried out in case if the non-violent means of resistance are exhausted or proved ineffective. The conditions (and bases) of the right of rebellion are phenomena, such as the following: (1) massive human rights violations by public authorities (quantitative criterion); (2) systematic human rights violations by public authorities (accumulating criterion); or (3) extraordinary human rights violations by public authorities (criterion by serious, explicit and violent nature of the violation). Ambiguous is an issue of the limits of the right of rebellion, its permission and proportion, as well as whether it is possible to develop a mechanism for exercising this right. (shrink)
The article aims to provide a semiotic interpretation of the sign of the Ecclesiastical Court within the legal framework from temporal and spatial perspectives. The starting point of the research is the idea that the history of the Russian Ecclesiastical Court is inextricably linked to the history of Russian society and secular court. Consideration of the pre-revolutionary ecclesiastical and secular law helps us explore principles of the ecclesiastical proceedings and organization, identify contradictions in understanding modern Ecclesiastical Court. Its sign is (...) not only limited to the legal interpretation. In his novel The Brothers Karamazov, Dostoevsky F. M. gave the sign of the Ecclesiastical Court symbolic meaning and, thus, expanded it beyond the existing legal framework. The Ecclesiastical Court is one of the symbols of Russian spirituality which is reflected in the concept of “Russian soul”. Rational elements of the sign of Ecclesiastical Court as well as its sensual and metaphorical components, are analyzed using the category of Truth. Clearly, the Cross is sign-symbol for Christianity. But if applied to the concept of Ecclesiastical Court, the Orthodox Cross becomes a sign-index. As a result, several semantically heterogeneous meanings of the sign of Ecclesiastical Court are revealed and described. (shrink)
This article is aimed at examining the impact of Jesuit philosophical education, particularly the Cursus Conimbricensis, on the intellectual culture existing during the 18th and 19th centuries in the Slavic territories now part of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. We have sought to trace the movement of Coimbra Aristotelianism to the East and discern the most promising directions for further research. Although any direct references to the Coimbra Course made by Russian-speaking intellectuals of the period are hard to find, we propose (...) an examination of the circulation and provenance of the actual volumes as a means of establishing the link between Slavic thought and Coimbra Jesuit Aristotelianism. (shrink)
The paper addresses the topical issue of implementing the Bologna system in the Russian higher education since its entering the common educational environment in 2003 and that of English as a Medium of Instruction as a language of instruction in Russian universities. The article presents the analysis of the current sources on the topic surveying the data on EMI in the higher educational institutions in Russia and abroad. The data show significant advancement in the system of EMI in foreign countries (...) whereas in Russia the process of establishing such a system is still under development. The undertaken research reveals sufficient discrepancies between the present day demands for the formalized layout of the EMI structure in the Russian higher education system and it's functioning in work. The author dwells on the topic at hand highlighting the importance of not only maintaining the structure of English as a Medium of Instruction in Russian universities but also designing and implementing the national system of such instruction in correlation with the global standards. (shrink)
The Belarusian-Russian scientific-practical conference “Designing the Future and the Horizons of Digital Reality” is an outcome of long-term cooperation between scientists of the Institute of Philosophy of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, M.V. Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics, and the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The conference participants focused on the problems of digital transformation of social reality, the formation of a common scientific and technological space of the Union State of Russia and Belarus, (...) the interdisciplinary synthesis of knowledge and the role of the theory of self-organization in these processes. The conference participants also raised the issues of modern management theory, artificial intelligence, strategies for ensuring global national security, new generation transport, and prospects for Eurasian integration. (shrink)
This article discusses the reception of Nietzsche’s philosophy within the USSR. It covers the four phases of Soviet Nietzscheanism between 1920 and 1980, paying specific attention to the Soviet Nietzsche studies of the Stalin epoch. By making use of publications and archive materials, this article reconstructs the historical and logical formation of Nietzsche’s negative image in post-revolutionary Russia that characterized him as an ideologist of imperialism and National Socialism. In addition to this, this article examines the facts impeding the process (...) of Nietzsche’s de-nazification in Russia. (shrink)
The essence of the financial stability of public and communal higher educational establishments in the context of current socioeconomic situation in Ukraine has been determined as a state of the financial resources which enables educational establishments to organize the qualitative educational and scientific activity and form the occupational competitiveness of graduates on the base of complete and timely financing of submitted expenditures. The basis of efficient economical activity (including fulfillment of special-purpose programmes) and qualitative educational services is the reception of (...) plan special-purpose financial recourses. The author has explored that current practice of the assessment of the financial stability of state higher educational establishments doesn’t take into account the main aspects of this process in their interconnection and interdependence. The intellectual model of estimating the financial stability of state higher educational establishments has been developed on the base of fuzzy logic which enables to assess the level of the financial stability of educational establishments via simultaneous application of quantitative (maneuverability equity ratio, autonomy coefficient, funding coefficient, the ratio of correlation conducted expenditures and income received, the ratio of payables and receivables, the ratio of the approved cost estimate of special and general funds, the ratio of cash and actual expenditures) and qualitative (assessment of scientific and educational potential quality, assessment of education quality, evaluation of international recognition, the graduates satisfaction of received education and the opportunity to use it in work, employers perception of quality of education in Ukrainian universities, experts perceptions of the quality of education in Ukrainian universities, cooperation between universities and companies-employers) indexes. (shrink)
This paper explores the historical and social context of population genetic research conducted in India by focusing on a study by Reich et al which aimed to reconstruct Indian population history. The paper addresses two themes. First, it considers the agendas and modes of thinking about Indian populations and the caste system on which this study appears to be based. Second, it reflects on the medical implications of this study as they were presented in Reich et al's findings. I suggest (...) that while genetic mapping of Indian populations appears to have inherited many of the problems characteristic of population genetic research conducted in the USA and globally, the specificity of this research in India involves a peculiar interplay of the postcolonial pursuit of genomic sovereignty, desire by the Indian state to become a player in the global realm of biotechnology, and age-old discourses naturalising caste and regional differences. My argument is that, although the study has offered conceptual space for a wide range of interpretations, it has a strong potential not just for naturalising caste and regional differences in India, but also for pathologising them without necessarily bringing tangible healthcare benefits in the foreseeable future. (shrink)
Solutions to word problems are moderated by the semantic alignment of real-world relations with mathematical operations. Categorical relations between entities are aligned with addition, whereas certain functional relations between entities are aligned with division. Similarly, discreteness vs. continuity of quantities is aligned with different formats for rational numbers. These alignments have been found both in textbooks and in the performance of college students in the USA and in South Korea. The current study examined evidence for alignments in Russia. Textbook analyses (...) revealed semantic alignments for arithmetic word problems, but not for rational numbers. Nonetheless, Russian college students showed semantic alignments both for arithmetic operations and for rational numbers. Since Russian students exhibit semantic alignments for rational numbers in the absence of exposure to examples in school, such alignments likely reflect intuitive understanding of mathematical representations of real-world situations. (shrink)
The purpose of the study is to consider the theoretical aspects of innovative education, as well as to analyze the practical application of innovative technologies in foreign language classes for students of engineering specialties. The article notes that innovative educational technologies are based on three interrelated components: competence-based approach; modern teaching methods; modern learning infrastructure. Scientific novelty lies in an attempt to analyze the innovative practice of teachers and determine the main advantages of innovative technologies in teaching a foreign language (...) to students of technical universities. As a result, such advantages of these technologies were identified as the development of all types of speech activity of students, an individual approach to learning, an increase in motivation for learning a language, the ability to express oneself creatively, the formation of a personality capable of solving professionally oriented tasks. (shrink)
Fake news is created as ordinary news stylistically but it consists of deliberate disinformation or hoaxes. The text is generally constructed to cause negative emotions and feelings in readers: fear, panic, distrust, and paranoia. It is done to manipulate the opinion and consciousness of a large number of people and eventually leads to changes in the values, ideas and attitudes that already exist in the public awareness. The result is a schism that has already gone beyond the usual spiritual strife. (...) Moreover, its expansion has weakened the defining feature of Russian Orthodoxy which lies in trust and support of the state and authorities. The Russian Orthodox Church has to deal not only with public health crisis but also with profound differences within its ranks over the churchgoers’ behavior in the conditions of a pandemic. The article analyzes legal regulations and mechanisms for countering fake news about the Russian Orthodox Church, and provides examples from the judicial practice. It also determines the mechanisms of the worshippers’ reaction to the fake news involving the Russian Orthodox Church. Using semiotic methodology, the author reveals re-encoding of the symbolic meaning of such signs as “Russian Orthodox cross” and “red cross”. The connotative meaning of these signs leads to contradictions in the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic. (shrink)
The article discusses the characterization of the visualization of visible reality in Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. The author suggests that semiotic and legal analysis should be used to understand the meaning of the color code of the novel. Semiotic discourse reduces the ambiguity, uncertainty, and expression of the color code to a conscious, discrete, and conditioned meaning of individual colors. Legal analysis helps to better understand the main idea and other aspects of the novel, encoded in colors. Psychological, (...) personal associations, and symbolic methods are used to reveal direct and indirect meaning of the colors used by Dostoyevsky. The basic characterization of colors proposed by Goethe is employed as a key for color decoding. The article also establishes the correlation of the color code of the novel with the colors of the flags of the Russian Empire and the German Confederation. The message and meaning of the same colors of these national flags are contrasted. The interpretation is complemented by the author’s drawings, which enable to visualize the color code that stores and transmits information about national identity. (shrink)
It is often suggested in the mass media and popular academic literature that scientists promote a secular and reductionist understanding of the implications of the life sciences for the concept of being human. Is adhering to this view considered to be one of the components of the notion of being a good scientist? This paper explores responses of geneticists interviewed in the UK, the USA and Russia about the cultural meanings of their work. When discussing this question the interviewees distinguished (...) between their ‘personal’ and ‘professional’ views. When talking as ‘lay people’ they demonstrated a wide range of opinions none of which was perceived as incompatible with scientific practice. When talking as ‘scientists’ the respondents stressed that the cultural implications of their research were not a matter of their professional concern. It is suggested that these two trends in their answers could be explained by scientists tending to relegate the implications of their work to the realm of the social which they construe as divorced from scientific practice. (shrink)