Results for 'academic freedom'

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  1.  90
    The Relation Between Academic Freedom and Free Speech.Robert Mark Simpson - 2020 - Ethics 130 (3):287-319.
    The standard view of academic freedom and free speech is that they play complementary roles in universities. Academic freedom protects academic discourse, while other public discourse in universities is protected by free speech. Here I challenge this view, broadly, on the grounds that free speech in universities sometimes undermines academic practices. One defense of the standard view, in the face of this worry, says that campus free speech actually furthers the university’s academic aims. (...)
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  2.  93
    Ethics, Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure.Richard T. De George - 2003 - Journal of Academic Ethics 1 (1):11-25.
    Universities can and have existed without academic freedom and academic tenure. But academic freedom is necessary for a university dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge in a democratic society. Both academic freedom and academic tenure are not only rights but also carry with them moral obligations. Furthermore academic tenure is the best defense of academic freedom that American universities have found. Academic tenure can be successfully defended from the (...)
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  3.  41
    Academic Freedom and Academic Tenure: Can They Survive in the Market Place of Ideas? [REVIEW]Chance W. Lewis & BethRené Roepnack - 2007 - Journal of Academic Ethics 5 (2-4):221-232.
    Recently academic freedom and academic tenure have been in the media spotlight because of concerns that academic freedom is being misused and that academic tenure provides job security to a select few. First, this paper provides a brief history of these two institutions and follow with an analysis using Stone’s (2002) policy analysis format. Second, this paper examines the university through two lenses: (a) an economic market lens; and (b) a community lens. These two (...)
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  4.  52
    Should Faculty Members Be Exempt From a Mandate to Receive Instructional Design Training Because of Their Rights Under Academic Freedom?Cindy Poore-Pariseau - 2009 - Journal of Academic Ethics 7 (3):223-230.
    The quality of the educational experience for students may be at risk if they are not taught in ways that are effective and pertinent. While educational institutions (administrators, faculty senates or a combination) may try to compel faculty members to gain knowledge of and utilize up-to-date learning and instructional design strategies, these faculty members may baulk at this mandate, citing academic freedom as their right to design their courses in any way they see fit. Following is a discussion (...)
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  5.  26
    Academic Freedom and the Diminished Subject.Dennis Hayes - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):127-145.
    Discussions about freedom of speech and academic freedom today are about the limits to those freedoms. However, these discussions take place mostly in the higher education trade press and do not receive any serious attention from academics and educationalists. In this paper several key arguments for limiting academic freedom are identified, examined and placed in an historical context. That contextualisation shows that with the disappearance of social and political struggles to extend freedom in society (...)
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  6.  18
    Export Controls and the Tensions Between Academic Freedom and National Security.Samuel A. W. Evans & Walter D. Valdivia - 2012 - Minerva 50 (2):169-190.
    In the U.S.A., advocates of academic freedom—the ability to pursue research unencumbered by government controls—have long found sparring partners in government officials who regulate technology trade. From concern over classified research in the 1950s, to the expansion of export controls to cover trade in information in the 1970s, to current debates over emerging technologies and global innovation, the academic community and the government have each sought opportunities to demarcate the sphere of their respective authority and autonomy and (...)
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  7.  36
    New Threats to Academic Freedom.Francesca Minerva - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):157-162.
    Using a specific case as an example, the article argues that the Internet allows dissemination of academic ideas to the general public in ways that can sometimes pose a threat to academic freedom. Since academic freedom is a fundamental element of academia and since it benefits society at large, it is important to safeguard it. Among measures that can be taken in order to achieve this goal, the publication of anonymous research seems to be a (...)
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  8.  20
    Academic Freedom, Public Reactions, and Anonymity.Matti Häyry - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):170-173.
    Academic freedom can be defined as immunity against adverse reactions from the general public, designed to keep scholars unintimidated and productive even after they have published controversial ideas. Francesca Minerva claims that this notion of strict instrumental academic freedom is supported by Ronald Dworkin, and that anonymity would effectively defend the sphere of immunity implied by it. Against this, I argue that the idea defended by Minerva finds no support in the work by Dworkin referred to; (...)
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  9. Academic Freedom in Europe: Reviewing Unesco's "Recommendation".Terence Karran - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):191 - 215.
    This paper examines the compliance of universities in the European Union with the UNESCO Recommendation concerning the Status of Higher–Education Teaching Personnel, which deals primarily with protection for academic freedom. The paper briefly surveys the European genesis of the modern research university and academic freedom, before evaluating compliance with the UNESCO recommendation on institutional autonomy, academic freedom, university governance and tenure. Following from this, the paper examines the reasons for the generally low level of (...)
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  10.  30
    A Place From Where to Speak: The University and Academic Freedom.Graham Badley - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):146-163.
    The university is promoted as 'a place from where to speak'. Academic freedom is examined as a crucial value in an increasingly uncertain age which resonates with Barnett's concern to encourage students to overcome their 'fear of freedom'. My concern is that the putative university space of freedom and autonomy may well become constricted by those who would limit not just our freedom to speak but also our freedoms to be and to do. Without (...) freedom students and teachers, who might be able to fly, will not be permitted to fly. I review issues of academic freedom and free speech raised especially by Berlin, Voltaire, von Humboldt, Mill, Milton and Rorty. I discuss problems raised when free speech is heard by others as harmful and offensive to their beliefs and values. I offer a set of suggestions to ensure that the university may envision itself as a space of freedom, pluralism and tolerance. Finally, I reflect that the university, of all democratic institutions, should be the one which best serves its society as 'a place from where to speak'. (shrink)
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  11.  24
    The Genealogy of Judgement: Towards a Deep History of Academic Freedom.Steve Fuller - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):164-177.
    The classical conception of academic freedom associated with Wilhelm von Humboldt and the rise of the modern university has a quite specific cultural foundation that centres on the controversial mental faculty of 'judgement'. This article traces the roots of 'judgement' back to the Protestant Reformation, through its heyday as the signature feature of German idealism, and to its gradual loss of salience as both a philosophical and a psychological concept. This trajectory has been accompanied by a general shrinking (...)
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  12.  31
    Academic Freedom: Its Nature, Extent and Value.Robin Barrow - 2009 - British Journal of Educational Studies 57 (2):178-190.
    Academic freedom does not refer to freedom to engage in any speech act, but to freedom to hold any belief and espouse it in an appropriately academic manner. This freedom belongs to certain institutions, rather than to individuals, because of their academic nature. Academic freedom should be absolute, regardless of any offence it may on occasion cause.
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  13.  37
    Foundations of Academic Freedom: Making New Sense of Some Aging Arguments.Liviu Andreescu - 2009 - Studies in Philosophy and Education 28 (6):499-515.
    The article distinguishes between the various arguments traditionally offered as justifications for the principle of academic freedom. Four main arguments are identified, three consequentialist in nature, and one nonconsequentialist. The article also concentrates on the specific form these arguments must take in order to establish academic freedom as a principle distinct from the more general principles of freedom of expression and intellectual freedom.
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  14.  56
    Is Tenure Justified? An Experimental Study of Faculty Beliefs About Tenure, Promotion, and Academic Freedom.Stephen J. Ceci, Wendy M. Williams & Katrin Mueller-Johnson - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):553-569.
    The behavioral sciences have come under attack for writings and speech that affront sensitivities. At such times, academic freedom and tenure are invoked to forestall efforts to censure and terminate jobs. We review the history and controversy surrounding academic freedom and tenure, and explore their meaning across different fields, at different institutions, and at different ranks. In a multifactoral experimental survey, 1,004 randomly selected faculty members from top-ranked institutions were asked how colleagues would typically respond when (...)
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  15.  23
    Academic Freedom and Religiously Affiliated Universities.Liviu Andreescu - 2008 - Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 7 (19):162-183.
    This paper explores the relationship between the principle of academic freedom and religiously-affiliated higher education. The arguments advanced are based on a general theory concerning the role of universities in a democratic society, and as such they are intended to apply to any such society, irrespective of the particulars of religious higher education in a specific national context. The article looks at three classes of arguments advanced against a “secular” standard of academic freedom: arguments on the (...)
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  16.  19
    Biomedical Research and Corporate Interests: A Question of Academic Freedom.L. McHenry - 2008 - Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):146.
    The current situation in medicine has been described as a crisis of credibility, as the profit motive of industry has taken control of clinical trials and the dissemination of data. Pharmaceutical companies maintain a stranglehold over the content of medical journals in three ways: (1) by ghostwriting articles that bias the results of clinical trials, (2) by the sheer economic power they exert on journals due to the purchase of drug advertisements and journal reprints, and (3) by the threat of (...)
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  17.  15
    Academic Freedom and the Professional Responsibilities of Applied Ethicists: A Comment on Minerva.Angus Dawson & Jonathan Herington - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):174-177.
    Academic freedom is an important good, but it comes with several responsibilities. In this commentary we seek to do two things. First, we argue against Francesca Minerva's view of academic freedom as presented in her article ‘New threats to academic freedom’ on a number of grounds. We reject the nature of the absolutist moral claim to free speech for academics implicit in the article; we reject the elitist role for academics as truth-seekers explicit in (...)
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  18.  14
    Academic Freedom and 21st Century European Universities.David Packham - 2007 - Logos. Anales Del Seminario de Metafísica [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, España] 40:331-341.
    It is argued that university education has a moral and social function in society. Its purpose is to provide a liberal education , the development of new knowledge and the provision of trustworthy, disinterested research. To serve society in this way safeguards are necessary: a separation from the state, giving institutional autonomy and academic freedom in teaching and research. With the rise of extreme free market capitalism and the "knowledge society", these safeguards are being eroded: national governments, partly (...)
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  19.  18
    Solutions to the New Threats to Academic Freedom?Michael Tooley - 2014 - Bioethics 28 (4):163-165.
    In my commentary on Francesca Minerva's article ‘New Threats to Academic Freedom’, I agree with her contention that the existence of the Internet has given rise to new and very serious threats to academic freedom. I think that it is crucial that we confront those threats, and find ways to eliminate them, which I believe can be done. The threats in question involve both authors and editors. In the case of authors, I argue that the best (...)
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  20.  28
    “Offensiphobia” is a Red Herring: On the Problem of Censorship and Academic Freedom.Ben Cross & Louise Richardson-Self - 2020 - Journal of Ethics 24 (1):31-54.
    In a recent article, J. Angelo Corlett criticises what he takes to be the ‘offensiphobic’ practices characteristic of many universities. The ‘offensiphobe’, according to Corlett, believes that offensive speech ought to be censured precisely because it offends. We argue that there are three serious problems with Corlett’s discussion. First, his criticism of ‘offensiphobia’ misrepresents the kinds of censorship practiced by universities; many universities may in some way censure speech which they regard as offensive, but this is seldom if ever a (...)
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  21.  15
    No University is an Island: Saving Academic Freedom.Cary Nelson - 2010 - New York University Press.
    Peppered throughout with previously unreported, and sometimes incendiary, higher education anecdotes, Nelson is at his flame-throwing best.The book calls on ...
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  22.  6
    Euthanasia and Academic Freedom in the German-Speaking World.Peter Singer - 1991 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):8-10.
  23. Tenure, Academic Freedom, and Professional Competence.Alison Jaggar - 1978 - Philosophical Forum 10 (2):360.
  24.  18
    In Defence of Academic Freedom: Bioethics Journals Under Siege.Udo Schüklenk - 2013 - Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (5):303-306.
    This article analyses, from a bioethics journal editor's perspective, the threats to academic freedom and freedom of expression that academic bioethicists and academic bioethics journals are subjected to by political activists applying pressure from outside of the academy. I defend bioethicists’ academic freedom to reach and defend conclusions many find offensive and ‘wrong’. However, I also support the view that academics arguing controversial matters such as, for instance, the moral legitimacy of infanticide should (...)
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  25. Fulfilling the Promise of Academic Freedom.Kurt Biedenkopf - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (3):805-810.
    Through an extended discussion of the German higher education system in comparison with other European countries and the US, this paper suggests that academic freedom is not simply a consequence of institutional arrangements. It is a consequence of looking at what one is doing, at one's own professional responsibility. Academic freedom must be sustained and protected not only by the state or institutional arrangements of universities, but must also be protected by every academician. If professors do (...)
     
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  26.  13
    Versions of Academic Freedom: From Professionalism to Revolution.Stanley Fish - 2014 - University of Chicago Press.
    Stanley Fish argues here for a narrower conception of academic freedom, one that does not grant academics a legal status different from other professionals.
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  27.  9
    Academic Freedom in International Higher Education: Right or Responsibility?Alexis Gibbs - 2016 - Ethics and Education 11 (2):175-185.
    This paper explores the conceptual history of academic freedom and its emergence as a substantive right that pertains to either the academic or the university. It is suggested that historical reconceptualisations necessitated by contingent circumstance may have led to academic freedom being seen as a form of protection for those working within universities whose national legislation recognises the right to teach and research without external interference, rather than as a responsibility to the wider society or (...)
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  28.  5
    Academic Freedom of Students.Liz Jackson - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-8.
    Academic freedom is often regarded as an absolute value of higher education institutions. Traditionally, its value is related to such topics as tenure, and the need for academic work to be free fro...
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  29.  32
    Academic Freedom and Academic-Industry Relationships in Biotechnology.Robert Streiffer - 2006 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 16 (2):129-149.
    : Commercial academic-industry relationships (AIRs) are widespread in biotechnology and have resulted in a wide array of restrictions on academic research. Objections to such restrictions have centered on the charge that they violate academic freedom. I argue that these objections are almost invariably unsuccessful. On a consequentialist understanding of the value of academic freedom, they rely on unfounded empirical claims about the overall effects that AIRs have on academic research. And on a rights-based (...)
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  30. "Academic Freedom as a" Canonical Value".Robert M. O'Neil - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (2):437-450.
    The central thesis of this article is that academic freedom has indeed become a "canonical value" of American higher education, though not for the reasons that conventional wisdom might posit. As recently as a half century ago, few university administrators or governing boards felt constrained in dismissing or refusing to hire outspoken professors. The quite remote risk of potential legal liability for such adverse action posed a minor deterrent. The Supreme Court's first recognition of academic freedom (...)
     
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  31.  28
    Individual Academic Freedom and Aprofessional Acts.Liviu Andreescu - 2009 - Educational Theory 59 (5):559-578.
    In this essay, Liviu Andreescu examines the question of whether a certain category of aprofessional acts by academics deserves protection against academic sanctions under the principle of academic freedom. Andreescu discusses two alternative views of academic freedom providing different answers to the question. He then examines some of the arguments advanced by the proponents of the more recent, restrictive theory of academic freedom against the broader, traditional theory, which in recent times has been (...)
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  32. Knowledge, Power, and Academic Freedom.Joan W. Scott - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (2):451-480.
    Historically, academic freedom is a concept aimed at resolving conflicts about the relationship between power and knowledge, politics and truth, action and thought by positing a sharp distinction between them, a distinction that has been difficult to maintain. This paper analyzes those tensions by looking at early statements of the founders of the American Association of University Professors , by exploring the paradoxes of disciplinary authority which at once guarantees and limits professorial autonomy, and by examining several cases (...)
     
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  33. Defending Academic Freedom and Free Inquiry.Jonathan R. Cole - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (3):811-844.
    This paper focuses our attention on a few principles that guide great universities. I want to suggest that the United States has not distinguished itself particularly well in preventing episodes of repression and attempts to silence dissent at universities, nor has it produced an extraordinary number of courageous leaders over the past seventy-five years who have come forward to defend the principles of academic freedom. While the US has never reached the level of repression that Germany felt in (...)
     
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  34.  69
    American Ambivalence Toward Academic Freedom.Fuller Steve - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):577-578.
    Why are U.S. academics, even after tenure and promotion, so timid in their exercise of academic freedom? Part of the problem is institutional – academics are subject to a long probationary period under tight collegial control – but part of the problem is ideological. A hybrid of seventeenth-century British and nineteenth-century German ideals, U.S. academia – and the nation more generally – remains ambivalent toward the value of academic freedom, ultimately inhibiting an unequivocal endorsement. (Published Online (...)
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  35.  11
    Problems with Minimal-Risk Research Oversight: A Threat to Academic Freedom?Lisa M. Rasmussen - 2009 - IRB: Ethics & Human Research 31 (3):11.
    A subcommittee of the American Association of University Professors has published a report, “Research on Human Subjects: Academic Freedom and the Institutional Review Board” , which argues that institutional review board oversight may pose a threat to academic freedom, and that a different oversight model based on departmental review would both maintain subject protection and eliminate the threat. But the report does not demonstrate that IRBs pose a threat to academic freedom, and using departmental (...)
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  36.  2
    Is Academic Freedom Feasible in the Post-Soviet Space of Higher Education?Anatoly V. Oleksiyenko - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-11.
    The legacy of totalitarianism thwarts discourse and practice of academic freedom in post-Soviet universities. For legacy-holders, “academic freedom” causes disorientation, irresponsibility, demoral...
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  37.  2
    Debating Academic Freedom. Educational-Philosophical Premises and Problems.Christiane Thompson - forthcoming - Educational Philosophy and Theory:1-11.
    In the past years, there has been an intensive discussion on the topic of academic freedom in the university. More precisely, it has been criticized that the university is confronted with a growing...
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  38.  15
    Defending Academic Freedom: Arts and Humanities Research as Constrained Writing.Mary Anne Francis - 2020 - Arts and Humanities in Higher Education 19 (2):207-224.
    This article notes that while there is a large literature lamenting increasing assaults on academic freedom, there is little literature to address ways in which it might be preserved. Sampling that writing, it finds some concern with protecting academic freedom in extreme scenarios, via discrete programmes, and generalised dissidence, but no discussion of determinate action applicable to all Arts and Humanities research. Defining academic freedom via the UK’s legal framework and elaboration in Judith Butler’s (...)
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  39.  44
    Tenure and Academic Freedom: Prospects and Constraints.J. Ceci Stephen, M. Williams Wendy & Mueller-Johnson Katrin - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):586-592.
    In our target article, we took the position that tenure conveys many important benefits but that its original justification – fostering academic freedom – is not one of them. Here we respond to various criticisms of our study as well as to proposals to remedy the current state of affairs. Undoubtedly, more research is needed to confirm and extend our findings, but the most reasonable conclusion remains the one we offered – that the original rationale for tenure is (...)
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  40.  36
    The Preservation of Academic Freedom: Tenure is Not Enough.A. Franz Elizabeth & Hayne Harlene - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):577.
    The original purpose of tenure has become clouded by the process by which it is granted. In New Zealand, tenure and academic freedom are separate, with academic freedom protected by legislation. Clearly, tenure is neither necessary nor sufficient to protect academic freedom. Individuals and universities must do more to guard academic freedom in order to encourage, nurture, and protect it. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  41.  28
    The Future of Universities and the Fate of Free Inquiry and Academic Freedom.Markus Baumanns - 2009 - Social Research: An International Quarterly 76 (3):795-804.
    This paper suggests that the time for free inquiry and academic freedom at European universities has rarely been better than at present, that debates and results arising from independent scientific discourse have rarely had better chances of blossoming and evoking a response than in the time in which we now live, and that the basic rules of university and scholarly work in general are, by no means, seriously threatened in Europe, in comparison to many other regions of the (...)
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  42.  46
    A Dilemma Regarding Academic Freedom and Public Accountability in Higher Education.Thaddeus Metz - 2010 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 44 (4):529-549.
    The aim of this article is to establish that current thought about the point of a publicly funded university faces a dilemma. On the one hand, influential and attractive ‘macro’-level principles about how state resources ought to be accountably used entail that academic freedom should be utilised solely for the sake of social justice or some other concrete public good. Standard theories of public morality entail that an academic’s responsibility is entirely to be ‘responsive’ or ‘relevant’ to (...)
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  43.  31
    Whither Academic Freedom?E. R. Klein - 2002 - International Journal of Applied Philosophy 16 (1):41-53.
    Academic freedom has become the enemy of the individual professors working in colleges and universities across the United States. Despite its historical (and maybe even essential) roots in the First Amendment, contemporary case law has consistently shown that professors, unlike most members of society, have no rights to free speech on their respective campuses. (Ironically, this is especially true on our State campuses.) Outlined is the dramatic change in the history of the courts from recognizing “academic (...)” as a construct needed to protect professors from the status quo, to the abuse of “academic freedom” appropriated to protect the institution from “undesirable” professorial actions such as politically incorrect speech or research. Klein warns all those in the academy to become familiar with this pernicious 180-degree turn in the use of the “academic freedom” construct. (shrink)
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  44.  21
    Academic Freedom: History Trumps Questionnaire.R. Flynn James - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):575-576.
    The fact that a right is unlikely to be exercised by most members of a group does not mean it has lost its social and justice-defending utility. Current attitudes can be revealed by a questionnaire, but the value of a tradition must be assessed in the light of history. Historically, academic freedom and tenure are inseparable and mutually reinforcing. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  45.  23
    Tenure as a Necessary but Not Sufficient Requirement for Academic Freedom.Ruscio John & Kelly-Woessner April - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):584.
    Although the job security afforded by tenure is one important factor in deciding whether or how to exercise academic freedom, professors must weigh a number of other important career goals that constrain their choices. This multiplicity of goals, combined with concerns about career mobility, may help to explain the differences Ceci et al. observe between professors at different ranks. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  46.  16
    In Defense of Academic Freedom and Faculty Governance: John Dewey, the 100th Anniversary of the AAUP, and the Threat of Corporatization.Nicholas J. Eastman & Deron Boyles - 2015 - Education and Culture 31 (1):17.
    On the verge of the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the American Association of University Professors, we examine the organization’s focus on academic freedom, shared governance, and the challenges the AAUP faced during its early years. The history is a fairly uncontested one: higher education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the United States was the context for the struggle over academic freedom and shared governance. Dismissed professors, resignations by colleagues, and (...)
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  47.  18
    The Constraints of Academic Politics Are Not Violations of Academic Freedom.Donchin Emanuel - 2006 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (6):573.
    Tenure is designed to protect the academic freedom of faculty members by insulating them from arbitrary dismissal by administrative authorities external to their community of scholars. Therefore, the target article's focus on constraints that derive from peer pressures and academic politics is misplaced, rendering the results of the survey irrelevant to the issue of the value of tenure. (Published Online February 8 2007).
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  48.  25
    Academic Freedom and the University.Donald W. Wuerl - 2004 - Newman Studies Journal 1 (1):20-28.
    This article contrasts a secular definition of “academic freedom” with a Catholic model, where freedom of discussion and investigation is one component of a wider process that leads to the Church’s judgment about a particular teaching. Three questions arise about academic freedom: (1) its purpose and goal, (2) its limits, and (3) its relationship to the Church. While there is sometimes tension between some people and the teaching office, fruitful doctrinal development usually takes place within (...)
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  49.  16
    On Justifying the Different Claims to Academic Freedom.Graeme C. Moodie - 1996 - Minerva 34 (2):129-150.
    Academic freedom is thus a complex ideal, and I have argued that in many respects it has a more limited application than some of its protagonists seem to believe. Many of the arguments for it, moreover, are not peculiar to academics and universities. We would therefore be well advised to take seriously Eric James' injunction “to think less of universities as having rights to additional and peculiar liberties, and to regard them more as places where the essential liberties (...)
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  50. Academic Freedom and the Courts.Justine Pila - unknown
    Recent events in the United Kingdom have focused attention on the protection at law of academic freedom. Institutional academic freedom may be defined as the freedom of a university to determine its scholarly agenda and system of governance, notwithstanding dependence on external support. Individual academic freedom may be similarly defined as the freedom of individual university members to determine their own scholarly agenda, including how to pursue and present their research, notwithstanding dependence (...)
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