Shale oil and gas have been discovered in the lacustrine Zhangjiatan Shale in the southern Ordos Basin, China. To study the distribution of extractable organic matter in the Zhangjiatan Shale, geochemical characterization of core samples of different lithologies, scanning electron microscope observations, low-pressure [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] adsorption, and helium pycnometry were conducted. The content and saturation of the EOM in the pores were quantitatively characterized. The results show that the distribution of the EOM in the shale (...) interval is heterogeneous. In general, the shale layers have a higher EOM content and saturation than siltstone layers. The total organic content and the original storage capacity control the EOM content in the shale layers. For the siltstone layers, the EOM content is mainly determined by the original storage capacity. On average, 75% of the EOM occurs in the mesopores, followed by 14% in the macropores, and 11% in the micropores. The EOM saturation in the pores decreases with the increase in pore diameter. The distribution of EOM in the shale pores is closely related to the pore type. Micropores and mesopores developed in the kerogens and pyrobitumens and the clay-mineral pores coated with organic matter are most favorable for EOM retention and charging. (shrink)
In ‘Measuring the Consequences of Rules’, Holly Smith presents two problems involving the indeterminacy of compliance, which she takes to be fatal for all forms of rule-utilitarianism. In this reply, I attempt to dispel both problems.
Digitized information and network have made an enormous impact on the music and movie industries. Internet piracy is popular and has greatly threatened the companies in these industries. This study tests Hunt-Vitell’s ethical decision model and attempts to understand why and how people share unauthorized music files with others in the peer-to-peer (P2P) network. The norm of anti-piracy, the ideology of free software, the norm of reciprocity, and the ideology of consumer rights are proposed as four deontological norms related to (...) using P2P systems. The model is tested using a scenario survey with four alternatives; the results indicate that the deontological norm of anti-piracy is not a main factor in affecting P2P users’ ethical considerations regarding sharing files with others. This finding suggests that to protect their property rights, record companies should try to realize the consumer benefits brought via new digital and network technology, instead of simply declaring their intellectual property and resisting the innovations resulting from new technologies. (shrink)
Consumers often intend to create a socially responsible identity by consuming ethically. Observers, however, do not limit their inferences to the specific identity consumers intend to project. To illustrate, we examine how observers make inferences about consumers on the basis of their ethical consumption. Across four studies we find that, in addition to being viewed as ethical, consumers are viewed as less masculine and more feminine when they consume ethical products. We also identify two boundary conditions to this effect, including (...) the use of self-benefit/other-benefit advertising appeals and the use of descriptive norms to establish gender appropriate behavior. We finally examine how consumers resolve the conflict of creating ethical and gender-congruent identities. We find that when male consumers are in the presence of observers of the opposite sex, they are more likely to prioritize ethical identity even when it threatens their gender orientation. (shrink)
Today, more corporations disclose information about their environmental performance in response to stakeholder demands of environmental responsibility and accountability. What information do corporations disclose on their websites? This paper investigates the environmental management policies and practices of the 200 largest corporations in the world. Based on a content analysis of the environmental reports of Fortune’s Global 200 companies, this research analyzes the content of corporate environmental disclosures with respect to the following seven areas: environmental planning considerations, top management support to (...) the institutionalization of environmental concerns, environmental structures and organizing specifics, environmental leadership activities, environmental control, external validations or certifications of environmental programs, and forms of corporate environmental disclosures. (shrink)
EDITOR’S ABSTRACTThis article gives an overview of Shang Yang portrayals in four stages: from Han Fei’s sympathetic yet balanced assessment, passing over a variety of conflicting Han views, skipping through “the two millennia of vilification” to Zhang Taiyan’s rediscovery of Shang Yang, and ending up at the Shang Yang fervor of the 1970s. Zeng shows how the figure of Shang Yang keeps popping up with a certain regularity, inciting conflicts about his legacy. He also argues that (...) at each flare of the debate, what was really at stake was not a mere assessment of the long gone Warring States-period Qin reformer, but of the then current policies that needed to be indirectly addressed. (shrink)
In the years since its introduction, Edward Said’s celebrated study Orientalism has acquired a near-paradigmatic status as a model of the relationships between Western and non-Western cultures. Said seeks to show how Western imperialist images of its colonial others—images that, of course, are inevitably and sharply at odds with the self-understanding of the indigenous non-Western cultures they purport to represent—not only govern the West’s hegemonic policies, but were imported into the West’s political and cultural colonies where they affected native points (...) of view and thus served as instruments of domination themselves. Said’s focus is on the Near East, but his critics and supporters alike have extended his model far beyond the confines of that part of the world. Despite the popularity of Said’s model, however, comparatists and sinologists have yet to make extensive use of it in their attempts to define China’s self-image or the nature of the Sino-Western social, cultural, and political relationships. Xiaomei Chen is assistant professor of Chinese and comparative literature at Ohio State University. She has recently completed a book on the politics of cross-cultural “misunderstanding” in modern China and the West, and is now working on a cultural study of post-Mao Chinese theater. (shrink)
The high-resolution regional division of mountainous area types has important scientific significance for promoting precise management of land space and regional sustainable development. At present, the classification method of mountainous area types is mainly at the county level and above, while classifications for towns and villages are nearly nonexistent, which poses a technical challenge for rural revitalization and the construction of ecological civilization in mountainous areas. We used Yuxi city, Yunnan Province, as the target area of this research, which (...) was based on GIS technology and Digital Elevation Model data and socioeconomic environmental monitoring data. The most appropriate statistical unit for topographic relief was defined, and the study area was divided into six mountain types: flatlands, hills, low mountains, medium-low mountains, midmountains, and subhigh mountains. Based on the township scale, an index system and classification method dominated by the plain comprehensive index were established to carry out mountain area classifications at township scales. The 75 towns of Yuxi city can be classified into 27 plain towns, 23 mountain-plain towns, and 25 mountain towns from an empirical application perspective, which can provide strong data support and a reference basis for studying the evolution characteristics of land use in different geographical spaces and their interrelationships as well as differentiated land space planning and governance. (shrink)
With the rapid development of technologies, online learning, especially email dialogue journaling, has been playing an increasingly important role in foreign language learning and teaching in recent years. While many studies have examined the effect of email learning on student learning performance, few have looked into students’ attitudes towards email application and its impact on their learning outcomes. Positive user attitudes have been considered critical factors that contribute to the subsequent and successful academic performance. By integrating email for the reading (...) learning process, this study developed an electronic‐based peer collaborative environment to explore students’ attitudes towards email application in reading classes. Specifically, the relationship between students’ self‐efficacy and their reading performance was examined. The results demonstrate that most students maintain positive attitudes towards the potential outcomes of email application on reading achievement. Furthermore, the feature of electronic discussion has a greater direct effect on the reading enhancement. Implications of certain designs of email tasks for an enhanced second language reading development are presented. (shrink)
Metaphysics is a repeated act by way of representation ; the instantaneous judgment is solidified, the inevitable conclusion is made, and at the same time other possibilities are excluded. Outside thinking is a blow to the spiritual tradition of metaphysics, which holds that representation will lead to a differential activity concerning the relationship between stranger things. Such relationship follows a kind of horizontal logic, the latter discards the presupposition on the origin of things, that is, it no longer presumes that (...) this point or that point has greater privilege than other points. Things do not develop from a central point. Rather, things are the result of innumerable points in cooperative relationships between strangers. These cooperative relationships are arbitrary. In horizontal logic, many starting points or spiritual T-points are used as substitutes for a unique origin. (shrink)
Urban road networks are typical complex systems, which are crucial to our society and economy. In this study, topological characteristics of a number of urban road networks purely based on physical roads rather than routes of vehicles or buses are investigated in order to discover underlying unique structural features, particularly compared to other types of transport networks. Based on these topological indices, correlations between topological indices and small-worldness of urban road networks are also explored. The finding shows that there is (...) no significant small-worldness for urban road networks, which is apparently different from other transport networks. Following this, community detection of urban road networks is conducted. The results reveal that communities and hierarchy of urban road networks tend to follow a general nature rule. (shrink)
For the lower Silurian Longmaxi marine shale reservoir in the Jiaoshiba area, Sichuan Basin, China, the traditional P-impedance is insensitive for predicting good reservoirs. As an integral indicator of borehole radioactivity that is substantially corresponding to the organic richness, the uranium curve is qualified to identify the abundance of organic matter. Therefore, to efficiently comprehend the shale distribution in the Jiaoshiba area, we have adopted a so-called pseudo-P-impedance, which is constructed from the P-impedance and the uranium log and spatially computed (...) from impedance inversion of the zero-offset seismic. The [Formula: see text] log shows an obvious correlation with the organic richness of the shale. The thickness of the high-quality shale derived from the inverted [Formula: see text] cube shows a higher correlation with the log data compared to the traditional P-impedance cube. The distribution of predicted high-quality shale is strongly influenced by the fault systems: Although the fault development zone might lead to a distorted image of the seismic and weak shale evaluation, the shale gas cannot be efficiently preserved in these places, and high-quality shale reservoirs are mainly distributed in the not-faulted area and show a general northeast–southwest trend. Generally, the introduced [Formula: see text] inversion is suitable for the seismic frequency range and could be applied to other similar exploration areas. (shrink)
A debunking argument contends that some target moral judgments were produced by unreliable processes and concludes that such judgments are unjustified. Debunking arguments face a regress challenge: to show that a process is unreliable at tracking the moral truth, we need to rely on other moral judgments. But we must show that these relied-upon judgments are also reliable, which requires yet a further set of judgments, whose reliability needs to be confirmed too, and so on. Some argue that the debunker (...) faces an insurmountable regress, which disables the debunking conclusion. In this paper, I explore and defuse this regress challenge. (shrink)
The growing prevalence of health care ethics consultation (HCEC) services in the U.S. has been accompanied by an increase in calls for accountability and quality assurance, and for the debates surrounding why and how HCEC is evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of HCEC as indicated by several novel outcome measurements in East Asian medical encounters.