ZhangJunmai (Carsun Chang, 1877-1969) ZhangJunmai (Chang Chun-mai, 1877-1969), also known as Carsun Chang, was an important twentieth-century Chinese thinker and a representative of modern Chinese philosophy. Zhang’s participation in “The Debate between Metaphysicians and Scientists” of 1923, in which he defended his Neo-Confucian views against those of Chinese progressives and scientists, made a […].
During the 1940s, ZhangJunmai was a leader of the China Democratic Socialist Party and an important figure of the socalled third force in the struggle between the Chinese Communist Party and the GMD. Zhang kept himself informed about discussions on human rights in the West and the work in progress in the United Nations on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. During the 1940s, Zhang discussed human rights in the magazines Zaisheng and Minxian. He introduced (...) and translated discussions on human rights in the West, such as the declaration of human rights adopted by the French organization Ligue des Droits de l'homme in 1936, and a human rights manifesto written by H.G. Wells in 1939. Both these declarations were fairly radical in nature and called for economic rights, including the right to subsistence. (shrink)
About 60 years ago, Tang Junyi 唐君毅, Mou Zongsan 牟宗三, Xu Fuguan 徐復觀, and ZhangJunmai 張君勱 published “A Manifesto for a Reappraisal of Sinology and Reconstruction of Chinese Culture.” In the Manifesto, these major representatives of contemporary New Confucianism tried to rectify Westerners’ biases and reestablish Chinese people’s cultural confidence by upholding the Confucian learning of the heart-mind as the core of Chinese culture. Following the same approach, some prominent scholars today continue the effort of bringing Confucianism (...) to a new epoch through reappropriating metaphysical theories of the heart-mind and human nature of the Zisi 子思–Mencius lineage, which flourished in the Song-Ming 宋明 period. This article critically reflects on this approach and argues that the Confucian learning of the heart-mind and human nature should not be taken so much as a mirror that reflects metaphysical reality than as a lever that directs and uplifts human vision and gongfu 功夫/工夫. In the cultural context today, revealing the gongfu nature of Confucianism can help us appreciate the real value of Confucianism as a constructive resource for global culture. (shrink)
Kenneth Kai-chung Yung’s Chinese Émigré Intellectuals and Their Quest for Liberal Values in the Cold War presents the philosophical and political development of Chinese intellectuals who fled the mainland after the Communist takeover in 1949. Focusing on Yin Haiguang 殷海光, ZhangJunmai 張君勱, and Xu Fuguan 徐復觀, the author provides a comparative account and comprehensive overview of the many facets of intellectual discourse among Chinese post-war philosophers and public intellectuals.Yung’s book is structured into five chapters. While the first (...) two chapters introduce the reader to the general trends and historical circumstances of the post-war intellectual sphere, the ensuing chapters... (shrink)
In 1941, Zhou Jingwen launched a human rights movement in the magazine Shidai piping. Zhou was motivated both by concerns about the human rights violations committed by the Guomindang and by a belief that the protection of human rights would enable people to make greater contributions to the war effort. As ZhangJunmai would be, Zhou was inspired by H.G. Wells's work to draft a new human rights declaration that could serve as an inspiration during World War II (...) and as a manifesto for a future peaceful world. Zhou also attempted to relate the 1941 human rights movement to the May Fourth movement of 1919, in that he intended his human rights movement to awaken and liberate the Chinese. Positive reactions from readers prompted Zhou to publish a special issue on human rights, and some of the articles were also reprinted in book form. Zhou chose to remain on the mainland after 1949, and was severely criticized during the "three-anti" and "five-anti" campaigns in the early 1950s. He fled to Hong Kong in 1957 and there revived Shidai piping. (shrink)
On January 1, 1958, in the journal Democratic Critique, ZhangJunmai, Mou Zongsan, Tang Junyi, and Xu Fuguan published the "Manifesto on Chinese Culture for the World: Our Common Understanding of Chinese Scholarship Research and of the Future of Chinese Culture and World Culture."1 This manifesto is commonly seen as the founding statement of the New Confucianism movement. Section 2 of the manifesto, "Three Motives, Approaches, and their Shortcomings in the Study of Chinese Culture in World Scholarship," claimed (...) that Chinese culture had not been understood by three kinds of people who had approached it, namely, Christian missionaries, sinologists, and students of present world history. For the New Confucians, the... (shrink)
Within the grand river of China's contemporary thought, a tributary of neo-Confucianism has emerged alongside the mainstreams of science, democracy, and socialist thought. To start with, there was Liang Shuming, who bucked the current during the time of the New Cultural Movement. At the time, he wrote the book Dongxi wenhua ji qi zhexue . In so doing, he affirmed the cultural value of Confucianist thinking in modern society. Following in Liang's footsteps, ZhangJunmai, Feng Youlan, He Lin, (...) Xiong Shili, and others also wrote treatises and offered teachings that had the effect of reforming Confucianism by injecting it with new content, and striving to make it more responsive to the needs of contemporary society. In this way, neo-Confucianism has slowly become a noticeable intellectual current. Since the liberation of the mainland of China, the theory of neo-Confucianism has been further enriched and developed to a certain extent through the efforts of a number of scholars in Hong Kong and Taiwan, such as Tang Junyi, Mou Zongsan, Xu Fuguan, and Qian Mu. In the sixty-odd years since the 1920s, the neo-Confucianist thinkers have published more than a hundred volumes on the subject, and have created a plethora of systems of philosophy and theories, each carrying its own characteristics. Today, neo-Confucianism has become one of the major schools of philosophy in Hong Kong and Taiwan, and has also had a considerable impact in the United States. We can no longer ignore its existence; indeed, the resurrection of Confucianism, at one time considered unlikely to succeed, appears to have become a reality. (shrink)
Sun Yatsen was a revolutionary activist, theoretician, and leader of the Guomindang . His Three Principles of the People, from which these lectures are excerpted, was his theoretical manifesto. The three principles are: Nationalism , Democracy , and People's Livelihood . Our concern here is with the second of these. If we were to follow Sun's own discussion in the first paragraph of our selection, we might well translate minquan as "people's power," but "democracy" has become the standard translation for (...) this term, and we have chosen to follow this convention. His understanding of quan, which in most other essays we have translated as "rights," as "power" is a central element of his thought that helps to explain his lack of interest in promoting further freedom for individual Chinese, as discussed below. Sun's formulations were extremely influential; see the essays by Luo Longji, Zhou Fohai, and ZhangJunmai for both amplification and criticism. (shrink)
Sandra Field, Jeffrey Flynn, Stephen Macedo, Longxi Zhang, and Martin Powers discussed Powers’ book China and England: The Preindustrial Struggle for Social Justice in Word and Image at the American Philosophical Association’s 2020 Eastern Division meeting in Philadelphia. The panel was sponsored by the APA’s “Committee on Asian and Asian-American Philosophers and Philosophies” and organized by Brian Bruya.
Scientists normally earn less money than many other professions which require a similar amount of training and qualification. The economic theory of marginal utility and cost-benefit analysis can be applied to explain this phenomenon. Although scientists make less money than entertainment stars, the scientists do research work out of their interest and they also enjoy a much higher reputation and social status in some countries.
Tianyi Zhang offers in this study an innovative philosophical reconstruction of Shihāb al-Dīn al-Suhrawardī's (d. 1191) Illuminationism. Commonly portrayed as either a theosophist or an Avicennian in disguise, Suhrawardīappears here as an original and hardheaded philosopher who adopts mysticism only as a tool of philosophical inquiry. Zhang makes use of Plato's cave allegory to explain Suhrawardī's Illuminationist project. Focusing on three areas-the theory of presential knowledge, the ontological discussion of mental considerations, and Light Metaphysics-Zhang convincingly reveals the (...) Nominalist and Existential nature of Illuminationism, and thereby proposes a new way of understanding how Suhrawardī's central philosophical ideas cohere. (shrink)
Online deliberation is one important instance of civic tech that is both for and by the citizens, through engaging citizens in Internet-supported deliberative discussions on public issues. This article explains the origins of a set of symposium articles in this journal issue based on the 2017 'International Conference on Deliberation and Decision Making: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Civic Tech' held in Singapore. Symposium articles are presented in a sequence that flows from designing decision making systems to platforms to specific technological nudges.
Qi is one of the most important concepts in Chinese philosophy and culture, and neo-Confucian Zhang Zai plays a pivotal role in developing the notion. This book provides a thorough and proper understanding of his thoughts.
In this selective overview of scholarship generated by _The Hunger Games_—the young adult dystopian fiction and film series which has won popular and critical acclaim—Zhange Ni showcases various investigations into the entanglement of religion and the arts in the new millennium.
This essay seeks to demonstrate the following: 1. the value of metaphysical cosmology to our relationship with nature, and to making policy about the environment; 2. the mistaken nature and harmful consequences of the hegemonic cosmology of anthropocentrism; and, 3. the possibility of Zhang Zai's Qi/qi Great Harmony cosmology as both the refutation of and replacement for anthropocentrism. The essay concludes that ultimate moral progress of expanding the self from the narrow and exclusionary views of anthropocentrism consists in cosmocentrism, (...) or the transformation of thought to a cosmological perspective as exemplified by Zhang Zai's Great Harmony continual cyclical process of Qi/qi. It is argued that positive metaphysical visions such as Zhang Zai's can negate anthropocentric cosmology and inspire us to view our relationship with the environment in a fundamentally enlightened and more respectful way, which is not arrogantly self-centred, disconnected and supremacist. (shrink)