Quantum cognition research applies abstract, mathematical principles of quantum theory to inquiries in cognitive science. It differs fundamentally from alternative speculations about quantum brain processes. This topic presents new developments within this research program. In the introduction to this topic, we try to answer three questions: Why apply quantum concepts to human cognition? How is quantum cognitive modeling different from traditional cognitive modeling? What cognitive processes have been modeled using a quantum account? In addition, a brief introduction to quantum probability (...) theory and a concrete example is provided to illustrate how a quantum cognitive model can be developed to explain paradoxical empirical findings in psychological literature. (shrink)
Question order effects are commonly observed in self-report measures of judgment and attitude. This article develops a quantum question order model (the QQ model) to account for four types of question order effects observed in literature. First, the postulates of the QQ model are presented. Second, an a priori, parameter-free, and precise prediction, called the QQ equality, is derived from these mathematical principles, and six empirical data sets are used to test the prediction. Third, a new index is derived from (...) the model to measure similarity between questions. Fourth, we show that in contrast to the QQ model, Bayesian and Markov models do not generally satisfy the QQ equality and thus cannot account for the reported empirical data that support this equality. Finally, we describe the conditions under which order effects are predicted to occur, and we review a broader range of findings that are encompassed by these very same quantum principles. We conclude that quantum probability theory, initially invented to explain order effects on measurements in physics, appears to be a powerful natural explanation for order effects of self-report measures in social and behavioral sciences, too. (shrink)
Memory exhibits episodic superposition, an analog of the quantum superposition of physical states: Before a cue for a presented or unpresented item is administered on a memory test, the item has the simultaneous potential to occupy all members of a mutually exclusive set of episodic states, though it occupies only one of those states after the cue is administered. This phenomenon can be modeled with a nonadditive probability model called overdistribution (OD), which implements fuzzy-trace theory's distinction between verbatim and gist (...) representations. We show that it can also be modeled based on quantum probability theory. A quantum episodic memory (QEM) model is developed, which is derived from quantum probability theory but also implements the process conceptions of global matching memory models. OD and QEM have different strengths, and the current challenge is to identify contrasting empirical predictions that can be used to pit them against each other. (shrink)
Quantum cognition is an emerging field that uses mathematical principles of quantum theory to help formalize and understand cognitive systems and processes. The topic on the potential of using quantum theory to build models of cognition (Volume 5, issue 4) introduces and synthesizes its new development through an introduction and six core articles. The current issue presents 14 commentaries on the core articles. Five key issues surface, some of which are interestingly controversial and debatable as expected for a new emerging (...) field. (shrink)
Assessment of the quality of governance has so far relied on socioeconomic statistics and expert opinions, while largely neglecting citizens satisfaction with their government in six Asian-Pacific countries: America, Australia, China, India, Japan, and Russia. I found citizen satisfaction with the public services they receive, such as education, healthcare, and public safety, matters most in their assessment of government performance. Individual satisfaction with income, job, and housing also matters. The respondent will disapprove government performance if he or she thinks corruption (...) is serious in government, or elected officials stop caring about citizens once voting is finished. In terms of macro variables, economic condition of a country seems to matters significantly. Especially, if a country's economy is growing fast, citizens are much more likely to be satisfied with government performance. Large within-country variations exist in countries such as China and India, where citizens of different cities or regions may give rather different assessments of government, suggesting many contextual variables not captured by this study. Lastly, citizens evaluation of governance quality, such as the World Bank Governance Index. This raises both methodological and normative issues regarding the proper approaches to measuring good governance. (shrink)
Economic development and the social changes it brings are changing people's world views among the East Asia Confucian societies. Most notable is a change from stressing hard work and achievement toward stressing enjoyment, self expression, and a fulfilling lifestyle. With this people also have become more pro-equality and tolerant toward different ideas and styles. These newly emerged views of modernized societies can be called values. People with stronger postmodern values are more active politically, more assertive in demanding individual and political (...) rights, and more emphatic in their preference for democratic government. The implication is that people in East Asia will demand more democracy as economic development proceeds and as they acquire these postmodern values. (shrink)
When constrained by limited resources, how do we choose axioms of rationality? The target article relies on Bayesian reasoning that encounter serioustractabilityproblems. We propose another axiomatic foundation: quantum probability theory, which provides for less complex and more comprehensive descriptions. More generally, defining rationality in terms of axiomatic systems misses a key issue: rationality must be defined by humans facing vague information.
Whale optimization algorithm, known as a novel nature-inspired swarm optimization algorithm, demonstrates superiority in handling global continuous optimization problems. However, its performance deteriorates when applied to large-scale complex problems due to rapidly increasing execution time required for huge computational tasks. Based on interactions within the population, WOA is naturally amenable to parallelism, prompting an effective approach to mitigate the drawbacks of sequential WOA. In this paper, field programmable gate array is used as an accelerator, of which the high-level synthesis utilizes (...) open computing language as a general programming paradigm for heterogeneous System-on-Chip. With above platform, a novel parallel framework of WOA named PWOA is presented. The proposed framework comprises two feasible parallel models called partial parallel and all-FPGA parallel, respectively. Experiments are conducted by performing WOA on CPU and PWOA on OpenCL-based FPGA heterogeneous platform, to solve ten well-known benchmark functions. Meanwhile, other two classic algorithms including particle swarm optimization and competitive swarm optimizer are adopted for comparison. Numerical results show that the proposed approach achieves a promising computational performance coupled with efficient optimization on relatively large-scale complex problems. (shrink)
We surveyed 2,221 rural residents in twenty towns across ten provinces in China. Structural equation models (SEM) found the quality of government, impartiality of institutions, and authoritarian values among citizens are the three main sources of citizensopen nomination and direct election (ONDE)traditional authority orientationinputoutputs’ less.
In the complex environment, the suddenly changing structural parameters and abrupt actuator failures are often encountered, and the negligence or unproper handling method may induce undesired or unacceptable results. In this paper, taking the suddenly changing structural parameters and abrupt actuator failures into consideration, we focus on the robust adaptive control design for a class of heterogeneous Takagi–Sugeno fuzzy nonlinear systems subjected to discontinuous multiple uncertainties. The key point is that the switch modes not only vary with the system time (...) but also vary with the system states, and the intrinsic heterogeneous characteristics make it difficult to design stable controllers. Firstly, the concepts of differential inclusion are introduced to describe the heterogeneous fuzzy systems. Meanwhile, a fundamental lemma is provided to demonstrate the criteria of the boundness for a Filippov solution. Then, by using the set-valued Lie derivative of the Lyapunov function and introducing a vector of specific continuous functions, the closed-loop T-S fuzzy differential inclusion systems are proved to be ultimately bounded. The sufficient conditions for system stability are derived in term of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved directly. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control algorithm. (shrink)
ntroduction Since China’s gradualist reform started in the early 1980s, its governance record has been relatively successful. Despite a large number of severe challenges, the government in Beijing has managed outstanding economic performance and large-scale social transformation (Naughton 2007). Overall, the regime seems to enjoy relatively high levels of public support (Gilley 2006; Wang 2009), and a reform and state-building process controlled by the ruling Chinese Communist Party looks set to continue for the next ten to 20 years. One key (...) element of the Chinese political or governing system is management of its Party and government officials, or “cadres” in its own terminology. We argue that the Party-state’s personnel management features a meritocratic system that has so far largely evaded scholarly attention. This system retains strong influences from the Confucian scholar-official tradition of China’s imperial past, as well as the Leninist “vanguard party” tradition that was established in the revolutionary and Maoist eras. In recent years, however, this system has paid increasing attention to nurturing managerial competence for the purpose of administering a modern economy and a modern society. How the Party attempts to strike a balance between political loyalty and professional competence is the focus of this study. We will examine several aspects of the Chinese cadre management system. These include the formal rules, institutions, and actual practices regarding (1) recruitment, (2) development, and (3) promotion of officials. From this analysis we will understand how political loyalty and professional competence are defined and measured in the Party’s personnel regime, and how a balance is sought between the two. We will also look at the changes that are taking place in the relative importance, or weights, of these two criteria as the Party-state tries to build a modern governance machine. We find that while political reliability and commitment still feature prominently when the Party staffs the state and party bodies, rapid economic development and social changes have amplified the need for capable and competent managers and administrators, in order to deliver successful governance. Whereas in the past political loyalty played a crucial role for officials’ success within the state ranks, today professional competence has become more central. Whether this trend will continue, to a future state in which political loyalty becomes almost irrelevant, will be discussed toward the end of the chapter. (shrink)
In this paper, we study the existence and multiplicity of nontrivial solutions of a second-order discrete boundary value problem with resonance and sublinear or superlinear nonlinearity. The main methods are based on the Morse theory and the minimax methods. In addition, some examples are given to illustrate our results.
A novel data-driven model-free adaptive control approach is first proposed by combining the advantages of model-free adaptive control and data-driven optimal iterative learning control, and then its stability and convergence analysis is given to prove algorithm stability and asymptotical convergence of tracking error. Besides, the parameters of presented approach are adaptively adjusted with fuzzy logic to determine the occupied proportions of MFAC and DDOILC according to their different control performances in different control stages. Lastly, the proposed fuzzy DDMFAC approach is (...) applied to the control of particle quality in drug development phase of spray fluidized-bed granulation process, and its control effect is compared with MFAC and DDOILC and their fuzzy forms, in which the parameters of MFAC and DDOILC are adaptively adjusted with fuzzy logic. The effectiveness of the presented FDDMFAC approach is verified by a series of simulations. (shrink)
In the traditional civil engineering industry, only abstract theoretical concepts are applied to express complex realistic contents, but this method of information transmission is sometimes very limited for engineering participants, because its expression is not comprehensive and specific and also makes the recipients have difficulty in understanding its information. The rise and development of virtual reality technology has become a good assistant to overcome this difficulty, providing an extremely effective means for displaying and simulating civil engineering project in real time. (...) This paper introduced the methods and principles of VR platform system and structure dynamic analysis, conducted virtual scene design and three-dimensional modeling of civil engineering project, analyzed the synthetic debugging and simulation roaming of the virtual environment, proposed the engineering model of virtual construction process and planning structure calculation, discussed the realization method of virtual project management and visualization, and finally performed the simulation and its result analysis of panoramic display and planning of civil engineering project based on VR technology. The results show that the VR technology can simulate various environments and activities of civil engineering projects in advance, analyze the rationality of various schemes, and modify their different functional parameters, so it can achieve the simulation optimization of project planning, design, and construction. (shrink)
The pharmaceutical tablet manufacturing process via wet granulation holds a critical position in pharmaceutical industry. The interest in integrating mechanistic process modeling into the pharmaceutical development has been increased because simulation model is a prerequisite for process design, analysis, control, and optimization. So the simulation modeling for PTMP via wet granulation is very necessary and significant. This study aims at proposing a simulation modeling framework for PTMP via spray fluidized bed granulation, which is one of the most widely used wet (...) granulation techniques in pharmaceutical industry. For SFBG, a simulation model that simultaneously involves the influences of operating variables and material attributes on average particle size is firstly developed, and then a drying model to determine the particle moisture content is introduced to be coupled with the established model predicting APS. For PTMP, considering the important effect of porosity on tablet qualities, a model describing the changes in tablet porosity is developed based on a promoted form of the Heckel equation, and then several recognized models that are all related to porosity are introduced or constructed to calculate important tablet quality indexes. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed simulation models are validated by performing a computational experimental study to explore the scientific understanding of process and process quality control. (shrink)
The Internet has played important roles in driving political changes around the world. Why does it help to topple political regimes in some places but improve the quality of governance in others? We found Internet usage in general leads to citizens’ distrust in political institutions. Different political environments, however, can condition such trust-eroding impacts of the Internet in significantly different ways. A democracy enables citizens to connect their online behaviors and offline expression and organization, releasing political discontent while facilitating state–society (...) communication. On the contrary, by restricting various forms of off-line expression, authoritarian regimes drive Internet-active citizens' discontent and distrust to higher levels. We use the World Values Survey data to establish these different mechanisms across democracies and authoritarian systems. Entropy balancing shows our findings to be highly robust. (shrink)
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