Summary In the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries the Polish geoscientist, philosopher, and statesman Stanis?aw Staszic (1755?1826) conducted an extensive geological survey of Poland and adjacent areas. In 1815, he completed a book (in Polish), On the geology of the Carpathians and other mountains and lowlands of Poland, complemented by a well-made geological map of Central and Eastern Europe. Early in the nineteenth century, Staszic refined the idea of ?geological mapping?, though initially he was interested in the exploration of (...) mineral deposits, rock salt, copper and iron ores, and coal. Unlike his predecessors, his book adopted a temporal subdivision of rocks, using a somewhat modified version of Abraham Gottlob Werner's system. He delineated the surface distribution of five rock units and coloured them onto his map. His work gave expression to his view of geological history, and brought the ?Enlightenment Period? of geology in Central and Eastern Europe to a close. (shrink)
In this study of Robert Boyle's epistemology, Jan W. Wojcik reveals the theological context within which Boyle developed his views on reason's limits. After arguing that a correct interpretation of his views on 'things above reason' depends upon reading his works in the context of theological controversies in seventeenth-century England, Professor Wojcik details exactly how Boyle's three specific categories of things which transcend reason - the incomprehensible, the inexplicable, and the unsociable - affected his conception of what a natural philosopher (...) could hope to know. Also covered in detail is Boyle's belief that God had deliberately limited the human intellect in order to reserve a full knowledge of both theology and natural philosophy for the afterlife. (shrink)
Jan W. Wojcik - The Works of Robert Boyle - Journal of the History of Philosophy 40:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 40.4 543-545 Book Review The Works of Robert Boyle Robert Boyle. The Works of Robert Boyle. 14 vols. Edited by Michael Hunter and Edward B. Davis. London: Pickering & Chatto, 1999, 2000. Cloth, $1,950. This is the first edition of Boyle's oeuvre since that of Thomas Birch , and is the first scholarly edition ever. It is a (...) masterful achievement by Michael Hunter and Ted Davis, informed as it is by a total of approximately forty years of experience with the Boyle archive housed at the Royal Society of London. What began in 1980 as an attempt to catalogue the archive has led to this new, and most welcome, edition—one that includes not only Boyle's published work, but also two volumes of previously unpublished archival material. Despite its many defects, Birch's 1772 edition, in its reprint of edition of 1965 , has been popular with scholars living far from access to large collections of seventeenth-century works. The first thing to note about this new edition is that the editors have repaired the defects in Birch's edition. In selecting.. (shrink)
In this paper, we present a new questionnaire for the assessment of self-control as an individual trait. We describe the process of construction of this assessment tool. We also report the results of relevant validation studies. The questionnaire has two independent versions, one based on self-reports and another one based on other-reports. The first version consists of five subscales, called Initiative and Persistence, Proactive Control, Switching and Flexibility, Inhibition and Adjournment, and Goal Maintenance. Seven samples of participants took part in (...) the validation study. The second version has not been split into subscales. Both versions obtained satisfactory indices of internal consistency, assessed with Cronbach’s alpha. The NAS-50 and NAS-40 scores were highly correlated with other measures of self-control, including Tangney, Baumeister, and Boone’s self-control scale. They also proved to be entirely independent of general intelligence. In conclusion, both versions can be regarded reliable and valid enough, and therefore suitable for the assessment of trait self-control for research purposes. (shrink)
The dynamic epistemic logic for actual knowledge models the phenomenon of actual knowledge change when new information is received. In contrast to the systems of dynamic epistemic logic which have been discussed in the past literature, our system is not burdened with the problem of logical omniscience, that is, an idealized assumption that the agent explicitly knows all classical tautologies and all logical consequences of his or her knowledge. We provide a sound and complete axiomatization for this logic.
In this paper we undertake an analysis of the knowability paradox in the light of modal epistemic logics and of the phenomena of unsuccessful updates. The knowability paradox stems from the Church-Fitch observation that the plausible knowability principle, according to which all truths are knowable, yields the unacceptable conclusion that all truths are known. We show that the phenomenon of an unsuccessful update is the reason for the paradox arising. Based on this diagnosis, we propose a restriction on the knowability (...) principle which resolves the paradox. (shrink)
L'article examine les spécificités des forums de discussion proposés par les municipalités françaises au regard de quelques-unes des interrogations animant les réflexions sur la délibération. Le forum apparaît comme un lieu conflictuel où l'expression relève davantage du registre de l'émotionnel que de la seule argumentation rationnelle. Ce caractère polémique des échanges n'est pas cependant exempt du souci de l'intérêt général, les internautes tentent ainsi de monter en généralité à partir de leurs revendications personnelles. Les inégalités de compétence entre participants ne (...) disparaissent pas lors des échanges électroniques, notamment en raison d'une maîtrise différenciée de l'écriture, mais la prédominance discursive de l'institution municipale, qui accompagne habituellement les débats publics, est largement érodée. L'influence du forum dans l'espace public local se manifeste indirectement, à travers son instrumentalisation dans le cadre d'actions collectives. (shrink)
Fourth-year medical students at the University of Colorado School of Medicine distributed cards to patients in the emergency department asking, "What Worries You Most?" The patients' responses provided insight about their most pressing concerns, often unrelated to their "chief complaints.".
Reclamation work denotes the process of uncovering the lost contributions of women to the philosophy of education, analyzing their works, making them accessible to a larger audience, and (re)introducing them to the historical record and canon. Since the 1970s, scholars have been engaged in the reclamation work, thus making available to students, professors, and researchers a rich and varied perspective for tracing the evolution of educational thought. This article shares the responses of undergraduate and graduate students to discussing the reclamation (...) work and canonical formation in their Philosophy of Education course. Two of the benefits most commonly cited by students involve learning a fuller, more accurate picture of history and ameliorating contemporary gender inequity. We assert that the traditional canon and syllabi for Philosophy of Education and Social Foundation courses could be enriched through the inclusion of works that trace the tradition of women's intellectual thought. (shrink)
Bright-spot amplitude anomalies have been an attractive exploration target in the Niger Delta since the early 1970s, and the bright-spot play can now be considered mature. There is a need to extend the bright-spot exploration success to include other types of direct hydrocarbon indicators such as dim spots or polarity reversals. Several true dim spots have been identified in the basin, calibrated with well data and characterized in detail to enable a systematic analysis of the geologic factors that produce the (...) dim-spot response. Dim spots in deeper stratigraphic intervals reflect a high degree of compaction and quartz cementation and are characterized by minimal fluid signal and commonly very low detectability. Robust and detectable dim spots have been identified in shallow marine/deltaic systems in the Niger Delta in shallower stratigraphic intervals with a relatively strong fluid signal. The key factor promoting a robust dim-spot response is the presence of acoustically soft, clay-rich shales as the bounding lithology. The variability of the bounding shales in the Niger Delta is stratigraphically constrained and, to some degree, predictable. The change from hard mudstones to soft claystones, which can be recognized in seismic data, may result in a transition from bright to dim spots, possibly taking place within the same stratigraphic interval and over short distances. Many clastic basins globally follow a similar stratigraphic and diagenetic evolution; thus, the Niger Delta example may be a good analog for dim-spot plays elsewhere. (shrink)