Results for 'Zelman Cowen'

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  1.  8
    A View From the Clapham Omnibus.Zelman Cowen - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):108-112.
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  2.  3
    A View From the Clapham Omnibus.Honorable Sir Zelman Cowen - 1986 - Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 14 (3-4):108-112.
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  3. Reflections on Medicine, Biotechnology, and the Law.Zelman Cowen - 1985 - the University of Nebraska Press.
  4. Law as a Public Good: The Economics of Anarchy: Tyler Cowen.Tyler Cowen - 1992 - Economics and Philosophy 8 (2):249-267.
    Various writers in the Western liberal and libertarian tradition have challenged the argument that enforcement of law and protection of property rights are public goods that must be provided by governments. Many of these writers argue explicitly for the provision of law enforcement services through private market relations.
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  5.  66
    Are You Morally Modified?: The Moral Effects of Widely Used Pharmaceuticals.Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):111-125.
    A number of concerns have been raised about the possible future use of pharmaceuticals designed to enhance cognitive, affective, and motivational processes, particularly where the aim is to produce morally better decisions or behavior. In this article, we draw attention to what is arguably a more worrying possibility: that pharmaceuticals currently in widespread therapeutic use are already having unintended effects on these processes, and thus on moral decision making and morally significant behavior. We review current evidence on the moral effects (...)
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  6.  58
    The Mirage of Mark-to-Market: Distributive Justice and Alternatives to Capital Taxation.Charles Delmotte & Nick Cowen - forthcoming - Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-24.
    Substantially increased wealth inequality across the developed world has prompted many philosophers, economists and legal theorists to support comprehensive taxes on all forms of wealth. Proposals include levying taxes on the basis of total wealth, or alternatively the change in the value of capital holdings measured from year-to-year. This contrasts with most existing policies that tax capital assets at the point they are transferred from one beneficiary to another through sale or gifts. Are these tax reforms likely to meet their (...)
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  7.  81
    Mill’s Radical End of Laissez-Faire: A Review Essay of the Political Economy of Progress: John Stuart Mill and Modern Radicalism. [REVIEW]Nick Cowen - 2018 - The Review of Austrian Economics 31:373–386.
    Can John Stuart Mill’s radicalism achieve liberal egalitarian ends? Joseph Persky’s The Political Economy of Progress is a provocative and compelling discussion of Mill’s economic thought. It is also a defense of radical political economy. Providing valuable historical context, Persky traces Mill’s intellectual journey as an outspoken proponent of laissez-faire to a cautious supporter of co-operative socialism. I propose two problems with Persky’s optimistic take on radical social reform. First, demands for substantive equality have led past radicals to endorse exclusionary (...)
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  8.  41
    Beta Adrenergic Blockade Reduces Utilitarian Judgement.Sylvia Terbeck, Guy Kahane, Sarah McTavish, Julian Savulescu, Neil Levy, Miles Hewstone & Philip Cowen - 2013 - Biological Psychology 92 (2):323-328.
    Noradrenergic pathways are involved in mediating the central and peripheral effects of physiological arousal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of noradrenergic transmission in moral decision-making. We studied the effects in healthy volunteers of propranolol (a noradrenergic beta-adrenoceptor antagonist) on moral judgement in a set of moral dilemmas pitting utilitarian outcomes (e.g., saving five lives) against highly aversive harmful actions (e.g., killing an innocent person) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group design. Propranolol (40 mg orally) (...)
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  9. Policing Nature.Tyler Cowen - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (2):169-182.
    Utility, rights, and holistic standards all point toward some modest steps to limit or check the predatory activity of carnivores relative to their victims. At the very least, we should limit current subsidies to nature’s carnivores. Policing nature need not be absurdly costly or violate common-sense intuitions.
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  10. Randomized Controlled Trials: How Can We Know “What Works”?Nick Cowen, Baljinder Virk, Stella Mascarenhas-Keyes & Nancy Cartwright - 2017 - Critical Review 29 (3):265-292.
    ABSTRACT“Evidence-based” methods, which most prominently include randomized controlled trials, have gained increasing purchase as the “gold standard” for assessing the effect of public policies. But the enthusiasm for evidence-based research overlooks questions about the reliability and applicability of experimental findings to diverse real-world settings. Perhaps surprisingly, a qualitative study of British educators suggests that they are aware of these limitations and therefore take evidence-based findings with a much larger grain of salt than do policy makers. Their experience suggests that the (...)
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  11. Introduction: Symposium on Robust Political Economy.Nick Cowen - 2016 - Critical Review 28 (3-4):420-439.
    Mark Pennington’s Robust Political Economy is a systematic exposition of a framework for analyzing institutional performance. The Robust Political Economy framework evaluates institutions according to their ability to solve knowledge and incentive problems. On grounds of robustness, Pennington combines insights from Austrian market-process theory and public-choice theory to defend classical liberalism from several compelling critiques. These include theories of market failure in economics; communitarian, deliberative-democratic, and liberal-egalitarian theories of justice; and concerns with social capital, domestic and international poverty, and ecology.
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  12. Millian Liberalism and Extreme Pornography.Nick Cowen - 2016 - American Journal of Political Science 60 (2):509-520.
    How sexuality should be regulated in a liberal political community is an important, controversial theoretical and empirical question—as shown by the recent criminalization of possession of some adult pornography in the United Kingdom. Supporters of criminalization argue that Mill, often considered a staunch opponent of censorship, would support prohibition due to his feminist commitments. I argue that this account underestimates the strengths of the Millian account of private conduct and free expression, and the consistency of Millian anticensorship with feminist values. (...)
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  13.  54
    Disease, Normality, and Current Pharmacological Moral Modification.Neil Levy, Thomas Douglas, Guy Kahane, Sylvia Terbeck, Philip J. Cowen, Miles Hewstone & Julian Savulescu - 2014 - Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 21 (2):135-137.
  14.  81
    Are Disagreements Honest.Tyler Cowen & Robin Hanson - forthcoming - Journal of Economic Methodology.
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  15. The Epistemic Problem Does Not Refute Consequentialism.Tyler Cowen - 2006 - Utilitas 18 (4):383.
    “Perhaps the most common objection to consequentialism is this: it is impossible to know the future…This means that you will never be absolutely certain as to what all the consequences of your act will be…there may be long term bad effects from your act, side effects that were unforeseen and indeed unforeseeable…So how can we tell which act will lead to the best results overall – counting all the results? This seems to mean that consequentialism will be unusable as a (...)
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  16.  92
    What Do We Learn From the Repugnant Conclusion?Tyler Cowen - 1996 - Ethics 106 (4):754-775.
    In a series of articles on population theory, culminating in his 1984 b00k Reasons and Persons, Dcrck Pariit presented dilemmas for utilitarian and conscqucntialist moral theories.] ParHt’s work has led to rcncwcd interest in thc theory of optimal population. More generally, Pariit is searching for a general theory of bcncHcencc—"Theory X"——that also will covcr population comparisons. Theory X corresponds to Kenneth Arrow’s notion of a social welfare function—both attempt t0 provide 21 generic formula or algorithm for ranking social outcomes on (...)
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  17.  43
    The Importance of Defining the Feasible Set.Tyler Cowen - 2007 - Economics and Philosophy 23 (1):1-14.
    How should we define the feasible set? Even when individuals agree on facts and values, as traditionally construed, different views on feasibility may suffice to produce very different policy conclusions. Focusing on the difficulties in the feasibility concept may help us resolve some policy disagreements, or at least identify the sources of those disagreements. Feasibility is most plausibly a matter of degree rather than of kind. Normative economic reasoning therefore faces a fuzzy social budget constraint. Iterative reasoning about feasibility and (...)
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  18.  9
    Street-Level Theories of Change: Adapting the Medical Model of Evidence-Based Practice for Policing.Nick Cowen & Nancy Cartwright - 2019 - In Nigel Fielding, Karen Bullock & Simon Holdaway (eds.), Critical Reflections on Evidence-Based Policing. London: Routledge. pp. 52-71.
    Evidence-based medicine, with its evidence hierarchies and emphasis on RCTs, meta-analyses and systematic reviews, sets the model for evidence-based policy almost everywhere, policing no exception. But how closely should policing follow this model? We argue that RCTs can tell you little about what you need to know for real-world practice: will this policy work where and when you implement it? Defending that it will do so takes good theory. For RCTs to play a role in theory development, they must be (...)
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  19. Resolving the Repugnant Conclusion.Tyler Cowen - unknown
    The Repugnant Conclusion is closer to infinity-based arguments, such as Pascal’s Wager, than it at first appears. Both rely on an unbounded set of payoff comparisons. It is possible to restructure Pascal’s Wager to resemble the Repugnant Conclusion more closely, as the use of infinity is not central to the former. I then consider settings in which the set of comparisons is bounded, so as to differentiate Parfit’s problem from the more general issues involved with very large numbers. We then (...)
     
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  20.  10
    Policing Nature.Tyler Cowen - 2003 - Environmental Ethics 25 (2):169-182.
    Utility, rights, and holistic standards all point toward some modest steps to limit or check the predatory activity of carnivores relative to their victims. At the very least, we should limit current subsidies to nature’s carnivores. Policing nature need not be absurdly costly or violate common-sense intuitions.
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  21.  43
    Self-Constraint Versus Self-Liberation.Tyler Cowen - 1991 - Ethics 101 (2):360-373.
  22.  44
    The Scope and Limits of Preference Sovereignty.Tyler Cowen - 1993 - Economics and Philosophy 9 (2):253.
    Economists use tastes as a source of information about personal welfare and judge the effects of policies upon preference satisfaction; neoclassical welfare economics is the analytical embodiment of this preference sovereignty norm. For an initial distribution of wealth, the welfare-maximizing outcome is the one that exhausts all possible gains from trade. Gains from trade are defined relative to fixed ordinal preferences. This analytical apparatus consists of both the Pareto principle, which implies that externality-free voluntary trades increase welfare, and applied costbenefit (...)
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  23. Creative Destruction.Tyler Cowen - unknown
    On one thing the whole world seems to agree: Globalization is homogenizing cultures. At least, a lot of countries are acting as if that’s the case. In the name of containing what the Canadian novelist Margaret Atwood calls “the Great Star-Spangled Them,” the Canadian government subsidizes the nation’s film industry and requires radio stations to devote a percentage of their airtime to home-grown music, carving out extra airplay for stars such as Celine Dion and Barenaked Ladies. Ottawa also discouraged Borders, (...)
     
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  24.  9
    Autistics Appear Different, but Also Are Different, and This Should Be Valued.Michelle Dawson & Tyler Cowen - 2019 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 42.
    We agree that autistics’ unusual overt behaviors don't necessarily mean reduced social motivation. But Jaswal & Akhtar maintain that, while autistics may appear socially uninterested, their social interest is in fact typical and indeed must be to avoid multiple poor outcomes. This problematic idealization of social typicality deflects attention from important differences in autistic cognition and interests, which should be valued.
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  25. What Does the Turing Test Really Mean? And How Many Human Beings (Including Turing) Could Pass?Tyler Cowen & Michelle Dawson - unknown
    The so-called Turing test, as it is usually interpreted, sets a benchmark standard for determining when we might call a machine intelligent. We can call a machine intelligent if the following is satisfied: if a group of wise observers were conversing with a machine through an exchange of typed messages, those observers could not tell whether they were talking to a human being or to a machine. To pass the test, the machine has to be intelligent but it also should (...)
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  26.  47
    Book ReviewsJohn E. Roemer, Equality of Opportunity.Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1998. Pp. 120. $18.95.Tyler Cowen - 2002 - Ethics 112 (3):637-639.
  27.  20
    I Want to Help You, but I Am Not Sure Why: Gaze-Cuing Induces Altruistic Giving.Robert D. Rogers, Andrew P. Bayliss, Anna Szepietowska, Laura Dale, Lydia Reeder, Gloria Pizzamiglio, Karolina Czarna, Judi Wakeley, Phillip J. Cowen & Steven P. Tipper - 2014 - Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 143 (2):763-777.
  28. Does the Welfare State Help the Poor?Tyler Cowen - 2002 - Social Philosophy and Policy 19 (1):36-54.
    Does the welfare state help the poor? This surprisingly simple question often generates more heat than light. By the welfare state, I mean transfer programs aimed at helping the poor through the direct redistribution of income. Defenders of the welfare state often assume that the poor benefit from it, while critics suggest that the losses outweigh the gains. The most notable of such criticisms is Charles Murray's Losing Ground, which suggests that the welfare state has failed to achieve its stated (...)
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  29.  25
    Risk and Business Cycles: Reply to Rosser.Tyler Cowen - 2000 - Critical Review 14 (1):89-94.
    Abstract Rosser's thoughtful and careful review of my book on business cycles reflects a different methodological stance than my own. I believe that economic theory and macroeconomics cannot escape using the concept of risk, even though, as Rosser points out, risk is not a simple unidimensional magnitude in many circumstances. I view the rational expectations assumption as a useful way of presenting a theory, rather than as a descriptive account of real?world expectations.
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  30. *What Price Fame?Tyler Cowen - unknown
    "Every man, however hopeless his pretensions may appear, has some project by which he hopes to rise to reputation; some art by which he imagines that the attention of the world will be attracted; some quality, good or bad, which discriminates him from the common herd of mortals, and by which others may be persuaded to love, or compelled to fear him." - Samuel Johnson.
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  31. Self-Deception as the Root of Political Failure.Tyler Cowen - unknown
    I consider models of political failure based on self-deception. Individuals discard free information when that information damages their self-image and thus lowers their utility. More specifically, individuals prefer to feel good about their previously chosen affiliations and shape their worldviews accordingly. This model helps explain the relative robustness of political failure in light of extensive free information, and it helps to explain the rarity of truth-seeking behavior in political debate. The comparative statics predictions differ from models of either Downsian or (...)
     
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  32.  85
    Rejoinder to David Friedman on the Economics of Anarchy.Tyler Cowen - 1994 - Economics and Philosophy 10 (2):329.
    The received wisdom once stated that anarcho-capitalism would collapse into Hobbes’s state of nature, with life nasty, short, and brutish. The problem of competing governments is the problem of externality par excellence. But David Friedman, among others, has argued persuasively that privately financed arbitration agencies can overcome the basic externalities problems behind social order.
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  33.  90
    Rule Consequentialism Makes Sense After All.Tyler Cowen - 2011 - Social Philosophy and Policy 28 (2):212-231.
    It is commonly claimed that rule consequentialism collapses into act consequentialism, because sometimes there are benefits from breaking the rules. I suggest this argument is less powerful than has been believed. The argument requires a commitment to a very particular account of feasibility and constraints. It requires the presupposition that thinking of rules as the relevant constraint is incorrect. Supposedly we should look at a smaller unit of choice—the single act—as the relevant choice variable. But once we see feasibility as (...)
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  34.  23
    Clarifying the Conceptualization, Dimensionality, and Structure of Emotion: Response to Barrett and Colleagues.Alan S. Cowen & Dacher Keltner - 2018 - Trends in Cognitive Sciences 22 (4):274-276.
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  35.  5
    Two Hypergraph Theorems Equivalent to ${\Rm BPI}$.Robert H. Cowen - 1990 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (2):232-240.
  36.  46
    Time, Bounded Utility, and the St. Petersburg Paradox.Tyler Cowen & Jack High - 1988 - Theory and Decision 25 (3):219-223.
  37.  46
    Review Essay: The Economy of Esteem.Tyler Cowen - 2005 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (3):374-382.
    Geoffrey Brennan and Philip Pettit have produced a major work on the economics of esteem, entitled The Economy of Esteem . 1 They show that much of social order depends on our desire to have our fellow man think well of us. This review also considers some extensions of their basic arguments and the conditions under which those arguments hold. Key Words: economics • esteem • fame • rationality.
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  38.  23
    Discounting and Restitution.Tyler Cowen - 1997 - Philosophy and Public Affairs 26 (2):168-185.
  39. What is the Correct Intergenerational Discount Rate?Tyler Cowen - unknown
    The social discount rate typically consists of two components: differences in the marginal utility of consumption across time, and the pure time preference rate as applied to cardinal utility. Within this framework, intragenerational and intergenerational time preference rates must be the same, if we are to avoid strongly counterintuitive results. Both rates, however, can be plausibly equal at zero rather than at a positive level; pure time preference should not necessarily be applied to cardinal utility, even when we apply it (...)
     
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  40.  6
    Two Hypergrαph Theorems Equivalent toBPI.Robert H. Cowen - 1990 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 31 (2):232-240.
  41.  78
    The Public Goods Rationale for Government and the Circularity Problem.Tyler Cowen & Gregory Kavka - 2003 - Politics, Philosophy and Economics 2 (2):265-277.
    George Mason University, USA It has been suggested that the production of public goods through a government involves a circularity problem. Since government itself is a public good, how can we use government to produce other public goods? Several solutions to this supposed circularity are offered. Government is a unique kind of public good with some potentially self-generating and self-supporting features. The public goods theory of government remains intact, and this enterprise helps shed some light on the special features of (...)
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  42.  15
    Vulnerability to Depression is Associated with a Failure to Acquire Implicit Social Appraisals.Andrew P. Bayliss, Steven P. Tipper, Judi Wakeley, Phillip J. Cowen & Robert D. Rogers - 2017 - Cognition and Emotion 31 (4):825-833.
  43.  26
    2-CNFS and Logical Embeddings.Robert Cowen - 2009 - Studia Logica 93 (1):15-19.
    The expressive power of 2-cnfs, conjunctive normal forms with two literals per clause, is shown to be severely limited compared to 3-cnfs.
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  44.  31
    National Soldiers and the War on Cities.Deborah Cowen - 2007 - Theory and Event 10 (2).
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  45.  10
    Generalizing König's Infinity Lemma.Robert H. Cowen - 1977 - Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 18 (2):243-247.
  46.  14
    A Compactness Theorem for Linear Equations.Robert Cowen & William Emerson - 1996 - Studia Logica 57 (2-3):355 - 357.
    It is proved that a system of linear equations over an arbitrary field has a solution if every finite subsystem has a solution provided that the set of variables can be well ordered.
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  47.  18
    Why Keynesianism Triumphed or, Could so Many Keynesians Have Been Wrong?Tyler Cowen - 1989 - Critical Review 3 (3-4):518-530.
    Defenders of laissez?faire have not successfully explained the historical experience of the Great Depression. Unemployment was widespread and persistent and cannot be ascribed to government intervention. Legal restrictions offer at best a partial explanation of why real wages did not fall. The Keynesian world view is also supported by experience with investment and equity market volatility, the conversion of Lionel Robbins, the wartime recovery, and the success of postwar macroeconomic performance. Some concluding remarks address how the case for laissez?faire might (...)
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  48.  10
    Can Keynesianism Explain the 1930s? Rejoinder to Smiley.Tyler Cowen - 1991 - Critical Review 5 (1):115-120.
  49.  20
    Elementary Equivalence and Constructible Models of Zermelo-Fraenkel Set Theory.R. H. Cowen - 1976 - Zeitschrift fur mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 22 (1):333-338.
  50.  16
    Book Reviews Section 2.Robert Cowen, Sean D. Healy, Edgar B. Gumbert, Geoffrey M. Ibim, Fannie R. Cooley, Stuart J. Cohen, Maurice F. Freehill, Evan R. Powell, Virginia K. Wiegand, Geraldine Johncich Clifford, Charles E. Mcclelland, George C. Stone, Glenn C. Atkyns, Barbara Finkelstein, Gene P. Agre, Harrison Jr & William G. Williams - 1973 - Educational Studies 4 (4):210-221.
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