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  1.  31
    Patentable Novelty in Nanotechnology Inventions: A Legal Study in Iraq and Malaysia. [REVIEW]Nabeel Mahdi Althabhawi & Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol - 2013 - NanoEthics 7 (2):121-133.
    Nanotechnology has been facing multiple obstacles related to the applicability of patentability criteria. In this article, the authors addressed the novelty requirement in nanotechnology inventions in Iraqi and Malaysian patent acts. First, novelty was discussed to determine its applicability in the field of nanotechnology. Then, problems on nanotechnology patent application were presented along with some suggested solutions. The problems encountered in the patentability of nanotechnology inventions were summarized in two categories. First, the multidisciplinary nature of nanotechnology casts its shadow on (...)
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  2.  5
    Person Skilled in the Art in Synthetic Biology From Iraqi and Malaysian Perspectives.Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol & Nabeel Mahdi Althabhawi - 2018 - NanoEthics 12 (1):55-60.
    This article presents the problem of a person skilled in the field of synthetic biology. The person skilled in the art is one of the notions which have to be revisited due to the multidisciplinary nature of synthetic biology which involves numerous fields. The article studies this problem from the perspectives of Iraqi and Malaysian patent laws. First, it conceptualizes synthetic biology and person skilled in the art. The Iraqi and Malaysian attitudes regarding person skilled in the art are then (...)
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    Regulating Risk of Nanomaterials for Workers Through Soft Law Approach.Halila Faiza Zainal Abidin, Kamal Halili Hassan & Zinatul Ashiqin Zainol - 2020 - NanoEthics 14 (2):155-167.
    Nanotechnology has revolutionized various industries and has become a notable catalyst for economic growth. The emerging issues of human health and safety associated with nanotechnology development have raised regulatory concerns worldwide. In occupational settings, the same novel characteristics of nanomaterials that are utilized for innovation may also be the source of toxins with adverse health effects for workers. The existing regulatory framework may function effectively to regulate chemical substances in their conventional forms but may not be adequate with regard to (...)
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