Since Michael Polanyi coined the term “tacit knowledge” in 1958, a huge amount of literature has been produced on this topic. Gascoigne and Thornton’s monograph represents one of the most recent attempts to clarify the concept of tacit knowledge.For other recent publications on tacit knowledge see Collins , Yu and Turner . In their engagement with various thinkers, most notably Polanyi, Ryle, Heidegger, Wittgenstein, John Searle, Hubert Dreyfus, and John McDowell, etc., the authors make impressive efforts to situate the discussion (...) of tacit knowledge in the context of mainstream philosophy. They shed new light on the concept of tacit knowledge by embedding it in contemporary debates, such as those on knowing how, rule-following, conceptualism, language maste .. (shrink)
Influenced by later Wittgenstein’s philosophy, a group of Scandinavian philosophers, with K.S. Johannessen as the leading figure, make a unique contribution to the ongoing discussion of tacit knowledge. They differentiate the strong and the weak interpretations of tacit knowledge, and put their emphasis on the former. Based upon his practice-centered interpretation of later Wittgenstein’s philosophy, Johannessen makes much out of Wittgenstein’s notion of intransitive understanding to argue for the strong thesis of tacit knowledge and advocates a pragmatic turn in epistemology.
BackgroundFried physical frailty, with mobility frailty and non-motor frailty phenotypes, is a heterogeneous syndrome. The coexistence of the two phenotypes and cognitive impairment is referred to as cognitive frailty. It remains unknown whether frailty phenotype has a different association with hearing loss and tinnitus.MethodsOf the 5,328 community-dwelling older adults, 429 participants aged ≥58 years were enrolled in the study. The participants were divided into robust, mobility, and non-mobility frailty, mobility and non-mobility CF, and cognitive decline [subdivided into mild cognitive impairment (...) and pre-MCI] groups. The severity and presentations of HL and/or tinnitus were used as dependent variables in the multivariate logistic or nominal regression analyses with forward elimination adjusted for frailty phenotype stratifications and other covariates.ResultsPatients with physical frailty or who are robust were found to have lower probability of developing severe HL and tinnitus, and presented HL and/or tinnitus than those with only cognitive decline, or CF. Patients with RCF and non-mobility RCF had higher probability with less HL and tinnitus, and the presentation of HL and/or tinnitus than those with PRCF and mobility RCF. Other confounders, age, cognitive and social function, cardiovascular disease, depression, and body mass index, independently mediated the severity of HL and tinnitus, and presented HL and/or tinnitus.ConclusionFrailty phenotypes have divergent association with HL and tinnitus. Further research is required to understand the differential mechanisms and the personalized intervention of HL and tinnitus.Clinical Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT2017K020. (shrink)
With the rapid development of the network economy, it is a marketing strategy to provide an extended warranty service. Considering the differences in the EW service providers and dominant enterprises, this paper proposes four kinds of decision-making models and aims to study decisions of the electronic commerce supply chain, including EW price, sales price, and service level of e-platform. Through comparative analysis and numerical analysis, this research shows that, among four decision-making models, the highest system profit can be achieved when (...) the seller provides the EW service and the e-platform dominates the system. For electronic commerce supply chain enterprises, whether to dominate the system or to provide EW service, it is conducive to the increase of profits. When the e-platform provides the EW service, the conclusion is that who dominates the system is the one who gets more profit. However, when the seller provides the EW service, the conclusion is that who dominates the system is the one who gets less profit. When the EW service is offered by the dominating enterprise, service levels of the e-platform are lower. (shrink)
Due to huge amount of greenhouse gases emission, freight has been adversely affecting the global environment in facilitating the global economy. Therefore, green vehicle routing problem, aiming to minimize the total carbon emissions in the transportation, has become a hot issue. In this paper, an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm is proposed to solve large-scale instances of GVRP. The core of ALNS algorithm is destroy operators and repair operators. In the destroy operators, a new removal heuristic applying to the characteristics (...) of GVRP is proposed. The heuristic can quickly remove customers who bring a large amount of carbon emissions with pertinence, and these customers may be arranged more properly in future repair operators. In the repair operators, a fast insertion method is developed. In the fast insertion method, the feasibility of a new route is judged by checking the constraints of partial customers after the inserted customer, instead of checking the constraints of all customers. Thus, the computational time of the ALNS algorithm is greatly saved. Computational experiments were performed on Solomon benchmark with 100 customers and Homberger benchmark instances with up to 1000 customers. Given the same computational time, the proposed ALNS improves the average accuracy by 8.49% compared with the classic ALNS. In the optimal situation, the improvement can achieve 33.61%. (shrink)
In her elaboration of the distinction between connected knowing and separate knowing, Professor Clinchy addresses some conceptual relations that are central to Polanyi’s epistemology. I believe Polanyi would be happy to see the strong echoes ofhis thoughts in feminist epistemology, and the feminists will find substantial support from Polanyi’s philosophy.
In recent years, the path planning of robot has been a hot research direction, and multirobot formation has practical application prospect in our life. This article proposes a hybrid path planning algorithm applied to robot formation. The improved Rapidly Exploring Random Trees algorithm PQ-RRT ∗ with new distance evaluation function is used as a global planning algorithm to generate the initial global path. The determined parent nodes and child nodes are used as the starting points and target points of the (...) local planning algorithm, respectively. The dynamic window approach is used as the local planning algorithm to avoid dynamic obstacles. At the same time, the algorithm restricts the movement of robots inside the formation to avoid internal collisions. The local optimal path is selected by the evaluation function containing the possibility of formation collision. Therefore, multiple mobile robots can quickly and safely reach the global target point in a complex environment with dynamic and static obstacles through the hybrid path planning algorithm. Numerical simulations are given to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed hybrid path planning algorithm. (shrink)
In his post-critical philosophy, Polanyi challenges the intellectual trend in modern western philosophy which exalted critical reason and denigrated the uncritical elements of knowing, such as belief, tradion and authority. In this paper, the author focuses on Polanyi’s thoughts on tradition, authority and originality in a post-critical perspective. On the one hand, Polanyi, against modern critical philosophy, fulluy acknowledges the important role played by tradition and authority in science, on the other hand, he also tries to show the tension and (...) the deep unity between tradition, authority and originality. (shrink)
Independent narration in Chinese philosophy has gone through the process of interpretation, critical differentiation, dialogue, and original thought, and so is a creative activity that surpasses the conjunctive pattern of universality and particularity. In modern Confucian studies, there has always been a tension between philosophical and historical explanations, which suggests a tension between ecumenical and indigenous experiences. Critical differentiation itself only has methodological significance, and is not a goal in itself. China’s development and strength has encouraged China to engage in (...) philosophical dialogue with the West. It is the task and direction of future philosophical creativity to face the contemporary existence, re-construct Confucianism’s relationship with modern life, and respond in a metaphysical and positive manner to the challenges imposed by modernity. (shrink)
From the perspective of world philosophy, one phenomenon of the 20th century is quite intriguing. Certain philosophers in China as well as in the West, finding the traditional conception of epistemology too narrow-minded, argued that its scope should be expanded. The Chinese way of expanding epistemology might be called the metaphysical approach, and the Western way the practical approach. In this article, I will first give an outline of both approaches and then try to demonstrate that a substantial dialogue can (...) be created between them. By focusing on the problem of the articulation of what we know, I will make the metaphysical approach and the practical approach engage each other and thus prove to be mutually complementary. (shrink)
In this study, we tested a possible mechanism of the association between math anxiety and math achievement: the mediating role of math-specific grit. In Study 1, a sample of 10th grade students completed a battery of personality and attitude questionnaires, and math achievement was indexed by curriculum-based examination scores. Mediation analyses indicated that math-specific grit, but not domain-general grit, mediated the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. In Study 2, we replicated and extended the above findings with another sample (...) of 11th grade students. Mediation analyses indicated that math-specific grit and math-specific procrastination played sequential mediating roles in the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. That is, individuals with higher math anxiety were less gritty in math learning, possibly further leading them to be more procrastinated in performing math work, which may finally result in worse math achievement. In summary, the current study provides the first evidence that math-specific grit may mediate the relationship between math anxiety and math achievement. Furthermore, it also demonstrated the value of math-specific grit over domain-general grit in predicting math success, which invites a broader investigation on subject-specific grit. (shrink)
Knowledge graphs entity typing aims to predict the potential types to an entity, that is,. Recently, several embedding models are proposed for KG entity types prediction according to the existing typing information of the tuples in KGs. However, most of them unreasonably assume that all existing entity typing instances in KGs are completely correct, which ignore the nonnegligible entity type noises and may lead to potential errors for the downstream tasks. To address this problem, we propose ConfE, a novel confidence-aware (...) embedding approach for modeling the tuples, which takes tuple confidence into consideration for learning better embeddings. Specifically, we learn the embeddings of entities and entity types in separate entity space and entity type space since they are different objects in KGs. We utilize an asymmetric matrix to specify the interaction of their embeddings and incorporate the tuple confidence as well. To make the tuple confidence more universal, we consider only the internal structural information in existing KGs. We evaluate our model on two tasks, including entity type noise detection and entity type prediction. The extensive experimental results in two public benchmark datasets demonstrate that our proposed model outperforms all baselines on all tasks, which verify the effectiveness of ConfE in learning better embeddings on noisy KGs. The source code and data of this work can be obtained from https://github.com/swufenlp/ConfE. (shrink)